|Part of a series on|
- 1 Definition of Arab
- 2 Historical anti-Arabism
- 3 Modern anti-Arabism
- 4 Groups that advocate against Anti-Arabism
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Definition of Arab
Arabs are people whose native language is Arabic. People of Arabic origin, in particular native English and French speakers of Arab ancestry in Europe and the Americas, often identify themselves as Arabs. Due to widespread practice of Islam among Arab populations, Anti-Arabism is commonly confused with Islamophobia.
There are prominent Arab non-Muslim minorities in the Arab world. These minorities include Christians in Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Kuwait, among other Arab countries. There are also sizable minorities of Arab Jews, Druze, and nonreligious.
Anti-Arab prejudice is suggested by many events in history. In the Iberian Peninsula, when the reconquest by the indigenous Christians from the Moorish colonists was completed with the fall of Granada, all non-Catholics were expelled. In 1492, Arab converts to Christianity, called Moriscos, were expelled from Spain to North Africa after being condemned by the Spanish Inquisition. The Spanish word "moro", meaning moor, today carries a negative meaning. Although ethnically different from the Arabs in Spain at the time, the term Moro was also used pejoratively by the Spanish since the 16th century to refer to Muslim tribal groups in the Philippines; the term indios was used to refer to Christianized tribal groups.
The Zanzibar Revolution of January 12, 1964, ended the local Arab dynasty. As many as 17,000 Arabs were exterminated by black African revolutionaries, according to reports, and thousands of others fled the country.
In The Arabic Language and National Identity: a Study in Ideology, Yasir Suleiman notes of the writing of Tawfiq al-Fikayki that he uses the term shu'ubiyya to refer to movements he perceives to be anti-Arab, such as the Turkification movement in the Ottoman Empire, extreme-nationalist and Pan-Iranist movements in Iran and communism. In al-Fikayki's view, the objectives of anti-Arabism are to attack Arab nationalism, pervert history, emphasize Arab regression, deny Arab culture, and generally be hostile to all things Arab. He concludes that, "In all its various roles, anti-Arabism has adopted a policy of intellectual conquest as a means of penetrating Arab society and combatting Arab nationalism."
In early 20th and late 19th century when Palestinians and Syrians migrated to Latin America Arabophobia was common in these countries.
The Rif region in the north of Morocco have had major upheavals and uprisings against the Arab Monarchy. The Riffians are the most Anti-Arabists among Moroccan and Algerian Berbers. They first fought massive wars against Spanish troops and declared independence from the Spanish occupation and the Moroccan Sultan in 1921. It was the first independent Berber republic in modern times. Ajdir was named the capital of the Republic of the Rif.
To this day, Rif Berbers prohibit marriages with Arabs and even Arabised Berbers. Although marriages with Europeans is not uncommon but remains fairly poor. It has become a tradition to marry only Riffian Berber to preserve the language and the blood-line of the Northern Moroccan Berbers.
In the 80's, another revolt took place against the former king Hassan 2. Moroccan troops were immediately dispatched to the Rif region to control and absorb the rebellion. It resulted in severe casualties among civilians and revolters. It was finally put to control in the mid-80's.
Aside from Riffian Berbers, others Berbers from the Middle-Atlas and the high Atlas have a similar ideology against Arabs. Although far less etxreme than the Riffians.
After long political struggle with the regime, the efforts of Berber intellectuals and politicians yielded in the formalization of the Berber language. It was finally adopted as an official language of Morocco alongside Arabic in 2011. Morocco remains the only country to have Berber language as an official language.
Anti-Arabism is a major element of movements known as Berberism that are widespread mainly amongst Algerians of Kabyle and other Berber origin. It has historic roots as Arabs are seen as invaders that occupied Algeria and destroyed its late Roman and early medieval civilization that was considered an integral part of the West; this invasion is considered to have been the source of the resettlement of Algeria's Berber population in Kabylie and other mountainuous areas. Regardless, the Kabyles and other Berbers have managed to preserve their culture and achieve higher standards of living and education when compared to Algerian Arabs. Furthermore, many Berbers speak their language and French; are non religious, secular, or Evangelical Christian; and openly identify with the Western World. Many Berber Nationalists view Arabs as a hostile people intent on eradicating their own culture and nation. Berber social norms restrict marriage to someone of Arab ethnicity, although it is permitted to marry someone from other ethnic groups.
According to Lawrence Rosen, ethnic background is not a crucial factor in marriage between members of each group in North Africa, when compared to social and economic backgrounds. There are regular Hate incidents between Arabs and Berbers and Anti-Arabism has been accentuated by the Algerian governments anti-Berber policies and violent actions as well as by Islamist (Arab) terror acts against Berbers. Contemporary relations between Berbers and Arabs are sometimes tense, particularly in Algeria, where Berbers rebelled (1963–65, 2001) against Arab rule and have demonstrated and rioted against their cultural marginalization in the new founded state.
The Anti-Arab sentiments among Algerian Berbers (mainly from Kabylie) were always related to the reassertion of Kabyle identity. It began as an intellectual militant movement in schools, universities, and popular culture (mainly nationalistic songs). In addition to that, the authorities’ efforts to promote development in Kabylie contributed to a boom of sorts in Tizi Ouzou, whose population almost doubled between 1966 and 1977, and to a greater degree of economic and social integration within the region had the contrary effect of strengthening a collective Amazigh consciousness and Anti-Arab sentiments.
Arabophobia can be seen at different levels of intellectual, social, and cultural life of some Berbers. After the Berberist crisis in 1949, a new radical intellectual movement emerged under the name L'Académie Berbère. This movement was known by its adoption and promotion of Anti-Arab and Anti-Islam ideologies especially amongst immigrant Kabyles in France and achieved a relative success at the time.
In 1977, the final game of the national soccer championship pitting a team from Kabylie against one from Algiers turned into an Arab-Berber conflict. The Arab national anthem of Algeria was overwhelmed by the shouting of Anti-Arab slogans such as "A bas les arabes" (down with the Arabs).
The roots of modern day Arabophobia in Algeria can be traced back to multiple factors. For some, Anti-Arabism movement among Berbers is part of the legacy of French Colonization or manipulation of North Africa. As from the beginning, the French understood that to attenuate Muslim resistance to their presence, mainly in Algeria, they had to resort to the divide and rule doctrine. The most obvious divide that could be instrumentalized in this perspective was the ethnic one. Therefore, France employed some official colonial practices to tighten its control over Algeria by creating racial tensions between Arabs and Berbers and between Jews and Muslims.
