Anti-American sentiment in Russia

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Russia has a long history of Anti-Americanism, dating back to early days of the Cold War. In some of the latest Russian population polls, the United States and its allies consistently top the list of Greatest Enemies.[1][2]


During the 1920s, Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin described the American two-party system (that is, the Republican and Democratic Parties) as "meaningless duels between two bourgeois parties", both of whom were led by "astute multimillionaires" who exploited the American proletariat.

After World War II, the political contradictions between United States and Soviet Union started to grow. As a result, there have been growing Anti-American sentiments driven by state media.

Cold War era politics[edit]

As early as the late 1940s, there had been decrees and orders issued by Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party to promote anti-American sentiments within the Soviet public.
For instance, Central Committee document #148 of 1949 read:[3]


1. In print news media such as "Pravda", "Izvestiya", "Trud", "Literaturnaya Gazeta", "Komsomolskaya Gazeta", "Bolshevik" and others, organize systematic publications of materials, articles and pamphlets, unmasking aggressive plans of American Imperialism, inhumane character of social and political order of US, debunking American propaganda "fables" about American "prosperity", showcasing deep controversies in US economy, mendaciousness of bourgeois democracy, idiocy of modern day American bourgeois culture and morals.


15. Following themes should provide the basis for anti-American propaganda in press, radio and movies:
Capitalistic monopolies of U.S. - inspirators of aggression policy ...
U.S.A. - stronghold of colonial enslavement and colonial wars ...
Monopolies feed fascism on American soil ...
Democracy in U.S. - hypocritical cover-up for absolute rule of Capital ...
Myth of high standards of living for all social classes in U.S. ...
Myth of universal equality and equal opportunities for everyone in U.S. ...
Degeneration of American culture ...
Decay of cinematography in U.S. ...
Corrupt American press ...
Crime in U.S.A. ...

Decaying West[edit]

"Decaying West" or "Rotting West" (rus: "Загнивающий запад") - is the term used in the Soviet era to refer to the social order and moral norms in U.S. and other Western countries, which were allegedly corrupt and rapidly eroding.


List of Greatest Enemies according to latest Russian population polls.

"Public Opinion" Fund (2011)[1] "Levada" Analytical Center (2012)[2] "Levada" Analytical Center (2013)[4]
Rank Country/Region  %
1  United States 26%
2  China 13%
3  Georgia 5%
4  Japan 3%
5  Belarus 2%
Rank Country/Region  %
1  Georgia 41%
2  United States 35%
3  Latvia 26%
4  Lithuania 25%
5  Estonia 23%
6  Ukraine 15%
7  Poland 8%
Rank Country/Region  %
1  United States 38%
2  Georgia 33%
3  Latvia 21%
4  Lithuania 17%
5  Estonia 16%

U.S. and Russia's domestic politics[edit]

After the mid-2000s colour revolutions, with tacit support of the USA that took place in former Soviet States, the political climate and processes in Russia have intensified as well. Those revolutions were perceived extremely negatively in Moscow.[5]

U.S. and political opposition in Russia[edit]

According to Russian Media (especially major federal TV networks), current Russian opposition has strong ties to United States and its allies. Furthermore, many government-owned TV channels systematically broadcast documentaries, TV programs and journalistic researches, which claim that many opposition leaders are directly funded and supported by U.S. government, with an ultimate goal of destabilization of political and constitutional order in Russia.
Accusations have intensified during and after 2011 Legislative, as well as 2012 Presidential Elections, which resulted in 2011–2013 protests conducted by opposition.

