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For sexual anthropophilia in animals, see Imprinting (psychology)#Sexual imprinting.

In parasitology, anthropophilia, from the Greek ἅνθρωπος (anthrōpos, "human being") and φιλία (philia, "friendship" or "love"), is a preference of a parasite or dermatophyte for humans over other animals.[1][2] The related term endophilia refers specifically to a preference for being in human habitats, especially inside dwellings.[3] The term zoophilia, in this context, describes animals which prefer non-human animals for nourishment.[4]

Most usage of the term anthropophilia refers to hematophagous insects (see Anopheles) that prefer human blood[5] over animal blood (zoophily, but see other meanings of zoophily). Examples other than haematophagy include geckoes that live close to humans,[6] pied crows (Corvus albus),[7] cockroaches, and many others. In the study of malaria and its disease vectors, researchers make the distinction between anthropophilic mosquitoes and other types as part of disease eradiction efforts.[8]

Anthropic organisms are organisms that show anthropophily, where the adjective synanthropic refers to organisms that live close to human settlements and houses, and eusynathropic to those that live within human housing.[9]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Braun-Falco, Otto (2000). Dermatology Springer, ISBN 9783540594529
  2. ^ Mouchet, Jean; Carnevale, Pierre; Manguin, Sylvie (2008). Biodiversity of Malaria in the World. John Libbey Eurotext, ISBN 9782742006168
  3. ^ Dronamraju, Krishna R.; Arese, Paolo (2005). Malaria: Genetic and Evolutionary Aspects. Birkhäuser, ISBN 9780387282947
  4. ^ Apiwathnasorn, C.; Sucharit, S.; Surathin, K.; Deesin, T. (1993). "Anthropophilic and zoophilic phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Thailand". Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 9 (2): 135–137. PMID 8350067. 
  5. ^ Maggenti, A.R. & Gardner, S. 2005. Online Dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology.
  6. ^ Ineich, I. 1992. Parthenogenesis in the Gekkonidae (Reptilia, Lacertilia): Origin and evolution. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr.-Evol. Zool. 117(3), 253-266.
  7. ^ LeCorre, M. & Jouventin, P. 1997. Ecological significance and conservation priorities of Europa Island (western Indian Ocean), with special reference to seabirds. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 52(3), 205-220.
  8. ^ Robert, V.; Le Goff, G.; Toto, J. C.; Mulder, L.; Fondjo, E.; Manga, L.; Carnevale, P. (1993). "Anthropophilic mosquitoes and malaria transmission at Edea, Cameroon". Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 44 (1): 14–18. PMID 8100084. 
  9. ^ Lincoln, R.J., Boxshall, G.A. & Clark, P.F. 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution, and systematics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York.