Others argue that the Berber language and traditions are deeply rooted in the North African cultural mosaic; for centuries, Berber culture has survived conquests, repression, and exclusion from different invaders: Romans, Arabs, and French. Hence, believing that its identity and specificity were threatened, the Berbers took note of the political and ideological implications of Arabism as defended by successive governments. Gradual radicalization and Anti-Arab sentiments began to emerge in Algeria and among the hundreds of thousands of Berbers in France who had been in the forefront of the Berber cultural movement.
The Cronulla riots in Sydney, Australia in December 2005 have been described as "anti-Arab racism" by community leaders. NSW Premier Morris Iemma said the violence revealed the "ugly face of racism in this country".
A 2004 report by the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission said that more than two-thirds of Muslim and Arab Australians say they have experienced racism or racial vilification since the September 11 attacks and that 90% of female respondents experienced racial abuse or violence.
Adam Houda, a Lebanese Muslim lawyer, has been repeatedly harassed by the New South Wales police force. Houda has been arrested or detained six times in 11 years and has sued the police force for malicious prosecution and harassment three times. Houda claims that the police's motivation is racism which he says is "alive and well" in Bankstown. He has been stopped going to prayers, with relatives and friends and has been subjected to a humiliating body search. He has been the object of several groundless accusations of robbery or holding a knife. A senior lawyer told the Sydney Morning Herald that the police harassment was due to the police enmity against Houda's clients and the Australian Arab community. He was first falsely arrested in 2000 for which he was awarded $145,000 damages by a judge who described his persecution as "shocking". Constable Lance Stebbing was found to have maliciously arrested Houda, as well as using profanities against him and approaching him in a "menacing manner". Stebbing was supported by other police, against the testimony of many eyewitnesses. In 2005, Houda accused the police of disabling his mobile phone making it difficult to perform his work as a criminal defense lawyer.
In 2010, Houda, his lawyer Chris Murphy, and Channel Seven journalist Adam Walters claimed that Frank Menilli, a senior New South Wales police officer, behaved in a corrupt fashion by trying to alter Channel Seven's coverage of the Houda Case by promising the Walter's inside information in exchange for presenting the case in the police's favour. Walters' regarded the offer as an "attempted bribe". The latest incident occurred in 2011, when Houda was arrested for refusing a frisk search and resisting arrest after having been approached by police suspecting him of involvement in a recent robbery. These charges were thrown out of court by Judge John Connell who stated "At the end of the day, here were three men of Middle Eastern appearance walking along a suburban street, for all the police knew, minding their own business at an unexceptional time of day, in unexceptional clothing, except two of the men had hooded jumpers. The place they were in could not have raised a reasonable suspicion they were involved in the robberies" Houda is currently suing the six police officers involved for false imprisonment, unlawful arrest, assault and battery and defamation. One of the six is an assistant commissioner. He is seeking $5 million in damages.
In September 2008, Muslims complained about anti-Arabism and Islamophobia in the Czech Republic.
France used to be a colonial empire, with still great post-colonial power over its former colonies, using Africa as a reservoir for labor, especially in moments of dire need. During World War I, reconstruction and shortages made France bring thousands of North African workers. Out of a total of 116,000 workers from 1914–1918, 78,000 Algerians, 54,000 Moroccans, and Tunisians were requistioned.[dubious ] Two hundred and forty thousand Algerians were mobilized or drafted, and two thirds of these were soldiers who served mostly in France. This constituted more than one-third of the men of those nations from ages 20–40. According to historian Abdallah Laroui, Algeria sent 173,000 soldiers, 25,000 of whom were killed. Tunisia sent 56,000, of whom 12,000 were killed. Moroccan soldiers helped defend Paris and landed at Bordeaux in 1916.
After the war, reconstruction and labor shortages necessitated even larger number of Algerian laborers. Migration (or the need for labor) was reestablished at a high level by 1936. This was partly the result of collective recruitments in the villages conducted by French officers and representatives of companies. Labor recruitment continued throughout the 1940s. North Africans were mostly recruited for dangerous and low-wage jobs, unwanted by ordinary French workers.
This large number of immigrants was of great help for France's rapid post–World War II economic growth. The 1970s were marked by recession followed by the cessation of labor migration programs and crackdowns on illegal immigration. During the 1980s, political disfavor with President Mitterrand's social programs led to the rise of Jean-Marie Le Pen and other far right French nationalists. The public increasingly blamed immigrants for French economic problems. In March 1990, according to a poll reported in Le Monde, 76% of those polled said that there were too many Arabs in France while 39% said they had an "aversion" to Arabs. In the following years, Interior Minister Charles Pasqua was noted for dramatically toughening immigration laws.
Chirac's controversial "Hijab ban" law, presented as secularization of schools, was interpreted by its critics as an "indirect legitimization of anti-Arab stereotypes, fostering rather than preventing racism."
Human rights group Amnesty International claims that in practice, Arabs are among a number of ethnic minorities that are disadvantaged and suffer discrimination by the authorities. Separatist tendencies in Khuzestan exacerbate this. How far the situation facing Arabs in Iran is related to racism or simply a result of policies suffered by all Iranians is a matter of debate (see: Politics of Khuzestan). Iran is a multi-ethnic society with its Arab minority mainly located in the south.
It is claimed by some, that anti-Arabism in Iran may be related to the notion that Arabs forced some Persians to convert to Islam in 7th century AD (See: Muslim conquest of Persia). Author Richard Foltz in his article "Internationalization of Islam" states "Even today, many Iranians perceive the Arab destruction of the Sassanid Empire as the single greatest tragedy in Iran's long history. (See also: Anti-Persian sentiments) Following the Muslim conquest of Persia, many Iranians (also known as "mawali") came to despise the Umayyads due to discrimination against them by their Arab rulers. The Shu'ubiyah movement was intended to reassert Iranian identity and resist attempts to impose Arab culture while reaffirming their commitment to Islam.