In 2012, the government-owned major Russian national TV network NTV, created a series of documentaries called Anatomy of Protest (rus: Анатомия протеста), in which authors claim that 2011–2013 protests organized by opposition leaders were carefully watched and influenced by some Western nations and U.S. in particular.
Some Russian officials interviewed in the film openly state that the U.S. is actively working on bringing extremist groups to power in Russia, which would allow the U.S. to discredit Russia on the global stage and even to internationally justify military strike on the country.[6][7]

In May 2013, another major national TV channel Rossiya 1, aired a special edition of Arkady Mamontov's program Special Correspondent titled Boloto. In the program, journalists accused Georgian politician Givi Targamadze of preparing the most fierce of the 2011–2013 protests. Moreover, it's been stated that Mr Targamadze had gone through extensive training with the CIA, and had funding from the U.S. government to organize a political coup or instigate turmoil in Russia.[8]

Booting of USAID[edit]

In September 2012 Russian authorities demanded the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) cease operations. According to officials, some activities conducted by organization were hostile and undermined Russian sovereignty.[9] [10]

Extreme geopolitical views and theories[edit]

Despite being extreme, following views and theories are widely popular in Russian mainstream national media. They are voiced by highest ranked government officials and supported by major Russian think tanks and academia.

Centuries long standoff between West and Russia[edit]

According to some popular Russian political writers and scientists, there is a centuries long geopolitical standoff between Russia and Western nations. Especially with Anglo-Saxon states such as the US and UK, which have been openly and covertly working on destroying Russia by any means since the times of The Great Game.
Most popular writers:

  • Distinguished political scientist, Sergey Kurginyan (rus: Сергей Кургинян):
    Mr. Kurginyan believes that the US is currently engaged in further expanding its "neocolonial empire," and that Russia is the only hurdle on the way to achieving those goals.[11][12]
  • Popular political writer Nikolai Starikov (rus: Николай Стариков):
    According to Mr. Starikov, many major geopolitical events of the last centuries, including the dissolution of Soviet Union, are direct results of covertly planned and enacted plans by US and/or U.K.[13][14][15] In many of his books, such as Who's funding disintegration of Russia - From Decembrists to Mujahideens (rus: Кто финансирует развал России - от декабристов до моджахедов), Starikov attempts to prove that since early 19th century, major political shocks in Russia had powerful foreign sponsors and planners, particularly the U.S. and U.K.[16]

Imminent war between West and Russia[edit]

There are some political writers, active/retired generals as well as other public figures in Russia, who openly claim that the war with US/NATO is imminent.[17][18][19][20]
Some believers:

  • Head of State Duma Defense Committee, Admiral Vladimir Komoedov (rus: Владимир Комоедов):
    Admiral Kovoedov believes that after a war with Iran, the U.S. will conduct a nuclear strike on Russia.[21]
  • Retired major general Alexander Vladimirov (rus: Александр Владимиров):
    According to the general, the only factor that stops war from unravelling today is Russia's nuclear arsenal.[22]
  • Popular political scientist Sergey Kurginyan (rus: Сергей Кургинян):
    Kurginyan believes that after completing its mission in Syria and Iran, the West will definitively conduct some force operation against Russia.[23]
  • RAS International and Political Research Division Senior Research Scientist, and Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor Vyacheslav Dashichev (rus: Вячеслав Дашичев):
    Political scientist strongly believes that tensions between Russia and Ukraine over natural gas, will eventually lead to a war with the West and U.S. in particular.[24]
  • Editor of RBC Magazine's International Division, Mihail Chernov (rus: Михаил Чернов):
    Mr. Chernov is confident that 2007-2009 financial crisis will result in nuclear war between U.S. and Russia.[25][26][27]
  • CNews journal columnist Mihail Levkevich (rus: Михаил Левкевич):
    Levkevich suggests that the military exercise "Operation Chimichanga", conducted by the Pentagon on April 4, 2012, was in reality a major rehearsal of U.S. attack on Russia and China.[28][29]

Biological, weather, and other unconventional warfare against Russia[edit]

Many Russian highest ranked government officials and experts, believe that in many occasions Russia is being attacked by non-conventional warfare means.

