This article possibly contains original research. (August 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The term refers to intolerance not only against the Turks of Turkey, but also against Turkic groups as a whole, including Azerbaijanis, Crimean Tatars, Turkmens, Bulgarian Turks, Macedonian Turks, Turkish Cypriots, Bosnian Turks, Meskhetian Turks, Turks of the Dodecanese, Kosovan Turks, Croatian Turks, and Romanian Turks, Turks in Iran. It can also refer to racism against Turkish people living outside of Turkey following the Turkish diaspora.
|Part of a series on|
The roots of anti-Turkism can be traced back to the arrival of the Huns in Europe. While the ethnic background of the Huns is a matter of dispute among historians, they are widely believed to have been of Turkic origin, and their invasion inspired fear among Europeans.
In the Late Middle Ages, the fall of Constantinople and the Ottoman wars in Europe—part of European Christians' effort to stem the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, the predecessor to Turkey—helped fuel the development of anti-Turkism. By the middle of the 15th century, special masses called missa contra Turcos (Latin for "mass against Turks") were held in various places in Europe to spread the message that victory over the Ottomans was only possible with the help of God and that a Christian community was therefore necessary to withstand the cruelty of the Turks.
As the Ottomans expanded their empire west, Western Europe came into more frequent contact with the Turks, often militarily.
In the 16th century, around 2,500 publications about the Turks—including more than 1,000 in German—were released in Europe, spreading the image of the "bloodthirsty Turk". From 1480 to 1610, twice as many books were published about the Turkish threat to Europe than about the discovery of the New World.Bishop Johann Faber of Vienna claimed, "There are no crueler and more audacious villains under the heavens than the Turks, who spare no age or sex and mercilessly cut down young and old alike and pluck unripe fruit from the wombs of mothers."
During this time, the Ottoman Empire also invaded the Balkans and besieged Vienna, sparking widespread fear in Europe, and especially in Germany. Martin Luther, the German leader of the Protestant Reformation, took advantage of these fears by asserting that the Turks were "the agents of the Devil who, along with the Antichrist located in the heart of the Catholic Church, Rome, would usher in the Last Days and the Apocalypse".
Luther believed that the Ottoman invasion was God's punishment of Christians for allowing corruption in the Holy See and the Catholic Church. In 1518, when he defended his 95 Theses, Luther claimed that God had sent the Turks to punish Christians just as he had sent war, plague, and earthquakes. (In response, Pope Leo X issued a papal bull in which he threatened Luther with excommunication and portrayed him as a troublemaker who advocated capitulation to the Turks.) In his writings On War Against the Turk and Military Sermon Against the Turks, Luther was "consistent in his theological conception of the Turks as a manifestation of God's chastising rod". He and his followers also espoused the view that the Ottoman–Habsburg Wars were a conflict "between Christ and Antichrist" or "between God and the devil".
Spurred by this argument, the Portuguese Empire, seeking to capture more land in East Africa and other parts of the world, used any encounter with the "Terrible Turk" as "a prime opportunity to establish credentials as champions of the faith on par with other Europeans".
Stories of the "Wolf-Turk" reinforced the negative image. The Wolf-Turk was claimed to be a man-eating being, half animal and half human, with a wolf's head and tail. Military power and cruelty were the recurring attributes in each portrayal of the Turks.
According to some sympathetic Orientalist authors, negative accounts of Turkish customs and people written during the 17th and 18th centuries "served as an 'ideological weapon' during the Enlightenment's arguments about the nature of government", creating an image of the Turks that was "inaccurate but accepted". However, some contemporary reports documented brutality and corrupt governance against subjugated Christians, including a law that forced all Christian families to relinquish at least one child to the Janissaries in order to fulfill the Quranic requirement of jizya. Other accounts describe rape, forced conversion, torture, murder, and full-scale massacres in the Rhodope Mountains region of what is now Bulgaria.
