Anti-Europeanism

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Anti-Europeanism and Europhobia are political terms used in a variety of contexts, implying sentiment or policies in opposition to "Europe".

In the context of racial or ethno-nationalist politics, this may refer to the culture or peoples of Europe (c.f. anti-white sentiment in the United States); In the shorthand of "Europe" standing for the European Union or European integration, it may refer to Euroscepticism, criticism of policies of European governments or the European Union.[1] In the context of United States foreign policy, it may refer to the geopolitical divide between "transatlantic", "transpacific" and "hemispheric" (pan-American) relations. The nominal antonyms would be pro-Europeanism or Europhilia.[clarification needed]

"Europhobia" is used of British attitudes towards the Continent, either in the context of anti-German sentiment or of anti-Catholicism,[2] or, more recently, of Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom.

American exceptionalism in the United States[3] has long led to criticism of European domestic policy (such as the size of the welfare state in European countries)[4] and foreign policy (such as European countries that did not support the US led 2003 invasion of Iraq).[5] The ideological split between reverence for European refinery and classics and an emerging anti-French and anti-European sentiment played already a role between John Adams, Alexander Hamilton and their fellow Federalists, and Thomas Jefferson and other Democratic-Republicans urging closer ties.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Europhobia definition and meaning". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 2017-02-21. 
  2. ^ R. Miles in: Avril Horner (ed.), European Gothic: A Spirited Exchange 1760-1960 (2002), [1] Thérèse Remus, Germanophobia, Europhobia, Xenophobia – About Stereotypes in Anglo-German Relations (2012)
  3. ^ Anti-Europeanism and Euroscepticism in the United States, Patrick Chamorel No 25, EUI-RSCAS Working Papers from European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies (RSCAS) 2004
  4. ^ Elsner (2005), McPherson (2003)
  5. ^ Lexington (2007), Ash (2003) Pipes (2006)