  • Chief Sanitary Inspector of Russia Gennadiy Onishchenko:
    In 2013, Russia's chief food and drug inspector accused U.S. of conducting a bio-warfare against Russia[30] According to Mr. Onishenko, the Georgian biological lab, that's been built with U.S. cooperation and funding - "is an important element of the U.S. offensive military-biological potential". Earlier, high ranking government official claimed that the outbreak of African swine fever in Russia, was planned sabotage, originating from the American lab in Georgia.[31][32]

Information Warfare against Russia[edit]

In modern day Russia, there is a common and widespread notion that Western nations (especially the U.S. and U.K.) have been and still are actively engaged in an information assault on Russia. Many public figures openly state that the West is using a wide range of means to discredit the nation on a global stage.
Popular figures:

  • Arkady Mamontov (rus: Аркадий Мамонтов):
    Popular journalist, hosts show called Special Correspondent (rus: "Специальный корреспондент"), which airs every Tuesday on major Russian Federal TV network Rossiya 1.
    According to Mr. Mamontov, the performance of Pussy Riot in Cathedral of Christ the Saviour was a carefully orchestrated information war operation against Russia with the aim of offending Russian Christians and discrediting the country worldwide.
    In a series of special TV programs called Instigators (rus: Провокаторы), journalists gathered public on a talk-shows, to allegedly unmask the true faces of the Pussy Riot members, as well as to unveil true foreign the masterminds behind the "assault". Mamontov and the public gathered on the programs believe that Eastern Orthodox Church is one of the pillars on which a rising Russia will stand, and that the western countries are trying to undermine it.[33][34][35]

U.S. as global social and economic parasite[edit]

According to many Russian scholars, government officials as well as media, economic prosperity and well-being of United States is solely based on unfair advantages gained from US Dollar's reserve currency status, dollarization of other countries economies, along with neocolonial wars for resources and predatory macroeconomic behavior.
Proponents of the view:
High ranked government officials

  • Vladimir Putin:
    In August 2011, while in Prime Minister position, Mr. Putin accused U.S. of living like parasite off the global economy and the monopoly of the dollar.[36]
  • Member of Parliament from United Russia, Yevgeni Fedorov (rus: Евгений Федоров):
    Mr. Fedorov believes that for decades, US has been violating Russia's sovereignty. And claims that currently Russia is disgracefully paying tribute money to the "empire". In 2012, lawmaker drafted a bill which would ban Russian government from investing oil profits into US Dollar, dollar denominated securities, or any other foreign currency.[37]


  • Economist and the president of Different Reforms Center (rus: центр Другие реформы), Andrey Godzinskiy (rus: Андрей Годзинский):
    Mr. Godzinskiy believes that Russia is currently being economically occupied. And that the US Dollar is ultimate tool for that.[38]
  • Popular Pundit and a host of "Odnako" TV program on Russian national network Channel One, Mikhail Leontyev:
    During the period of 2008-2011, Mr. Leontyev created a series of documentaries called "Big American Hole". In the films, popular pundit claims that American economic prosperity is solely based on predatory economic behavior, which is supported only by military might.
    Documentaries explicitly state that the latest U.S. wars in Afghanistan and Iraq were purely the wars for resources. Along with author, many guests and participants in the films, also claim that U.S. is getting great benefits from dollarization of various countries' economies. And that it's only became possible due to intimidation of countries by U.S. military might.[39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46]
  • Journalist and filmmaker Ilya Kolosov (rus: Илья Колосов):
    Mr Kolosov, in cooperation with Andrey Godzinskiy, during 2006 - 2009, created a series of documentaries called "Priceless Dollar" (rus: "Бесценный Доллар") where authors claim that after World War II, U.S. has cunningly gained unfair economic advantage by exploiting the dollar as a reserve currency. Journalists also claim that U.S. has been deliberately running big trade deficits in order to unfairly consume the goods produced by other countries, and paying for them with allegedly worthless dollars. Documentaries have been showcased on major Russian Federal TV network - TV Tsentr[47][48]


  • Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS):
    On Dec-19 2013, RAS held the conference titled "Global social parasitism (100 years to U.S. Federal Reserve System)" (rus: "Глобальный социальный паразитизм (к 100-летию Федеральной Резервной Системы США))".
    The agenda of the conference was to discuss broad range of issues centered around global parasitic behavior of U.S., global financial institutes such as IMF, World Bank and Fed serving that behavior, as well as imminent collapse of dollarized economies.[49][50][51]