In Sweden, the Turks were portrayed as the archenemies of Christianity. A book by the parish priest Erland Dryselius of Jönköping, published in 1694, was titled Luna Turcica eller Turkeske måne, anwissjandes lika som uti en spegel det mahometiske vanskelige regementet, fördelter uti fyra qvarter eller böcker ("Turkish moon showing as in a mirror the dangerous Mohammedan rule, divided into four quarters or books"). In sermons, the Swedish clergy preached about the Turks' cruelty and bloodthirstiness, and how they systematically burned and plundered the areas they conquered. In a Swedish schoolbook published in 1795, Islam was described as "the false religion that had been fabricated by the great deceiver Muhammad, to which the Turks to this day universally confess".
In 1718, James Puckle demonstrated two version of his new invention, the Puckle gun: a tripod-mounted, single-barreled flintlock weapon fitted with a revolving cylinder, designed to prevent intruders from boarding a ship. The first version, intended for use against Christian enemies, fired conventional round bullets. The second, intended for use against the Muslim Turks, fired square bullets, designed by Kyle Tunis, which were believed to be more damaging and would, according to Puckle's patent, convince the Turks of the "benefits of Christian civilization".
Voltaire and other European writers described the Turks as tyrants who destroyed Europe's heritage. In his book Orientalism, Edward Said noted, "Until the end of the seventeenth century the 'Ottoman peril' lurked alongside Europe to represent for the whole of Christian civilization a constant danger, and in time European civilization incorporated that peril and its lore, its great events, figures, virtues, and vices, as something woven into the fabric of life."
Even within the Ottoman Empire, the term "Turk" was sometimes used to denote the Yörük backwoodsmen, bumpkins, or illiterate peasants in Anatolia. "Etrak-i bi-idrak", an Ottoman play on words, meant "the ignorant Turk".
|“||The ordinary Turks [Turkmen, or Yörüks] did not have a sense of belonging to a ruling ethnic group. In particular, they had a confused sense of self-image. Who were they: Turks, Muslims or Ottomans? Their literature was sometimes Persian, sometimes Arabic, but always courtly and elitist. There was always a huge social and cultural distance between the Imperial centre and the Anatolian periphery. As Bernard Lewis expressed it: "In the Imperial society of the Ottomans the ethnic term Turk was little used, and then chiefly in a rather derogatory sense, to designate the Turcoman nomads or, later, the ignorant and uncouth Turkish-speaking peasants of the Anatolian villages." (Lewis 1968: 1)
In the words of a British observer of the Ottoman values and institutions at the start of the twentieth century: "The surest way to insult an Ottoman gentleman is to call him a 'Turk'. His face will straightway wear the expression a Londoner's assumes, when he hears himself frankly styled a Cockney. He is no Turk, no savage, he will assure you, but an Ottoman subject of the Sultan, by no means to be confounded with certain barbarians styled Turcomans, and from whom indeed, on the male side, he may possibly be descended." (Davey 1907: 209)
Before the 1960s, Turkey had relatively low emigration. However, after the adoption of a new constitution in 1961, Turkish citizens began to migrate elsewhere. Gradually, Turks became a "prominent ethnic minority group" in some Western countries. But from the beginning, they were subject to discrimination. At times, when host countries adopted more immigrant-friendly policies, "only the Turkish workers were excluded" from them.
In various European languages, the word "Turk" has acquired a meaning similar to "barbarian" or "heathen", or is used as a slur or curse. As a result, the word also has some negative connotations in the United States.
Armenia–Turkey relations have historically been hostile, primarily because of the Armenian Genocide of 1915 and Turkey's denial that it happened. According to a 2007 survey, 78% of Armenians see Turkey as a threat. In 2016, the President of Armenia, Serzh Sargsyan, forged a coalition with the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, an anti-Turkish political party.
Before 1878, Turks accounted for an estimated one-third of the population of Bulgaria. In 1876, approximately 70% of the country's arable land belonged to Turks. This number declined from 1923–49, when an estimated 220,000 Turks moved from Bulgaria to Turkey, a migration encouraged by the Turkish government. Another wave of about 155,000 left Bulgaria from 1949–51, many of them forcibly expelled.