More recently, anti-Arabism has arisen as a consequence of aggression against Iran by the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. During a visit to Khuzestan, which has most of Iran's Arab population, a British journalist, John R. Bradley, wrote that despite the fact that the majority of Arabs supported Iran in the war, "ethnic Arabs complain that, as a result of their divided loyalties during the Iran–Iraq War, they are viewed more than ever by the clerical regime in Tehran as a potential fifth column, and suffer from a policy of discrimination." However, Iran's Arab population played an important role in defending Iran during the Iran-Iraq War and most refused to heed Saddam Hussein's call for an uprising and instead fought against their fellow Arabs. Furthermore, Iran's former defense minister Ali Shamkhani, an Khuzestani Arab, was chief commander of the ground force during the Iran-Iraq War as well as serving as first deputy commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
The Arab minority of southern Iran has been subject to discriminations, persecution in Iran. In a report published in February 2006, Amnesty International claimed that the "Arab population of Iran is one of the most economically and socially deprived in Iran" and that Arabs have "reportedly been denied state employment under the gozinesh [job placement] criteria." Furthermore, it states
- land expropriation by the Iranian authorities is reportedly so widespread that it appears to amount to a policy aimed at dispossessing Arabs of their traditional lands. This is apparently part of a strategy aimed at the forcible relocation of Arabs to other areas while facilitating the transfer of non-Arabs into Khuzestan and is linked to economic policies such as zero-interest loans which are not available to local Arabs.
Critics of such reports have pointed out that they are often based on sketchy sources and are not always to be trusted at face value (see: Criticism of human rights reports on Khuzestan). Furthermore, critics point out that Arabs have social mobility in Iran, with a number of famous Iranians from the worlds of arts, sport, literature, and politics having Arab origins (see: Iranian Arabs) illustrating Arab-Iranian participation in Iranian economics, society, and politics. They contend that Khuzestan province, where most of Iran's Arabs live, is actually one of the more economically advanced provinces of Iran, more so than many of the Persian-populated provinces.
Some critics of the Iranian government contend that it is carrying out a policy of anti-Arab ethnic cleansing. While there has been large amounts of investment in industrial projects such as the Razi Petrochemical Complex, local universities, and other national projects such as hydroelectric dams (such as the Karkheh Dam, which cost $700 million to construct) and nuclear power plants, many critics of Iran's economic development policies have pointed to the poverty suffered by Arabs in Khuzestan as proof of an anti-Arab policy agenda. Following his visit to Khuzestan in July 2005, UN Special Rapporteur for Adequate Housing Miloon Kothari spoke of how up to 250,000 Arabs had been displaced by such industrial projects and noted the favorable treatment given to settlers from Yazd compared to the treatment of local Arabs.
However, it is also true that non-Arab provinces such as Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, and neighboring Īlām Province also suffer high levels of poverty, indicating that government policy is not disadvantaging Arabs alone but other regions, including some with large ethnically Persian populations. Furthermore, most commentators agree that Iran's state-controlled and highly subsidized economy is the main reason behind the inability of the Iranian government to generate economic growth and welfare at ground levels in all cities across the nation, rather than a state ethnic policy targeted specifically at Arabs; Iran is ranked 156th on The Heritage Foundation's 2006 Index of Economic Freedom.
In the Iranian education system, after primary education cycle (grades 1-5 for children 6 to 11 years old), passing some Arabic courses is mandatory until the end of secondary education cycle (grade 6 to Grade 12, from age 11 to 17). In higher education systems (universities), passing Arabic language courses is selective.
As a consequence of the Arab-Israeli conflict there is a certain level of hostility between some sections of the Jewish and Arab societies in Israel. Many Israeli Jews oppose mixed relationships, particularly between Jewish women and Arab men. A 2007 opinion poll found that more than half of Israeli Jews believed intermarriage is equivalent to "national treason". A group of men in Pisgat Ze'ev started patrolling the neighborhood to stop Jewish women from dating Arab men. The municipality of Petah Tikva has a telephone hotline to inform on Jewish girls who date Arab men, as well as a psychological counseling service. Kiryat Gat launched a school programme to warn Jewish girls against dating local Bedouin men.
In the 1980s and 1990s, "Geography books for the elementary and junior high schools stereotype Arabs negatively, as primitive, dirty, agitated, aggressive, and hostile to Jews ... history books in the elementary schools hardly mention Arabs ... history textbooks of the high schools, the majority of which cover the Arab-Jewish conflict, stereotype the Arabs negatively. Arabs are presented as intransigent and uncompromising."
The Bedouin representatives submitted a report to the United Nations that disputes the Israeli Government's official state report claiming that they are not treated as equal citizens and Bedouin towns are not provided the same level of services, land and water as Jewish towns of the same size are. The city of Beersheba refused to recognize a Bedouin holy site despite a High Court recommendation.
In a number of occasions, Jewish demonstrators and rioters used racist anti-Arab slogans. For example, during the Arab riots in October 2000 events, Israelis counter-rioted in Nazareth and Tel Aviv, throwing stones at Arabs, destroying Arab property, and chanting "death to Arabs". Often Israeli-Arab soccer players face chants from the crowd when they play such as "no Arabs, no terrorism". In the most radical event, Abbas Zakour, an Arab member of the Knesset, was stabbed and lightly wounded by unidentified men, who shouted anti-Arab chants with a Russian accent. The attack was described as a "hate crime".
The Israeli political party Yisrael Beiteinu, whose platform includes the redrawing of Israel's borders so that 500,000 Israeli Arabs would be part of a future Palestinian State, won 15 seats in the 2009 Israeli elections, increasing its seats by 4 compared to the 2006 Israeli elections. This policy, also known as the Lieberman Plan, was described as "anti-Arab" by The Guardian. Avigdor Lieberman, leader of Yisrael Beiteinu, was appointed Minister of Strategic Threats by Ehud Olmert. Arab MK Ahmad Tibi described Lieberman as "a very dangerous and sophisticated politician who has won his support through race hatred". Yehuda Ben Meir, in an opinion column in Haaretz, argued against the labeling of Lieberman as a racist. In 2004, Yehiel Hazan, a member of the Knesset, described the Arabs as worms: "You find them everywhere like worms, underground as well as above."
Rafael Eitan, former Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, said that Palestinians who endanger cars on the road should be treated aggressively and their freedom of movement narrowed until they will be like "drugged cockroaches in a bottle". In 2004, then Deputy Defense Minister Ze'ev Boim asked "What is it about Islam as a whole and the Palestinians in particular? Is it some form of cultural deprivation? Is it some genetic defect? There is something that defies explanation in this continued murderousness."
In Hebron, the slogans "Arabs to the crematoria" and "Arabs - sub-humans" were once spray-painted on a wall by an unknown, and anti-Arab graffiti has been spray-painted in Jerusalem. Leftists noted that this graffiti remains for long periods of time compared to others, and painted swastikas beside the graffiti in order to hasten the city to take action.