Imminent dissolution of United States[edit]

The imminent disintegration of United States is a widespread belief in Russia. According to the theory, the United States is torn by deep controversies in politics, economy, ethnic relations and overall society. This theory gained high popularity after the 2012 state petitions for secession.
Most popular writers:

  • Popular political scientist and ex-KGB officer Igor Panarin (rus: Игорь Панарин):
    Since 1998, Mr. Panarin has claimed that the United States will soon cease to exist. In 2009 he published a book The Crash of the Dollar and the Disintegration of the USA (rus: Крах доллара и распад США) In the book, he also claims that by the time the U.S. falls apart, Russia will regain its former world stance and reintegrate former Soviet states under its rule, on the basis of Eurasian Union.
  • Member of the Federal Council of Party Action party, political activist and journalist Maxim Kalashnikov (rus: Максим Калашников):
    Mr. Kalashnikov claims that United States will break apart into 4-6 independent countries.[52]

Prominent believers:

  • Chairman of Printed Media Distribution Association Board, Alexander Oskin (rus: Александр Оськин):
    Mr. Oskin is convinced that the collapse and dissolution of United States is imminent. Chairman believes that U.S. is suffering from tremendous tensions between, whites and non-whites, rich and poor, Christians and Muslims, etc. In addition, outrageous suppression and violation of human rights by the U.S. government will eventually strengthen secessionist processes that will shatter United States into pieces.[53]
  • Journalist of major Russian federal TV network Ren-TV Igor Prokopenko (rus: Игорь Прокопенко):
    In his television program Military Secret (rus: - Военная Тайна), Mr. Prokoenko claimed that U.S. is suffering from tremendous amount of social, ethnic and other tensions. According to Prokopenko, the Asian and Mexican populations of the U.S. has grown to well over 20-30%, and that those race and ethnic groups are have high secession sentiments that will eventually result in collapse and disintegration of the U.S. As a supportive argument, Prokopenko showcases former Texas governor Rick Perry's secessionist speech of 2009.[54]

Conspiracy theories[edit]

9/11 conspiracies[edit]

9/11 conspiracy theories are widely popular in Russia as well. According to many, the terror attacks were well planned provocations, conducted by U.S. itself in order to justify the wars for oil in the Middle East.[55][56][57]

Prominent believers:

  • The president of Geopolitical Problems Academy, Colonel-General Leonid Ivashov (rus: Леонид Ивашов):
    Head of research organization claims that 9/11 terror attacks were masterfully planned and executed provocations by U.S. special services in close cooperation with Freemasonry members. General believes that American special services have carefully selected the terrorists based on their ethnic origin, fully funded and coordinated the operation. The ultimate goal of those acts was to further strengthen a global domination of U.S. by establishing strong presence in oil-rich Middle East region.[58]

Dulles' Plan[edit]

Main article: Dulles' Plan

The Dulles plan or the Dulles Doctrine (Russian: План Даллеса or Доктрина Даллеса) is the central document of a conspiracy theory, according to which the CIA chief Allen Dulles had developed a plan for United States to destroy the Soviet Union during the Cold war by covertly corrupting the cultural heritage and moral values of the Soviet nation. The plan was first published in Russia shortly after the dissolution of the USSR and was often quoted by prominent Russian politicians, journalists and writers.

Harvard Project[edit]

The Harvard Project (rus: Гарвардский Проект) or Harvard Project on the Soviet Social System - was a 1950s research project funded by the USAF and conducted by Harvard University to study economic and political order of Soviet society. However, some Russian political scientists and writers strongly believe that the main purpose of the project was to develop psychological and other means of influence over the Soviet people. According to believers, this research led the U.S. to develop psychological and information warfare techniques that were intensively used against Soviet Union to destroy it.[59] Some believe that those techniques are still being heavily used against Russia, with the purpose of destroying and partitioning the country into several parts, which will be eventually annexed by U.S. and its allies.[60]