In 1984, the government implemented Bulgarisation policies to limit the cultural and ethnic influence of Bulgarian Turks. Approximately 800,000 Turks were forced to adopt Bulgarian names. Furthermore, Turks were not allowed to attend Muslim ceremonies, speak Turkish in public places, or wear traditional Turkish clothing. This led, a few years later, to the biggest exodus in Europe since World War II: After the Bulgaria–Turkey border was opened in June 1989, approximately 350,000 Turks left Bulgaria on tourist visas in the span of three months. Eventually, more than 150,000 Turks returned to Bulgaria—especially after the removal of Todor Zhivkov from power—but more than 200,000 chose to remain in Turkey permanently.
Former Bulgarian prime minister, Boyko Borisov, has been accused of having anti-Turkish tendencies. In December 2009, he backed a referendum, proposed by the nationalist party Attack (Bulgarian: Атака), on whether to allow daily Turkish-language news broadcasts on Bulgarian National Television, although he later withdrew his support. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, then the Turkish prime minister, "expressed his concern of rising anti-Turkish sentiments in Bulgaria" to the Bulgarian prime minister. The Turkish Foreign Ministry also "expressed its concern over the rising heated rhetoric in Bulgaria". According to a report by Ivan Dikov, "not just Атака but a large number of Bulgarians have resented the news in Turkish".
Borisov also referred to Turks (and Romani) as "bad human material" in 2009. The vice president of the Party of European Socialists, Jan Marinus Wiersma, said Borisov had "crossed the invisible line between right wing populism and extremism".
After the Ottoman Empire fell in the early 20th century, many Turks fled as Muhacirs (refugees). Others intermarried or simply identified themselves as Yugoslavs or Albanians to avoid stigma and persecution.
Historically, from the Ottoman conquest through the 19th century, many ethnically non-Turkish groups—especially the Slavic Muslims of the Balkans—were referred to in local languages as Turks. This usage is common in literature, including in the works of Ivan Mažuranić and Petar II Petrović-Njegoš. The religious ideology of Christoslavism, coined by Michael Sells, holds that "Slavs are Christian by nature and that any conversion from Christianity is a betrayal of the Slavic race". Under this ideology, as seen in Croatian and Serbian nationalism, South Slavic Muslims are not regarded as part of their ethnic kin; by virtue of their Muslim faith, they become "Turks".
A long series of events—the fall of Constantinople, Ottoman practices such as the Devşirme, the Greek genocide, the 1955 Istanbul pogrom, the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, and the Aegean dispute—contributed to the rise of anti-Turkism in Greece.
Turks have lived in Western Thrace, an area of northeastern Greece, since the Ottoman conquest of the region in the 15th century. In 1922, Turks owned 84% of the land in Western Thrace. Today, however, estimates range from 20–40%, largely because of policies under which ethnic Greeks were encouraged to purchase Turkish land with soft loans granted by the state.
The Turkish government estimates that the Turks of Western Thrace number between 120,000 and 130,000. However, the Greeks claim that the Muslim population there includes people of various ethnic and religious backgrounds—primarily the Pomaks (a Slavic people) and the Muslim Roma—and that Sunni Muslims who identify ethnically as Turks are the minority. Thus, the Greek government refers to the Muslims of Western Thrace—whom Turkey sees as the "Turkish community"—as Greek Muslims or Hellenic Muslims, and does not recognise any specific Turkish minority. Greek courts have outlawed the use of the word "Turkish" to describe the community. In 1987, the Supreme Court of Greece affirmed a 1986 decision in which the Union of Turkish Associations of Western Thrace was ordered closed for illegally using it. The court held that the word "Turkish" referred specifically to citizens of Turkey and could not be used to describe citizens of Greece.
The island of Cyprus became an independent state in 1960, with power shared between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots under the London–Zürich Agreements. But in December 1963, in events that became known as Bloody Christmas, Turkish Cypriots were ousted from the republic and Greek Cypriots began a military campaign against them, leading to 11 years of ethnic clashes. Turkish Cypriots bore the heavier cost in terms of casualties, and some 25,000—about a fifth of the population of Turkish Cypriots—were internally displaced. They lived as refugees for at least ten years, until the 1974 Turkish invasion. By the late 1960s, approximately 60,000 Turkish Cypriots had left their homes and moved into enclaves. This resulted in an exodus of Turkish Cypriots, with the majority migrating to the United Kingdom and others to Turkey, North America, and Australia.