Israeli Arabs said they would draw up a list of grievances after the terrorist attack of Eden Natan-Zada. "This was a planned terror attack and we find it extremely difficult to treat it as an individual action," Abed Inbitawi, an Israeli-Arab spokesman, told The Jerusalem Post. "It marks a certain trend that reflects a growing tendency of fascism and racism in Israeli society generally as well as the establishment towards the minority Arab community," he said.
According to a 2006 poll conducted by Geocartographia for the Centre for the Struggle Against Racism, 41% of Israelis support Arab-Israeli segregation, 40% believed "the state needs to support the emigration of Arab citizens", and 63% believed Arabs to be a "security and demographic threat" to Israel. The poll found that more than two thirds would not want to live in the same building as an Arab, 36% believed Arab culture to be inferior, and 18% felt hatred when they heard Arabic spoken.
In 2007, the Association for Civil Rights in Israel reported that anti-Arab views had doubled, and anti-Arab racist incidents had increased by 26%. The report quoted polls that suggested 50% of Jewish Israelis do not believe Arab citizens of Israel should have equal rights, 50% said they wanted the government to encourage Arab emigration from Israel, and 75% of Jewish youths said Arabs were less intelligent and less clean than Jews. The Mossawa Advocacy Center for Arab Citizens in Israel reported a tenfold increase in racist incidents against Arabs in 2008. Jerusalem reported the highest number of incidents. The report blamed Israeli leaders for the violence, saying "These attacks are not the hand of fate, but a direct result of incitement against the Arab citizens of this country by religious, public, and elected officials."
In March 2009, following the Gaza War, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) drew criticism when several young soldiers had T-shirts printed up privately with slogans and caricatures that were deemed offensive to Palestinians.
In March 2009, a series of Arab cultural events titled "Jerusalem, the capital of Arab culture", which were scheduled to be held in Jerusalem, Nazareth, and other parts of the country, was banned by Avi Dichter the Internal Security Minister of Israel. Nazareth Mayor Ramiz Jeraisi criticized the move as "anti-Arab." According to Dichter, the events were a violation of the interim agreement between Israel and the Palestinians.
In June 2009, Haaretz reported on the phenomenon of Israeli Border Police forcing Palestinians to humiliate themselves on camera and then publishing the video on YouTube. Palestinians were made to sing songs with lyrics such as "Let every Arab mother know that the fate of her children is in the hands of the Company".
In March 2012, two Arab males of Beit Zarzir confessed, after being arrested, to damaging a local school for Arab and Jewish students. They admitted responsibility for having sprayed on the wall of the school, "Death to Arabs". The school was sprayed twice in February with the slogans "price tag", "Death to Arabs" and "Holocaust to the Arabs".
On February 25, 1994, Baruch Goldstein entered a worship room in the Cave of the Patriarchs, wearing "his army uniform with the insignia of rank, creating the image of a reserve officer on active duty." He then opened fire on the Arab worshippers, killing 29 and wounding more than 125. Goldstein was beaten to death by survivors of the massacre. While the massacre was widely condemned by Israelis, some praised the event. At Goldstein's funeral, Rabbi Yaacov Perrin claimed that even one million Arabs are "not worth a Jewish fingernail". Samuel Hacohen, a teacher at a Jerusalem college, declared Goldstein the "greatest Jew alive, not in one way but in every way" and said that he was "the only one who could do it, the only one who was 100 percent perfect." Rabbi Dov Lior, the Chief Rabbi of Hebron and Kiryat Arba, declared that Goldstein was "holier than all the martyrs of the Holocaust."Veneration of Goldstein continues in Israel to the present day.
In October 2006, the government of Niger announced that it would deport the Arabs living in the Diffa region of eastern Niger to Chad. This population numbered about 150,000. While the government was rounding Arabs in preparation for the deportation, two girls died, reportedly after fleeing government forces, and three women suffered miscarriages. Niger's government had eventually suspended the controversial decision to deport Arabs.
William A. Dorman, writing in the compedium The United States and the Middle East: A Search for New Perspectives (1992) notes that whereas "anti-Semitism is no longer socially acceptable, at least among the educated classes. No such social sanctions exist for anti-Arabism."
In the mid-1970s, prominent Russia and American Objectivist author, scholar and philosopher Ayn Rand, expressed strong anti-Arab sentiment following the Arab-Israeli War of 1973: "The Arabs are one of the least developed cultures. They are typically nomads. Their culture is primitive, and they resent Israel because it's the sole beachhead of modern science and civilization on their continent. When you have civilized men fighting savages, you support the civilized men, no matter who they are."
During the 1991 Gulf War, hostility toward Arabs increased in the United States. Arab Americans have experienced a backlash as result of terrorist attacks, including events where Arabs were not involved, like the Oklahoma City bombing, and the explosion of TWA Flight 800. According to a report prepared by the Arab American Institute, three days after the Oklahoma City bombing "more than 200 serious hate crimes were committed against Arab Americans and American Muslims. The same was true in the days following September 11."
According to a 2001 poll of Arab Americans conducted by the Arab American Institute, 32% of Arab Americans reported having been subjected to some form of ethnic-based discrimination during their lifetimes, while 20% reported having experienced an instance of ethnic-based discrimination since the September 11 attacks. Of special concern, for example, is the fact that 45% of students and 37% of Arab Americans of the Muslim faith report being targeted by discrimination since September 11.
According to the FBI and Arab groups, the number of attacks against Arabs and Muslims, as well as others mistaken for them, rose considerably after the 9/11 attacks. Hate crimes against people of Middle Eastern origin or descent increased from 354 attacks in 2000, to 1,501 attacks in 2001. Among the victims of the backlash was a Middle Eastern man in Houston, Texas who was shot and wounded after an assailant accused him of "blowing up the country", and four immigrants shot and killed by a man named Larme Price, who confessed to killing them as revenge for the September 11 attacks. Although Price described his victims as Arabs, only one was from an Arab country. This appears to be a trend; because of stereotypes of Arabs, several non-Arab, non-Muslim groups were subjected to attacks in the wake of 9/11, including several Sikh men attacked for wearing their religiously-mandated turban.