Moon Landing Conspiracies[edit]

Moon-landing conspiracy theories are widely spread in Russia. According to 2011 polls conducted by Russian Public Opinion Center, 40% of Russians do not believe that U.S. astronauts have ever landed on the moon.[61] According to non-believers, all of the moon landing events were staged in a desperate attempt to prove that U.S. can get ahead of Soviet Union in space race.[62][63]

Cultural Aspect[edit]


"Pindos" or "Pendos" (rus: Пиндос) in the Russian language is a derogatory ethnic slur, used to refer to Americans. Originally, the term was used to refer to US military servicemen, but gradually became a universal disparaging term to refer to all Americans. Other slur terms to refer to the United States such as Pindosiya and Pindostan (rus: Пиндосия, Пиндостан) have also been derived.[64]
Some sources claim that the term was first used by Russian military servicemen during Kosovo War, where they allegedly heard this term. According to Russian soldiers, it was perfect fit for "armed to the teeth and coward American soldier".[65][66]

Latest world events that spurred anti-American sentiments[edit]

August 2008 War in South Ossetia[edit]

After the Rose Revolution, the ex-Soviet Republic of Georgia changed its geopolitical preferences and started cooperating much more closely with NATO and the United States. That fact led the U.S. and NATO to conduct very close cooperative work on the issues of military training and equipment with Georgia, which in turn had unresolved territorial disputes including South Ossetia.
In August 2008, those disputes resulted in 5 day Russia–Georgia war. This conflict spurred wave of anti-American sentiments in Russia.

According to Vladimir Putin, who at the time served as Prime Minister, the war was directly related to presidential elections in U.S.[67]
Official Moscow position was that U.S. and its allies deliberately armed Georgia.[68]

Some Russian officials called the war a genocide, and accused the U.S. of supporting such inhumane actions.[69]

Shortly after the conflict, media producer and member of State Duma, Konstantin Rykov, created a documentary called War 08.08.08. Art of Betrayal. Where author claims that Georgia was trained and led by the U.S. into war with South Ossetia and Russia. The reason being that the U.S. (at that time under republican president Bush), was interested in increasing presidential candidate John McCain's ratings, and that demonizing Russia as an aggressor was key to it.[70] The documentary had over a million views in first 5 days after being published online.[71]

Political assessment of "Arab Spring"[edit]

The political unrest in the Middle East has also acquired a very negative perception in Russia. Many of state officials and public figures expressed their concerns and condemnations.

That kind of scenario, they were preparing for us, but now they will try to enact it even harder. In any case, that scenario won't pass. But everything that's happening there, will directly affect us for decades to come.

Euromaidan and 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine[edit]

Starting with 2014, the events following the Euromaidan, the international response to the Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation and to the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine spurred a wave of anti-American sentiments in Russia.

At a government-organized "Anti-Maidan" demonstration in February 2015 gathering 35,000 people, the Maidan unrests were attributed to the United States. "Die, America" banners were on display and the organizers delivered a speech stating that "Maidan is the smile of the American ambassador who, sitting in his penthouse, is happy to see how brother is killing brother."[74][75][76]

According to polls by the independent Levada Center, in January 2015, 81 percent of Russians held negative views of the United States, a number that had nearly doubled over the previous year and that is by far the highest negative rating since the center started tracking those views in 1988.[77] [78]


Within Russia[edit]

According to some Russian experts, anti-American sentiments are driven largely by domestic political climate and has loose relationship to U.S. Foreign Policy actions.[79]

In response to the growing anti-Americanism after the 2008 South Ossetia War amongst the Russian intellectual-political class, the director of the Institute of Globalization and Social Movements Boris Kagarlitsky said, "Ironically, one of the dominant trends here is that we are anti-American because we want to be exactly like America. We are angry that Americans are allowed to invade minor nations and we are not."[80]

President Dmitry Medvedev's comments regarding the "Arab Spring", have also drawn substantial criticism in Russian blogs. Journalist Andrey Malgin (rus: Андрей Мальгин) has broadly criticized the merits of the presidents statements.[73]