Turks are "the most prominent ethnic minority group in contemporary Germany", and discrimination and violence against them are common. In public discourse and popular jokes, they are often portrayed as "ludicrously different in their food tastes, dress, names, and even in their ability to develop survival techniques".
The number of violent acts by right-wing extremists in Germany increased dramatically between 1990 and 1992. On November 25, 1992, three Turkish residents were killed in a firebombing in Mölln, a town in northern Germany. And on May 29, 1993, in an arson attack in Solingen, five members of a Turkish family that had resided in Germany for 23 years were burnt to death. Several neighbours heard someone shout "Heil Hitler!" before dousing the front porch and door with gasoline and setting fire to the home. Most Germans condemned these attacks, and many marched in candlelight processions.
According to Greg Nees, "because Turks are both darker-skinned and Muslim, conservative Germans are largely against granting them citizenship".
The Maltese have a colourful vocabulary stemming from their fight against the Ottoman Empire during the Great Siege of Malta in 1565. For example, the expression tghammed tork is used when the sun is visible during rainfall; it means "a Turk has been baptised", which was considered a rare event. The phrase twieled tork ("a Turk was born") is also used. Another expression is haqq ghat-torok ("curse on the Turks"), used when something goes wrong.
Turks are the second-largest ethnic minority group in the Netherlands. Although policies toward Turks in the Netherlands are more progressive than those in many other European countries, such as Germany, Human Rights Watch criticized Dutch legislation that it said violated Turks' rights. In a report on the Netherlands in 2008, the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance wrote that the Turkish minority had been particularly affected by "stigmatisation of and discrimination against members of minority groups". The report also noted that "the tone of Dutch political and public debate around integration and other issues relevant to ethnic minorities has experienced a dramatic deterioration".
According to the European Network Against Racism, an international organisation supported by the European Commission, half of all Turks in the Netherlands report having experienced racial discrimination. The network also noted "dramatic growth" of Islamophobia and antisemitism. In 2001, another international organisation, the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, highlighted a negative trend in Dutch attitudes towards minorities, compared with average European Union results. That analysis also noted that, compared to other Europeans, the Dutch were "more in favour of cultural assimilation of minorities" rather than "cultural enrichment by minority groups".
Russia and former Soviet Union
In the Soviet Union, the NKVD and the Red Army carried out ethnic cleansing during World War II through mass deportations of Turks. In June 1945, Vyacheslav Molotov, the Soviet minister of foreign affairs, formally demanded that Turkey surrender three Armenian provinces (Kars, Ardahan, and Artvin), and Moscow was also preparing to support Armenian claims to several other provinces. War against Turkey seemed possible, and Joseph Stalin wanted to drive out Turks (especially in Meskheti, near the Turkish–Georgian border) who were likely to be hostile to Soviet intentions. The campaign is relatively poorly documented, but Soviet sources suggest that 115,000 Turks were deported, mainly to Central Asia. Most of them settled in Uzbekistan, but many others died along the way.
In 1989, 103 people died and more than 1,000 were wounded in ethnic clashes between Turks and Uzbeks. Some 700 houses were destroyed, and more than 90,000 Meskhetian Turks were driven out of Uzbekistan. Many Turks see these events as their "second deportation". Those who remained in Uzbekistan complained of ethnic discrimination.
Although some Turks have since come back to Meskheti, the Georgians and Armenians who settled in their homes have vowed to take up arms against any who return. Many Georgians have also argued that the Meskhetian Turks should be sent to Turkey, "where they belong".
More recently, some Turks in Russia, especially Meskhetian Turks in Krasnodar, have faced human rights violations, including deprivation of citizenship and prohibitions on employment and owning property. Since 2004, many Turks have left the Krasnodar region for the United States as refugees. They are still barred from full repatriation to Georgia.