Earl Krugel and Irv Rubin, two leaders of the Jewish Defense League (JDL), described by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security as a terrorist organization, planned to bomb Arab-American Congressman Darrell Issa's office and the King Fahd Mosque in Culver City, California. The two were arrested as part of a sting operation when they received a shipment of explosives at Krugel's home in Los Angeles. Krugel was murdered in November 2005 while in the custody of the Federal Bureau of Prisons in Phoenix. His conviction, which was under appeal at that time, was dismissed in U.S. District Court. Rubin committed suicide in 2002 while in Federal Bureau of Prisons custody in Los Angeles. Although the JDL was suspected in the 1985 bombing death of ADC leader Alex Odeh, no arrest has been made in that case.
Stephen E. Herbits, the Secretary-General of the New York–based World Jewish Congress (WJC) made several racist remarks and ethnic slurs in an internal memo against the president of the European Jewish Congress Pierre Besnainou: "He is French. Don’t discount this. He cannot be trusted ... He is Tunisian. Do not discount this either. He works like an Arab." The WJC in Israel has condemned the statements as both hateful and racist. "It appears that the struggle in the World Jewish Congress has now turned racist, said Knesset member Shai Hermesh (Kadima), who heads the Israeli board of the WJC. Instead of creating unity among the Jewish people, this organization is just creating division and hatred."
Conservative pundit and author Michelle Malkin has accused the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee of exaggeration and questioned the existence of a post–September 11 anti-Arab hate-crime epidemic. She says that the "hype artists" and "book-cookers" of ADC reported that "a Muslim student was pelted with eggs at Arizona State University", but that of two such incidents logged at the university, one was a "complete hoax", and the other was not considered a hate crime by police.
In 2004, American radio host Michael Savage described Arabs as "non-humans", said that Americans want the U.S. to "drop a nuclear weapon" on an Arab country, and advocated that people in the Middle East be "forcibly converted to Christianity" to "turn them into human beings". Savage characterized Israel as "a little country surrounded by racist, fascist bigots who don't want anyone but themselves living in that hell hole called the Middle East". Expressions of anti-Arabism in the United States intensified following the 2009 Fort Hood shooting, which was perpetrated by Nidal Malik Hasan, a Palestinian Arab American. In 2010, the proposed development of an Islamic community center containing a mosque near the World Trade Center site provoked further widespread expressions of virulent anti-Arabism in the United States. Virulent, widespread anti-Arabism in the United States strengthened tremendously when Arab terrorists decapitated Peter Kassig on Nov. 16, 2014, after Jan. 7, 2015, when two Arab French citizens, Chérif and Saïd Kouachi, murdered employees of Charlie Hebdo, a French weekly magazine, at 10 rue Nicolas-Appert, Paris, France., after February 15, 2015, when Danish Arab Omar Abdel Hamid El-Hussein murdered two civilians in Copenhagen, and after July 16, 2015, when Arab American Mohammad Youssef Abdulazeez murdered five United States servicemen in Chattanooga, Tennessee.
Parts of Hollywood are regarded as using a disproportionate number of Arabs as villains and of depicting Arabs negatively and stereotypically. According to Godfrey Cheshire, a critic on the New York Press, "the only vicious racial stereotype that's not only still permitted but actively endorsed by Hollywood" is that of Arabs as crazed terrorists.
Like the image projected of Jews in Nazi Germany, the image of Arabs projected by western movies is often that of "money-grubbing caricatures that sought world domination, worshipped a different God, killed innocents, and lusted after blond virgins".
The 2000 film Rules of Engagement drew criticism from Arab groups and was described as "probably the most racist film ever made against Arabs by Hollywood" by the ADC. Paul Clinton of The Boston Globe wrote "at its worst, it's blatantly racist, using Arabs as cartoon-cutout bad guys".
Jack Shaheen, in his book Reel Bad Arabs, surveyed more than 900 film appearances of Arab characters. Of those, only a dozen were positive and 50 were balanced. Shaheen writes that "[Arab] stereotypes are deeply ingrained in American cinema. From 1896 until today, filmmakers have collectively indicted all Arabs as Public Enemy #1 – brutal, heartless, uncivilized religious fanatics and money-mad cultural "others" bent on terrorizing civilized Westerners, especially [Christians] and [Jews]. Much has happened since 1896 ... Throughout it all, Hollywood's caricature of the [Arab] has prowled the silver screen. He is there to this day – repulsive and unrepresentative as ever."
In 1993, the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee confronted Disney about anti-Arab racist content in its animated film Aladdin. At first Disney denied any problems but eventually relented and changed two lines in the opening song. Members of the ADC were still unhappy with the portrayal of Arabic characters and the referral to the Middle East as "barbaric".
In 1980, The Link, a magazine published by Americans for Middle East Understanding, contained an article "The Arab Stereotype on Television" which detailed negative Arab stereotypes that appeared in TV shows including Woody Woodpecker, Rocky and Bullwinkle, Jonny Quest and an educational children's show on PBS.
Groups that advocate against Anti-Arabism
The American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) was founded in 1980 by United States Senator James Abourezk. The ADC claims that it is the largest Arab-American grassroots civil rights organization in the United States. Warren David is the national president of ADC On March 1, 2010, Sara Najjar-Wilson replaced former Democratic US Congresswoman Mary Rose Oakar as president. ADC claims that is at the forefront in addressing anti-Arabism - discrimination and bias against Arab Americans.
Founded in 1985 by James Zogby, a prominent Democrat, the Arab American Institute (AAI) states that it is a partisan non-profit, membership organization and advocacy group based in Washington, D.C. that focuses on the issues and interests of Arab-Americans nationwide. The AAI also conducts research related to anti-Arabism in the United States. The Anti-Defamation League identifies the Arab American Institute as an anti-Israel protest organization. According to an AAI 2007 poll of Arab-Americans:
Experiences of discrimination are not uniform within the Arab American community, with 76% of young Arab Americans (18 to 29 years old) and 58% of Arab American Muslims reporting that they have "personally experienced discrimination in the past because of [their] ethnicity," as opposed to 42% of respondents overall... . Comparisons with previous AAI polls in which this same question was asked indicate a rise in experiences of discrimination amongst young Arab Americans.
The Anti-Defamation League (ADL), which was founded to combat antisemitism and other forms of bigotry, actively investigated and spoke out against the rise in anti-Arab hate crimes following the September 2001 terrorist attacks. In 2003, the ADL urged the Speaker of the United States' House of Representatives to approve a resolution condemning bigotry and violence against Arab-Americans and American Muslims. The American Jewish Committee, and American Jewish Congress have issued similar responses. In 2004, the ADL national director issued the following statement: "we are disturbed that a number of Arab Americans and Islamic institutions have been targets of anger and hatred in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks."