In 2013, journalist Vladimir Posner shared his opinion that the Anti-American is "harmful for Russia" and has solely irrational reasons. One of these reasons, according to him, is that Russian people have still not forgiven United States for "winning the Cold War" (in his opinion, the Cold War, which is not thought by Russians to be lost on the surface, is felt by them lost deep in their minds, and is lost in fact). According to Vladimir Posner, the reason for Anti-American rhetoric by Vladimir Putin is his interest to be approved by the nation.[81]

According to Moscow Carnegie Center Director Dmitriy Trenin, anti-Americanism in Russia is becoming the basis for official patriotism. Further researcher states that the Russian ruling elite have now stopped pretending that it follows the West and cherishes its declared values. Now Moscow openly states that its values are not completely common with modern Western values in such fields as democracy, human rights, national sovereignty, role of government, the state of religion and church, and the nature of family.[82]


The Heritage Foundation cites that anti-American rhetoric is currently a standard feature of the majority of Russian mass media broadcasts.[83] And further cites that "The Kremlin is using anti-Americanism as a strategic tool for pursuing domestic and foreign policy goals. Through media controlled or owned by the state, the Russian government is deliberately spreading poisonous anti-U.S. propaganda at home and abroad, blaming many of Russia's problems on the West, particularly the United States. The partial success of this policy exposes a number of serious failures in U.S. public diplomacy, which has been in decline since the end of the Cold War."[84]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b ФОМ: Старый враг лучше новых двух, FOM: An old enemy is better than two new
  2. ^ a b Левада-центр: Друзья и враги России, Levada-center: Friends and Foes of Russia
  3. ^ "План мероприятия по усилению антиамериканской пропаганды на ближайшее время". Документ агитпропа ЦК, Plan of measures, towards strengthening anti-American propaganda for nearest future. Agitprop document of Central Committee.
  4. ^ «Левада-Центр»: главным врагом россияне считают США, Levada-center: Russians consider U.S. as a main enemy.
  5. ^ Стенограмма пресс-конференции В. В. Путина на сайте Official Kremlin Website: Transcript of interview with president.
  6. ^ НТВ: Анатомия протеста, NTV: Anatomy of protest.
  7. ^ НТВ: Анатомия протеста - 2, NTV: Anatomy of protest - 2.
  8. ^ Россия 1: Болото, Rossiya 1: Boloto.
  9. ^ CNN: Russia boots out USAID.
  10. ^ Washington Post: Russia boots out USAID.
  11. ^ Кургинян: Строят мировую колониальную империю, Kurginyan: Building of world Colonial Empire
  12. ^ Кургинян: Мировая игра и русские, Kurginyan: World Game and Russians
  13. ^ Стариков: Большая игра продолжается, Starikov: The Great Game continues
  14. ^ Стариков: Америка строила планы захватить Россию 60 лет назад. Планирует и теперь..., Starikov: 60 years ago, Amerika made plans to occupy Russia. And still making them now...
  15. ^ Стариков: Распад США и сила принуждения, Starikov: Dissolution of United States and compelling force
  16. ^ Стариков: "Кто финансирует развал России - от декабристов до моджахедов", Starikov: "Who's funding disintegration of Russia. From Decembrists to Mujahideens"
  17. ^ Военный захват России - дело времени, Military occupation of Russia - just a matter of time.
  18. ^ АИФ: В США разработали "гуманный" сценарий уничтожения России. ПОДРОБНЫЙ ПЛАН, U.S. developed "humane" plan to destroy Russia. DETAILED PLAN.
  19. ^ КМ: США продолжают холодную войну против России, U.S. continues the Cold War against Russia