- Persecution of Muslims
- Red Jews
- 1990 Komotini events
- The Lustful Turk
- Insulting Turkishness
- Libaridian, Gerard J. (2004). Modern Armenia: people, nation, state. Transaction Publishers. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-7658-0205-7.
One consequence of the shift from anti-communism to anti-Turkism was that an important segment of the Diaspora lived through moments ...
- Khalidi, Rashid (1991). The origins of Arab nationalism. Columbia University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-231-07435-3.
In the first place, Arabist ideology, including a bitter anti-Turkism, was fully formulated long before the Young Turk revolution
- "The Turk in America". Google.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "The Muslim World League Journal". Google.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "From Eastern Europe to Western China". google.com.
- "Cartographies of Diaspora". Google.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Communication and Identity in the Diaspora". Google.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Sociology of diaspora". Google.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "The Turk in America". Google.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "The Greatest Story Ever Forged: Curse of the Christ Myth - David Hernandez". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Kessler, P L. "The Origins of the Huns". www.historyfiles.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-05-22.
- "Denmark and the Crusades". google.com.
- ""Turkey, Sweden and the EU Experiences and Expectations", Report by the Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies" (PDF). Sieps.se. April 2006. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-06. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "The Cultural Life of the Early Polyphonic Mass". Google.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "La Croisade". Google.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Harvesting Martin Luther's Reflections on Theology, Ethics, and the Church - Timothy J. Wengert". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Project MUSE - Muslims and Social Change in the Atlantic Basin". Muse.jhu.edu. doi:10.1353/jwh.0.0064. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Smith, R. O. (2007). Luther, the Turks, and Islam. Currents in Theology and Mission, 34(5), 351-365: "Luther's statement of explanation created yet more contention. Indeed, it was singled out for condemnation in Exsurge Domine, the papal bull of excommunication directed at Luther by Pope Leo X on 15 June 1520. Among the "destructive, pernicious, scandalous, and seductive" errors enumerated in the bull is an essentialized version of Luther's position: "To go to war against the Turks is to resist God who punishes our iniquities through them." (11) But even before Exsurge Domine, Luther tied his struggles with Rome to the war against the Turk. Prior to the beginning of the Leipzig Debate with Johannes Eck in June 1519, Luther wrote to his friend Wencenlaus Linck, "I think I can demonstrate that today Rome is worse than the Turk."
- "Harvesting Martin Luther's Reflections on Theology, Ethics, and the Church - Timothy J. Wengert". Books.google.com. p. 185. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Project MUSE - Global Politics in the 1580s: One Canal, Twenty Thousand Cannibals, and an Ottoman Plot to Rule the World". Muse.jhu.edu. doi:10.1353/jwh.2007.0020. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Grosrichard, A. (1998). The sultan's court: European fantasies of the East. (p. 125). London: Verso.
- "Project MUSE - Royal French Women in the Ottoman Sultans' Harem: The Political Uses of Fabricated Accounts from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-first Century". Muse.jhu.edu. doi:10.1353/jwh.2006.0038. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Anton Donchev. "Време разделно". Goodreads.
- "h2g2 - The Machine Gun 1718 - 1914 - Edited Entry". Bbc.co.uk. 2003-01-27. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
-  Archived October 1, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- Edward Said. "Orientalism", (1978), p. 59–60
- Alfred J. Rieber, Alexei Miller. Imperial Rule, Central European University Press, 2005. pg 33
- Ozay Mehmet, Islamic Identity and Development: Studies of the Islamic Periphery, Routledge, 1990. pg 115
- Schwartz, J. M. (1977). "Review of the book Turkish workers in Europe, 1960–1975: A socio-economic reappraisal, by Nermin Abadan-Unat". Contemporary Sociology. 6 (5): 559–560. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Unat, N. A. (1995). Turkish migration to Europe. In R. Cohen (Ed.), The Cambridge survey of world migration (p. 279). Cambridge University Press.
- Hübner, E., & Rohlfs, H. H. (1992). Jahrbuch der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: 1992/93. München: Beck. OCLC 28132828
- Micallef, R. (2004). Turkish Americans: Performing identities in a transnational setting. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 24(2), 233-241. doi:10.1080/1360200042000296636.