In the 1990s, the Anti-Defamation League clashed with the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee in a legal dispute regarding sensitive information the ADL had collected about ADC members' positions on the Arab-Israeli conflict. In 1999, the dispute was finally settled out of court without any finding of wrongdoing. In 2001 the ADL attempted to bar Arab members of CAIR from attending a conference on multicultural inclusion. In 2007 the ADL accused the Council on American-Islamic Relations of having a "poor record on terrorism." CAIR, in turn, accused the ADL of "attempting to muzzle the First Amendment rights of American Muslims by smearing and demonizing them". When the case was settled, Hussein Ibish, director of communications for the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC), stated that the ADL had gathered data "systematically in a program whose clear intent was to undermine civil rights and Arab-American organizations".
In Britain, the Greater London Council (GLC) and Labour Committee on Palestine (LCP) have been involved in fighting anti-Arabism through the promotion of Arab and Palestinian rights. The LCP funded a conference on anti-Arab racism in 1989. The National Association of British Arabs also works against discrimination.
The final outcome document of the Durban Review Conference organized by the UN Human Rights Council, April 21, 2009, Deplores the global rise and number of incidents of racial or religious intolerance and violence, including Islamophobia, anti-Semitism, Christianophobia and anti-Arabism
- Bodi, Faisal (12 January 2004). "Islamophobia should be as unacceptable as racism". London: The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-22.
- Echebarria-Echabe, Agustín; Emilia Fernández Guede (May 2007). "A New Measure of Anti-Arab Prejudice: Reliability and Validity Evidence". Journal of Applied Social Psychology 37 (5): 1077–1091. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00200.x.
- Freitag, Ulrike (December 1999). "Hadhrami migration in the 19th and 20th centuries". British-Yemeni Society. Retrieved 2009-06-22.
- "Country Histories: Independence for Zanzibar". Empire's Children. Channel 4. 2007. Archived from the original on March 18, 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-26.
- Heartman, Adam (2006-09-26). "A Homemade Genocide". Who's Fault Is It?.
- Zuljan, Ralph (December 16, 2000). "Revolution in Zanzibar 1964". Armed Conflict Events Data. OnWar.com.
- Suleiman, Yasir (2003). The Arabic Language and National Identity: A Study in Ideology. Edinburgh University Press. p. 238. ISBN 0-7486-1707-8.
- La "Turcofobia". Discriminación anti-Árabe en Chile.
- "Le monde arabe existe-il ?", Lucien Oulahbib.
- "Du problème berbère au dilemme kabyle a l'aube du 21e siècle", Maxime Ait Kaki
- Rosen, Lawrence (1984). Bargaining for Reality: The Construction of Social Relations in a Muslim Community. University of Chicago Press. pp. 139–140. ISBN 0-226-72611-8.
- Brett, Michael & Fentress, Elizabeth (1997). The Berbers. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 278–282. ISBN 0-631-20767-8.
- "Berbers protest in Kabylia". BBC News. 21 May 2001. Retrieved 2009-06-26.
- Roberts, Hugh (1983). "The Economics of Berberism: The Material Basis of the Kabyle Question in Contemporary Algeria". Government and Opposition 18 (2): 223–227. doi:10.1111/j.1477-7053.1983.tb00024.x.
- Bengio, Ofra & Ben-Dor, Gabriel (1999). Minorities and the State in the Arab World. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 35. ISBN 1-55587-647-1.
- Slimani-Direche, Karina (2002). Histoire de l'émigration kabyle en France au XXe siècle: Réalités culturelles et politiques et réappropriations identitaires (in French). L'Harmattan. p. 140. ISBN 2-7384-5789-4. Translation from French:
These reactions are also residues of a violent and Manichean political discourse which was particularly developed after the Berberist crisis in 1949 (see the second part) and expressed by members or sympathizers of the L'Académie Berbère (Berber Academy). This political berberist and radical trend which was especially developed with immigration, wanted to be anti-Arab, anti-Islam, and willingly sank in a narrow Manichaeism. This trend has seen relative success among some Kabyle immigrants especially from Paris Region (Région parisienne).
- Djebali, Taoufik (2005). "Ethnicity and Power in North Africa: Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco". In Spickard, Paul R. (ed). Race and Nation: Ethnic Systems in the Modern World. New York: Routledge. p. 150. ISBN 0-415-95003-1.
- Gross, Joan E.; McMurray, David A. (June 1993). "Berber Origins and the Politics of Ethnicity in Colonial North African Discourse". PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review 16 (2): 39–58. doi:10.1525/pol.19220.127.116.11.
- Djebali, Taoufik (2005). "Ethnicity and Power in North Africa: Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco". In Spickard, Paul R. (ed). Race and Nation: Ethnic Systems in the Modern World. New York: Routledge. p. 149. ISBN 0-415-95003-1.
- Ansley, Greg (2005-12-16). "1000 extra police officers ready for Sydney lockdown". The New Zealand Herald.
- Brown, Malcolm; Dan Silkstone (2005-12-13). "Fresh violence rocks Sydney". The Age.
- Delaney, Brigid; Cynthia Banham (2004-06-17). "Muslims feel the hands of racism tighten around them". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2006-04-08.
- Wallace, Natasha (2005-06-09). "Payout for lawyer dragged from court". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
- Wallace, Natasha (2005-10-25). "Lawyer wins $145,000 for 'spiteful' arrest". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
- "Muslim lawyer wrongly arrested: court told". Australian Broadcasting Company. Australian Associated Press. 2005-11-12. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
- "A Winger and a Prayer". NineMSN. Australian Story. 2007-07-24. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
- "Adam Houda: 'talk out against oppression and injustice'". Sydney Morning Herald. 2007-11-27. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
- Mercer, Neil (2011-11-13). "Suing police again, the lawyer of Middle Eastern appearance". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
- "Houda v The State of New South Wales". LawLink NSW. 2005-10-26.
It is common ground that Constable Stebbing laid the charge against the plaintiff comprised in the Field Court Attendance Notice (Exhibit Z) of assaulting him and that that charge was terminated in favour of the plaintiff. I have found that in laying that charge Constable Stebbing acted out of spite or ill will towards the plaintiff. He then, because of his personal contact with the events well knew that the offence had not been committed. Accordingly the count of malicious prosecution has been established. ... I am further comfortably satisfied on the probabilities that Constable Stebbing, with the assistance of other police officers imprisoned the plaintiff and that imprisonment caused him to be escorted to the police station and held there for a period of about one hour. For reasons already given the constable had no reasonable or probable cause for imprisoning him.