  20. ^ КП: Сайт WikiLeaks: Американцы создают систему ПРО в Европе, чтобы ударить по русским?, Wikileaks: Americans building Missile Defense in Europe, to strike Russians?
  21. ^ США вынашиваются планы ядерной бомбардировки России, U.S. harboring plans of nuclear bombing of Russia
  22. ^ Комсомольсая Правда: Мир стоит на грани войны. У России нет альтернативы, как быть готовой к ней, Komsomolskaya Pravda: World is on the brink of war. Russia has no alternatives other than to be ready for it.
  23. ^ Кургинян: добьют Сирию, Иран, а через два года за Россию, Kurginyan: They'll finishing off Syria, Iran, and after 2 years will take on Russia
  24. ^ Секретный план США: после газовой войны начнётся Третья мировая, U.S. secret plan: World War III will break out, after the "natural gas war"
  25. ^ Большой Делёж. Мировая ядерная война на пороге. Часть I, Big Carve-Up: World nuclear war at our doors. Part-I
  26. ^ Большой Делёж. Мировая ядерная война на пороге. Часть II, Big Carve-Up: World nuclear war at our doors. Part-II
  27. ^ Большой Делёж. Мировая ядерная война на пороге. Часть III, Big Carve-Up: World nuclear war at our doors. Part-III
  28. ^ Пентагон отрепетировал нападение на Россию и Китай. Часть I, Pentagon rehearsed the attack on Russia and China. Part-I
  29. ^ Пентагон отрепетировал нападение на Россию и Китай. Часть II, Pentagon rehearsed the attack on Russia and China. Part-II
  30. ^
  31. ^ Вирусы на службе Пентагона Viruses on duty at Pentagon
  32. ^ "US bio-lab in Georgia violates Biological and Toxin Convention, Russia seeks its shutdown - Onishchenko". 2013-10-14. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  33. ^ Специальный корреспондент с Мамонтовым: Провокаторы, Special Correspondent with Mamontov: Instigators
  34. ^ Специальный корреспондент с Мамонтовым: Провокаторы-2, Special Correspondent with Mamontov: Instigators-2
  35. ^ Специальный корреспондент с Мамонтовым: Провокаторы-3, Special Correspondent with Mamontov: Instigators-3
  36. ^ "Putin, Russian Prime Minister, Calls U.S. Parasite On The Global Economy". Huffington Post. 2011-08-01. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  37. ^ Мы - колония США: Депутат-единорос Федоров рассказал о борьбе с "экономической оккупацией", We are the colony of U.S.: Member of Parliament from United Russia talks about fight with "economic occupation"
  38. ^ Андрей Годзинский: Россия оккупирована!, Andrey Godzinskiy: Russia is occupied!
  39. ^ Первый Канал: Большая американская дырка - 1. 1 серия, Channel One: Big American Hole - 1. Part-1.
  40. ^ Первый Канал: Большая американская дырка - 1. 2 серия, Channel One: Big American Hole - 1. Part-2.
  41. ^ Первый Канал: Большая американская дырка - 2. 1 серия, Channel One: Big American Hole - 2. Part-1.
  42. ^ Первый Канал: Большая американская дырка - 2. 2 серия, Channel One: Big American Hole - 2. Part-2.
  43. ^ Первый Канал: Большая американская дырка - 3. 1 серия, Channel One: Big American Hole - 3. Part-1.
  44. ^ Первый Канал: Большая американская дырка - 3. 2 серия, Channel One: Big American Hole - 3. Part-2.
  45. ^ Первый Канал: Большая американская дырка - 3. 3 серия, Channel One: Big American Hole - 3. Part-3.
  46. ^ Первый Канал: Большая американская дырка - 3. 4 серия, Channel One: Big American Hole - 3. Part-4.
  47. ^ "Бесценный Доллар", "Priceless Dollar"
  48. ^ "Бесценный Доллар 2", "Priceless Dollar 2"
  49. ^ Всероссийская научно-общественная конференция «Глобальный социальный паразитизм (к 100-летию Федеральной Резервной Системы США)». RAS official website: Conference on "Global social parasitism (100 years to U.S. Federal Reserve System)" (2013-11-23)
  50. ^ 19 декабря. Всероссийская научно-общественная конференция "Глобальный социальный паразитизм". Agenda for conference on "Global social parasitism" (2013-11-23)