- Hahamovitch, C. (2003). "Creating perfect immigrants: Guest workers of the world in historical perspective 1". Labor History. 44 (1): 69–94. doi:10.1080/0023656032000057010.
- "Webster". Archived from the original on 2005-11-06. Retrieved 2005-11-06.
- "AENJ 1.1: Stigma, racism and power". aen.org.nz.
- "De Telegraaf-i  Binnenland - Van Dale vrijuit". Krant.telegraaf.nl. 2001-11-15. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- nl:Turk (scheldwoord)#cite note-2 Turk (scheldwoord) Dutch Wikipedia article about Turk (curseword)
- https://web.archive.org/web/20110818025845/http://htdig.informatia.ro/jurnalul/afisez.php?sid=145486&date=2009-03-03&afisez=local. Archived from the original on August 18, 2011. Retrieved May 18, 2009. Missing or empty
- "The Turk in America". google.com.
- Falkowski, Maciej (13 October 2009). "A symbolic breakthrough in Armenian-Turkish relations". Centre for Eastern Studies. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
The signature of the documents marks a symbolic breakthrough in the hostile relations between Turkey and Armenia.
- "Armenia National Voter Study October 27 – November 3, 2007" (PDF). IRI, USAID, Baltic Surveys Ltd./The Gallup Organization, ASA. p. 34. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
- "A Concise History of Bulgaria - R. J. Crampton". Books.google.com. 2005-11-24. p. 111. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Minahan 2002, 1613.
- R. J. Crampton, 2007, Bulgaria, pp. 431–433
- Waardenburg, Jacques (2003). Muslims and others: relations in context. Walter de Gruyter. p. 266. ISBN 978-3-11-017627-8.
Anti-Islamic campaigns arose in the nationalist anti-Turkish measures implemented in Bulgaria in the 1980s.
- Katsikas 2010, 65.
- Neuburger 2004, 82.
- Eminov 1997, 97.
- Doran, Peter B (July 18, 2009). "Bulgarian election raises red flags". guardian.co.uk. United Kingdom: Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Dikov, Ivan (December 30, 2009). "The Bulgaria 2009 Review: Domestic Politics". Sofia, Bulgaria: Novinite Ltd. Sofia News Agency. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "Erdogan to Borisov: Radical Statements Target Turkish Minority in Bulgaria". Sofia, Bulgaria: Novinite Ltd. Sofia News Agency. December 18, 2009. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Dikov, Ivan (December 30, 2009). "The Bulgaria 2009 Review: Diplomacy". Sofia, Bulgaria: Novinite Ltd. Sofia News Agency. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "Изказване на Бойко Борисов в Чикаго – емигрантска версия - НДТ, Добрич, България". Ndt1.com. 2009-02-05. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20110906034411/http://www.segabg.com/data/BBorisovChicago.mp3. Archived from the original on September 6, 2011. Retrieved July 21, 2015. Missing or empty
- "Mayor of Sofia brands Roma, Turks and retirees 'bad human material'". Telegraph. 2009-02-06. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Sofia Mayor to Bulgarian Expats: We Are Left with Bad Human Material Back Home - Novinite.com - Sofia News Agency". Novinite.com. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Challenge to EPP over leader's statement on bad human material". Socialistgroup.eu. 6 February 2009. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012.
- Knowlton 2005, 66.
- Steven L. Jacobs (2009). Confronting Genocide: Judaism, Christianity, Islam. Lexington Books. pp. 82–. ISBN 978-0-7391-3589-1.
- Omer Bartov; Phyllis Mack (1 January 2001). In God's Name: Genocide and Religion in the Twentieth Century. Berghahn Books. pp. 183–. ISBN 978-1-57181-302-2.
- Whitman 1990, 2
- Hirschon 2003, 106
- Whitman 1990, i
- Levinson 1998, 41.
- "The Turks of Western Thrace". Human Rights Watch. 1999. Retrieved 2017-05-22.
- Papadakis 2005, 82.
- Demirtaş-Coşkun 2010, 39.
- Kliot 2007, 59.
- Tocci 2004, 53.
- Hüssein 2007, 18.
