Anti-Europeanism

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Anti-Europeanism and Europhobia are political terms used in a variety of contexts, implying sentiment or policies in opposition to Europe.

In the context of racial or ethno-nationalist politics, this may refer to the culture or peoples of Europe (c.f. anti-white sentiment in the United States). In the shorthand of "Europe" (a British usage, standing for the European Union or European integration), it may refer to Euroscepticism, criticism of policies of European governments or the European Union.[1] In the context of United States foreign policy, it may refer to the geopolitical divide between "transatlantic", "transpacific" and "hemispheric" (pan-American) relations.

The terms may also be variously used in the context of criticizing various behaviours, usually historic, seen as colonialist, imperialist, or genocidal, as negative stereotype and prejudice associated with Europe, as a moral statement of opposing the perceived inherent negativity that goes with Europe. In a plain-language meaning, the term could be one of expressing racial hate or prejudice against Europeans or European-ancestry persons.

British usage[edit]

"Europhobia" is used of British attitudes towards the Continent, either in the context of anti-German sentiment or of anti-Catholicism,[2] or, more recently, of Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom.[3]

US usage[edit]

American exceptionalism in the United States[4] has long led to criticism of European domestic policy (such as the size of the welfare state in European countries)[5] and foreign policy (such as European countries that did not support the US led 2003 invasion of Iraq).[6] The ideological split between reverence for European refinery and classics and an emerging anti-French and anti-European sentiment played already a role between John Adams, Alexander Hamilton and their fellow Federalists, and Thomas Jefferson and other Democratic-Republicans urging closer ties.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Europhobia definition and meaning". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 2017-02-21.
  2. ^ R. Miles in: Avril Horner (ed.), European Gothic: A Spirited Exchange 1760-1960 (2002), [1] Thérèse Remus, Germanophobia, Europhobia, Xenophobia – About Stereotypes in Anglo-German Relations (2012)
  3. ^ Wheatcroft, Geoffrey (June 21, 2016). "Europhobia: a very British problem". The Guardian. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  4. ^ Anti-Europeanism and Euroscepticism in the United States, Patrick Chamorel No 25, EUI-RSCAS Working Papers from European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies (RSCAS) 2004
  5. ^ Elsner (2005), McPherson (2003)
  6. ^ Lexington (2007), Ash (2003) Pipes (2006)