  51. ^ Глобальный социальный паразитизм. Video of the conference (2013-12-26)
  52. ^ "КРИЗИС США – КРИЗИС РФ | U.S. Crisis - Russian Crisis". Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  53. ^ Распад США неизбежен Disintegration of U.S.A. is imminent
  54. ^ Военная Тайна - Крах США Military Secret - Collapse of U.S.A.
  55. ^ КМ: 11 сентября 2001 года: тайна американской трагедии, KM: 9/11. The Secret of american tragedy.
  56. ^ КМ: «Загадки американской трагедии 11 сентября 2001 года», KM: Mystery of american 9/11 tragedy.
  57. ^ КМ: «Провокации на службе политики США», KM: Provocations, serving the U.S. foreign policy.
  58. ^ Свободная Пресса: 09/11: мировая трагедия и глобальная провокация, Svobodnaya Pressa: 9/11 Worldwide tragedy and global provocation.
  59. ^ Гарвардский проект: Из истории информационно-психологической войны против СССР, Harvard Project: History of info-psychological war against Soviet Union.
  60. ^ Гарвардский и Хьюстонский проекты, Harvard and Houston Projects.
  61. ^ Автор статьи: РБК daily. "Почти половина россиян не верит, что американцы побывали на Луне - РБК daily". Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  62. ^ КМ: АМЕРИКАНЦЫ НИКОГДА НЕ ЛЕТАЛИ НА ЛУНУ, KM: Americans never landed on the moon.
  63. ^ Лунная афера США: американцы не были на Луне, Moon-fraud: Americans didn't land on the moon.
  64. ^ List of ethnic slurs
  65. ^ Про пони и кино, About Pony and Movies.
  66. ^ Уэсли Кларк едва не разжег Третью мировую войну, утверждает британский генерал, Wesley Clark almost set off World War III, says British general.
  67. ^ Путин считает, что война в Грузии началась из-за выборов в США, Putin thinks that war with Georgia broke out because of elections in U.S.
  68. ^ Владимир Путин: даю вам честное партийное слово, Vladimir Putin. I give you my honest word.
  69. ^ АИФ: Как России финансово наказать США за поддержку геноцида, How should Russia punish U.S. for support of genocide
  70. ^ "War 08.08.08. The Art of Betray". Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  71. ^ Взгляд: «Война» перешагнула границы, Vzglyad: "War" stept over all boundaries.
  72. ^ Президент России President of Russia
  73. ^ a b Пономарёв, Алексей (2011-02-24). "Не так поняли". Лента.ру. 
  74. ^ Mills, Laura. "'Die, America!' banners on view as Russians protest". The Independent (Ireland). Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  75. ^ "Ведущие на "Антимайдане": "Майдан — это эмбрион Геббельса, фестиваль смерти под песенки макаревичей"". TV Rain. 
  76. ^ Azar, Ilya. "Russia’s pissed off patriots. Meduza reports from the ‘Anti-Maidan’ march in Moscow". Meduza. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  77. ^ "Международные отношения". Levada Center. 9 February 2015. 
  78. ^ Birnbaum, Michael (8 March 2015). "Russia’s anti-American fever goes beyond the Soviet era’s". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  79. ^ Сноб: Путинская аномалия. Об антиамериканизме в России, Snob: Putin's anomaly. Anti-Americanism in Russia.
  80. ^ Neave Barker, 26 October 2008, Al Jazeera Little love from Russia for US,
  81. ^ Владимир Познер: Жители России до сих пор не могут простить США проигранную с треском холодную войну, Vladimir Pozner: Russian people have still not forgiven U.S. for losing the Cold War
  82. ^ ДМИТРИЙ ТРЕНИН:Основой официального патриотизма становится антиамериканизм, Dmitry Trenin: Anti-americanism is becoming a basis for official patriotism.
  83. ^ From Russia with Hate: Anti-Americanism Rampant in Putin’s Kremlin, Heritage Foundation
  84. ^ Russian Anti-Americanism: A Priority Target for U.S. Public Diplomacy, Heritage Foundation