- "Lawyer wins $145,000 for 'spiteful' arrest". Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press. 2005-11-12. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
- Murphy, Christopher (2010-09-21). "Chris Murphy's complaint". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
- Mercer, Neil (2012-03-08). "Lawyer to sue NSW Police for $5m". The Age. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
- "Solicitor takes on Police over racial profiling". Australian Broadcasting Company. 2012-06-01. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
- Dujisin, Zoltán (May 23, 2008), "Read the Papers And Fear the Muslims", Inter Press Service, retrieved February 14, 2011
- Gillette, Alain & Sayadm, Abdelmalek (1984). L’immigration algérienne en France (in French) (2nd ed.). Paris: Editions Entente. p. 50. ISBN 2-7266-0018-2.
- Laroui, Abdallah (1977). History of the Maghreb. Translated by Ralph Manheim. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 351–12. ISBN 0-691-03109-6.
- Mauco, Georges (1932). Les étrangers en France: leur role dans l'activite economique (in French). Paris: Armand Colin. p. 170.; and McMaster, Neil (1997). Colonial Migrants and Racism: Algerians in France, 1900-62. New York: St Martin's Press. p. 67.
- Dwyer, Katherine (1997). "France's New Nazis: The Resistible Rise of Jean-Marie LePen". International Socialist Review (2). ISSN 0020-8744.
- Hamilton, Kimberly; Simon, Patrick; Veniard, Clara (November 2004). "The Challenge of French Diversity". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved 2009-06-26.
- "'Race killing' sparks French riot". BBC News. 30 May 2005. Retrieved 2009-06-26.
- Rowling, Megan (June 6, 2005). "French riots borne of mutual exclusion". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on January 18, 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-26.
- "Iran: New government fails to address dire human rights situation". Amnesty International. 2006-02-16.
- Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, Iran ethnoreligious distribution 2004, The University of Texas at Austin, 2004
- "Internationalization of Islam". Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31.
- Bradley, John. "Ethnicity versus theocracy". Al-Ahram Weekly.
- "Iran-Iraq War 1980–1988". History of Iran. Iran Chamber Society.
- Tatchell, Peter (2006-10-10). "Tehrans secret war against its own people". The Times (London).
- Casaca, Paulo (2006-01-19). "Ahmanidejad's Jihad". Café Babel.
- Frampton, Martyn (2006-03-07). "While the West fiddles, Iran's people...". Henry Jackson Society.
- ISNA - PicView
- "دانشگاه علوم پزشکی و خدمات درمانی جندی شاپور اهواز". Ajums.ac.ir. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- "welcome to cua.ac.ir". Cua.ac.ir. Archived from the original on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- "دانشگاه صنعت نفت". Put.ac.ir. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- "Iran to build new nuclear plant". BBC. 2005-12-05. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
-  Archived January 16, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Economic Focus". Islamic Republic News Agency. 2005-11-01.
- Agence France-Presse (2005-06-04). "Iran on rough road to WTO membership". The Daily Star.
- "Iranian embassy information page". Iran-embassy-oslo.no. Archived from the original on 9 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- "Iranian book of Arabic education". Edu.tebyan.net. Archived from the original on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- "'Protecting' Jewish girls from Arabs". The Jerusalem Post. 2009-09-18.
- Cook, Jonathan. "Israeli drive to prevent Jewish girls dating Arabs". The National.
- Traubman, Lionel (2004-02-06). "Reports on Palestinian kids’ hatred grossly exaggerated". The Jewish News Weekly of Northern California.
- "Israeli Textbooks and Children's Literature Promote Racism and Hatred Toward Palestinians and Arabs". Archived from the original on December 30, 2006.
- "Bedouin ask UN to help fight systemic discrimination in Israel". Haaretz. 2006-07-03.
- "The Or Inquiry - Summary of Events". Haaretz. 2000-09-12. Archived from the original on December 16, 2001. Retrieved 2006-04-08.
- "Israeli's World Cup hopes saved by ... Arabs". msnbc.com. Associated Press. 2005-04-01.
- "Acre gang stabs, lightly wounds MK Abbas Zakur in hate crime". Haaretz. 2006-07-30.
- McGreal, Chris (2006-03-04). "41% of Israel's Jews favour segregation". The Guardian (London).
- Steele, Jonathan (2006-11-02). "The rise of the rightwinger who takes his cue from Putin". The Guardian (London).
- Ben, Yehuda (2010-04-30). "Lieberman is no racist - Haaretz Daily Newspaper | Israel News". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2011-03-27.
- Israeli MP: Arabs are worms
- "ADL Dismayed At Offensive Remarks Made By Member of Israeli Knesset" (Press release). Anti-Defamation League. 2004-12-14.
- Ettinger, Yair. "Boim: Is Palestinian terror caused by a genetic defect?". Haaretz.
- U.S. Department of State Annual Report on International Religious Freedom for 2005 - Israel and the Occupied Territories. November 2005
- Rudge, David (2005-08-11). "Israeli Arabs: Israel is racist". The Jerusalem Post.
- "Israeli anti-Arab racism 'rises'". BBC. 2007-12-10. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- "Racist attacks against Arabs increase tenfold - report". Y-Net News. 2009-03-21.
- Macintyre, Donald (2009-03-22). "Israel Military condemns soldiers' shocking T-shirts". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 23 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-24.
- "Dead Palestinian babies and bombed mosques - IDF fashion 2009". Haaretz. 2009-03-20.
- Blau, Uri (2009-04-01). "IDF education officer slams troops' 'belittling' T-shirts". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 1 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-01.
- "Israel bans Palestinian cultural events". Israel. YNet News. 20 March 2009. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- Blau, Uri (2009-06-19). "Israeli troops humiliate Palestinians - and put it on YouTube". Haaretz.
- Goren, Yuval; Stern, Yoav; Mualem, Mazal (2009-06-16). "Public security minister calls cop 'dirty Arab'". Haaretz.
- ראב"ד, אחיה. "חשד: נערים ריססו על קיר בית ספר בצפון "מוות לערבים"". Ynet News. Retrieved 2012-03-13.
