Anthurium andraeanum

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Anthurium andraeanum
AnthuriumAndraenum.jpg
Flower of A. andraeanum
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Alismatales
Family: Araceae
Genus: Anthurium
Species:
A. andraeanum
Binomial name
Anthurium andraeanum
Linden ex André
Synonyms[1]

Anthurium venustum Sodiro

Anthurium andraeanum is a flowering plant species in the family Araceae that is native to Colombia and Ecuador.[1] Gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit,[2] it is one of the plants listed in the NASA Clean Air Study[3][4] as effective in removing formaldehyde, xylene, toluene, and ammonia from the air.

Names[edit]

Common names for plants in the genus Anthurium include tailflower, painter's palette, flamingo flower, and laceleaf.[5][6][7][8] Its name comes from the Greek words anthos, meaning flower, and oura, meaning a tail, referring to the spadix.[9]

Description[edit]

Spathe closeup.

It is a monocotyledonous perennial, preferring warm, shady and humid climates, such as tropical rainforests. Its most characteristic feature as an ornamental is its brightly colored spathe leaf, and the protruding inflorescence called the spadix.[10]

It is a short erected plant with whole, cardioid or heart-shaped leaves, generally reflexed, cordate base, apex acuminate or cuspid, which are borne by a cylindrical petiole 30–40 cm long.

The spathe is cartilage-waxy, brightly coloured (red, pink) and 8–15 cm long, excluding the inflorescence (the spadix), which is 7–9 cm long, similar to a candle-holder, white or yellow in colour, is erected, and bears many small hermaphroditic flowers. These include a perianth with four segments and stamens with a compressed mesh. Flowering extends throughout the year.[7]

The fruit is a fleshy berry.[11]

Distribution[edit]

Native to Ecuador and southwestern Colombia, it is also naturalised in other parts of the world. It is found in the Caribbean and Réunion. It is grown as an ornamental plant in the form of many hybrids or horticultural varieties. It is commonly used to make bouquets.

Toxicity[edit]

The whole plant is toxic. It contains saponins and crystals of calcium oxalate, in fine needles, able to penetrate the mucous membranes and provokes painful irritations. It is toxic to all mammals: a mouth-worn fragment can cause severe irritation of the mouth and throat. Contact with a human causes erythema, blisters, and if ingested, salivation, difficulty in swallowing and vomiting.[12]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ "RHS Plantfinder – Anthurium andraeanum". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  3. ^ Plants "Clean" Air Inside Our Homes (kilde NASA)
  4. ^ B. C. Wolverton; Rebecca C. McDonald; E. A. Watkins, Jr. "Foliage Plants for Removing Indoor Air Pollutants from Energy-efficient Homes" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-12-10., "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-05. Retrieved 2012-11-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) (alternate link for 'Foliage Plants for Removing Indoor Air Pollutants from Energy-efficient Homes')
  5. ^ Anthurium spp. Archived 2013-10-03 at the Wayback Machine Poisonous Plants of North Carolina. North Carolina State University.
  6. ^ Anthurium. ITIS.
  7. ^ a b Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1–560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  8. ^ Nadruz Coelho, M.A., Waechter, J.L. & Mayo, S.J. (2009). Revisão taxonômica das espécies de Anthurium (Araceae) seção Urospadix subseção Flavescentiviridia. Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 60: 799–864.
  9. ^ "Anthurium Andraeanum." Missouri Botanical Garden
  10. ^ Collette VE, Jameson PE, Schwinn KE, Umaharan P, Davies KM (2004) Temporal and spatial expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes in flowers of Anthurium andraeanum. Physiol Plant 122:297–304. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.2004.00402.x
  11. ^ Linden ex André, Ill. Hort. 24: 43 (1877).
  12. ^ Jacques Fournet, Flora illustrated the flowering of Guadeloupe and Martinique , Gondwana editions, CIRAD2002 Volume 1 ( ISBN 2-87614-489-1 ) ; Volume 2 ( ISBN 2-87614-492-1 )