- Klink, A.; Wagner, U. (1999). "Discrimination against ethnic minorities in Germany: Going back to the field". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 29 (2): 402–423. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1999.tb01394.x.
- Shohat, M.; Musch, J. (2003). "Online auctions as a research tool: A field experiment on ethnic discrimination". Swiss Journal of Psychology. 62 (2): 139–145. doi:10.1024/1421-022.214.171.124.
- R. Cohen. (1995). Labour migration to western Europe after 1945. In R. Cohen (Ed.), The Cambridge survey of world migration. (p. 279). Cambridge University Press.
- Toelken, B. (1985). "Turkenrein" and "Turken, Rausl"—Images of fear and aggression in German Gastarbeitterwitze. In N. Furniss & I. Basgoz (Eds.), Turkish workers in Europe: An interdisciplinary study. (p. 155). Indiana: Indiana University Turkish Studies.
- Ramet 1999, 72.
- Solsten 1999, 406.
- Staab 1998, 144.
- Dummett 2001, 142.
- Lee 1999, 331.
- Cornelius, Martin & Hollifield 1994, 213
- Nees 2000, 155.
- "Introduction" (PDF). Thinksite.eu. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Hagendoorn, L., & Hraba, J. (1989). Foreign, different, deviant, seclusive and working class: Anchors to an ethnic hierarchy in the Netherlands. Ethnic and Racial Studies, (12), 441-468.
- Mendes, H. F. (1994). Managing the multicultural society: The policy making process. Paper presented at the Conference on Today's Youth and Xenophobia: Breaking the Cycle. Wassenaar, Netherlands: Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study.
- "Human Rights Watch" (PDF). Hrw.org. 2009. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
Human Rights Watch world report 2009: Events of 2008
- "Third report on the Netherlands. Strasbourg, FRANCE : The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance" (PDF). ECRI. 2008. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Dinsbach, W.; Walz, G.; Boog, I. (2009). "ENAR shadow report 2008: Racism in the Netherlands. Brussels, Netherlands: ENAR Netherlands" (PDF). Cms.horus.be. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Thalhammer, E., Zucha, V., Enzenhofer, E., Salfinger, B., & Ogris, G. (2001). Attitudes towards minority groups in the European Union: A special analysis of the Eurobarometer 2000 survey on behalf of the European Monitoring Centre on racism and xenophobia. Vienna, Austria: EUMC Sora. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-11-10. Retrieved 2010-01-10..
- Ther & Siljak 2001, 4.
- Bennigsen & Broxup 1983, 30.
- Cohen & Deng 1998, 263.
- "Meskhetian Genocide by Russia". Topix.
- Schnabel & Carment 2004, 63.
- Drobizheva, Gottemoeller & Kelleher 1998, 296
- Cornell 2001, 183.
- Barton, Heffernan & Armstrong 2002, 9
- Coşkun 2009, 5.
- Aydıngün, Ayşegül; Harding, Çigğdem Balım; Hoover, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Igor; Swerdlow, Steve (2006), Meskhetian Turks: An Introduction to their History, Culture, and Resettelment Experiences (PDF), http://www.cal.org/: Center for Applied Linguistics, archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-14
- Barton, Frederick D.; Heffernan, John; Armstrong, Andrea (2002), Being Recognised as Citizens (PDF), http://www.humansecurity-chs.org/: Commission on Human Security, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-17
- Blacklock, Denika (2005), FINDING DURABLE SOLUTIONS FOR THE MESKHETIANS (PDF), http://www.ecmi.de/: EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR MINORITY ISSUES, archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-02
- Çetin, Turhan (2008), "THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC OUTCOMES OF THE LAST TURKISH MIGRATION (1989) FROM BULGARIA TO TURKEY", Turkish Studies, 3 (7): 241–270
- Cohen, Roberta; Deng, Francis Mading (1998), The Forsaken People: Case Studies of the Internally Displaced, Brookings Institution Press, ISBN 0-8157-1514-5.
- Cornelius, Wayne; Martin, Philip; Hollifield, James (1994), Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-2498-9.