- אלקלעי, אורלי. "נערים ערבים הודו בריסוס "מוות לערבים"". Reshet Bet. Retrieved 2012-03-13.
- "Arab Youths Confessed to Spraying ‘Death to Arabs’". Jewish Press. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- "Arabs Arrested for ‘Death to Arabs’ Graffiti". Yeshiva World News. Retrieved March 15, 2012.
- "COMMISSION OF INQUIRY- MASSACRE AT THE TOMB OF THE PATRIARCHS IN HEBRON-26-Jun-94". Mfa.gov.il. 1994-06-26. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
- Settlers remember gunman Goldstein; Hebron riots continue. Issacharoff, Avi. Haaretz. March 01, 2010.
- George J. Church, Lisa Beyer, Jamil Hamad, Dean Fischer, J.F.O. McAllister (March 7, 1994). "When Fury Rules". Time. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- Kraft, Scott (1994-02-28). "Extremists Pay Tribute to Killer of 48 at Funeral". Los Angeles Times. p. A1.
- Brownfeld, Allan C. (March 1999). "Growing Intolerance Threatens the Humane Jewish Tradition". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs: 84–89. Retrieved 2011-04-11.
- Emran Qureshi, Michael Anthony Sells (2003). The new crusades: constructing the Muslim enemy. Columbia University Press. p. 129. ISBN 0-231-12667-0.
- Sefi Rachlevsky,'Ruth Calderon in the wonderland of mutilated Israeli ideology,' at Haaretz, 10 April 2013
- "Niger starts mass Arab expulsions". BBC. 2006-10-26. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- "Niger's Arabs say expulsions will fuel race hate". Reuters. 2006-10-25.
- "Niger's Arabs to fight expulsion". BBC. 2006-10-25. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- "U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants World Refugee Survey 2007 - Niger". US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. 2007-07-11.
- Pidd, Helen (2008-08-26). "Qatari student, 16, dies after 'race' attack in Hastings | World news". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- Dorman, William A. (1992). "Media, Public Discourse, and U.S. Policy toward the Middle East". In Amirahmadi, Hooshang. The United States and the Middle East: A Search for New Perspectives. SUNY Press. p. 302. ISBN 978-0-7914-1225-1.
- "In Moral Defense of Israel", Ayn Rand Institute, retrieved June 13, 2011
- Oswald, Debra L. (September 2005). "Understanding Anti-Arab Reactions Post-9/11: The Role of Threats, Social Categories, and Personal Ideologies". Journal of Applied Social Psychology 35 (9): 1775–1799. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02195.x.
- "Arab American Institute 2001 report submitted to the United States Commission on Civil Rights" (PDF). Arab American Institute.
- Terrorism - Council on Foreign Relations[dead link]
- "'Vibes Made Man Kill... and Confess, Police Say"
- "Hate crime reports up in wake of terrorist attacks". CNN. September 17, 2001. Archived from the original on April 15, 2008. Retrieved April 4, 2008.
- "SPLCenter.org: Hate Groups Map". Tolerance.org. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- "Jewish extremist killed in jail". BBC. November 6, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
- "JDL leader Irv Rubin dies at 57". USA Today. Associated Press. November 14, 2002.
- Ratner, Lizzy & Schneider-Mayerson, Anna (May 7, 2007). "Memo from Old Rumsfeld Aide May Sink Bronfman Heir". New York Observer
- Lefkovits, Etgar (May 4, 2007). "Top WJC official makes Arab jibe at EJC chief". The Jerusalem Post
- Malkin, Michelle (May 28, 2003) "Myth of the Muslim hate-crime epidemic". WorldNetDaily
- Savage Nation, May 11, 2004.
- Ferguson, Barbara (August 16, 2010). "Ground Zero mosque polarizes US". Arab News. Retrieved June 13, 2011.
- 2015 Chattanooga shootings
- Whitaker, Brian (2000-08-11). "The 'towel-heads' take on Hollywood". The Guardian (London).
- Shaheen, Jack G. (2000). "Hollywood's Muslim Arabs". The Muslim World 90 (1–2): 22–42. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.2000.tb03680.x. ISSN 0027-4909.
- Shaheen, Jack G. (2001). Reel Bad Arabs. Interlink Publishing Group. ISBN 1-56656-388-7.
- Levesque, John (2002-03-21). "Arabs suffer in the hands of Hollywood". Seattle Post-Intelligencer.
- Cohen, Karl F. (March 1998). Forbidden Animation: Censored Cartoons and Blacklisted Animators in America. McFarland & Company. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-7864-0395-0.
- "American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee web page". Adc.org. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- "U.S. Anti-Israel Activity". Adl.org. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-27.
- "AAI/Zogby Poll on Arab American Experiences and Identity Shows Increase in Discrimination Among Young Arab Americans" (PDF) (Press release). Arab American Institute. July 16, 2007. Retrieved 2009-06-22.
- "25 Facts about CAIR: Did you know?". CAIR. Archived from the original on 26 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-25.
- "About". CAIR. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- Philippa Strum, American Arabs and Political Participation, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, May 2006.
- Eskenazi, Joe (2001-10-19). "State's skyrocketing anti-Arab incidents pain area Jews". j.
- "ADL Urges House of Representatives to Consider Resolution Protecting Arabs, South Asians, Muslims and Sikhs" (Press release). Anti-Defamation League. 2003-07-30.
- Elaasar, Aladdin (2004). Silent Victims: The Plight of Arab & Muslim Americans in Post 9/11 America. AuthorHouse. ISBN 1-4184-1055-1.
- "ADL Says Americans Must Remain United, Reject Group Hatred in Aftermath of Terrorist Attacks" (Press release). Anti-Defamation League. 2001-09-14.
- Wiener, Julie (1999-10-01). "ADL settles with Arabs, others to wrap up 6-year lawsuit". j.
- FL rights group rejects ADL demand to bar Muslim from panel - CAIR press Release
- Edmunds, June (May 1998). "The British Labour Party in the 1980s: The Battle Over the Palestinian/Israeli Conflict". Politics 18 (2): 111–118. doi:10.1111/1467-9256.00068.
- The National Association of British Arabs "Who we are and what we do" page.
- "Draft outcome document of the Durban Review Conference" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- An October 2001 report on civil liberties in the U.S. including an appendix of some anti-Arab hate-based incidents
- Aljazeera.com: What do Israelis say about the Arabs
- ADL statement against Anti-Arab prejudice