- Cornell, Svante E. (2001), Small nations and great powers: a study of ethnopolitical conflict in the Caucasus, Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-1162-7.
- Coşkun, Ufuk (2009), AHISKA/MESKHETIAN TURKS IN TUCSON: AN EXAMINATION OF ETHNIC IDENTITY (PDF), http://www.u.arizona.edu/: UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-11
- Demirtaş-Coşkun, Birgül (2010), "Reconsidering the Cyprus Issue: An Anatomy of Failure og European Catalyst (1995–2002)", in Laçiner, Sedat; Özcan, Mehmet; Bal, İhsan (eds), USAK Yearbook of International Politics and Law 2010, Vol. 3, USAK Books, ISBN 978-605-4030-26-2 .
- Drobizheva, Leokadia; Gottemoeller, Rose; Kelleher, Catherine McArdle (1998), Ethnic Conflict in the Post-Soviet World: Case Studies and Analysis, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 1-56324-741-0.
- Dummett, Michael (2001), On Immigration and Refugees, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-22707-0.
- Eminov, Ali (1997), Turkish and other Muslim minorities in Bulgaria, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-91976-2.
- Hirschon, Renée (2003), Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange Between Greece and Turkey, Berghahn Books, ISBN 1-57181-562-7.
- Hüssein, Serkan (2007), Yesterday & Today: Turkish Cypriots of Australia, Serkan Hussein, ISBN 0-646-47783-8.
- Katsikas, Stefanos (2010), Bulgaria and Europe: Shifting Identities, Anthem Press, ISBN 1-84331-846-6.
- Knowlton, MaryLee (2005), Macedonia, Marshall Cavendish, ISBN 0-7614-1854-7.
- Lee, Martin (1999), The Beast Reawakens, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-92546-0.
- Levinson, David (1998), Ethnic groups worldwide: a ready reference handbook, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1-57356-019-1.
- Minahan, James (2002), Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: L-R, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-32111-6.
- Nees, Greg (2000), Germany: Unraveling an Enigma, Intercultural Press, ISBN 1-877864-75-7.
- Neuburger, Mary (2004), The Orient within: Muslim minorities and the negotiation of nationhood in modern Bulgaria, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-4132-3.
- Papadakis, Yiannis (2005), Echoes from the Dead Zone: Across the Cyprus divide, I.B.Tauris, ISBN 1-85043-428-X.
- Ramet, Sabrina (1999), The Radical Right in Central and Eastern Europe Since 1989, Penn State Press, ISBN 0-271-01811-9.
- Savvides, Philippos K (2004), "Partition Revisited: The International Dimension and the Case of Cyprus", in Danopoulos, Constantine Panos; Vajpeyi, Dhirendra K.; Bar-Or, Amir(eds), Civil-military relations, nation building, and national identity: comparative perspectives, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-97923-7 .
- Solsten, Eric (1999), Germany: A Country Study, DIANE Publishing, ISBN 0-7881-8179-3.
- Staab, Andreas (1998), National Identity in Eastern Germany: Inner Unification or Continued Separation?, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-96177-X.
- Ther, Philipp; Siljak, Ana (2001), Redrawing nations: ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944–1948, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-1094-8.
- Tocci, Nathalie (2004), EU accession dynamics and conflict resolution: catalysing peace or consolidating partition in Cyprus?, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0-7546-4310-7.
- Tocci, Nathalie (2007), The EU and conflict resolution: promoting peace in the backyard, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-41394-X.
- Whitman, Lois (1990), Destroying ethnic identity: the Turks of Greece, Human Rights Watch, ISBN 0-929692-70-5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anti-Turkism.|
- Turkey in the Eye of the Beholder:Tracking Perceptions on Turkey through Political Cartoons by Sinan Erensü and Yaşar Adanalı
- Patriotism versus Patria by Vartan Harutiunyan
- Representation of Turkishness in Hollywood by Aslihan Tokgoz
- TURKOPHOBIA:Its Social and Historical Roots By Sabirzyan BADRETDIN
- The Unspeakable Turk political cartoons
- (in Turkish) Marco Türklere ders vermek istemiş!