Anti-austerity movement in Spain
Anti-austerity movement in Spain
|Part of the 2008–14 Spanish financial crisis, the European sovereign debt crisis and the impact of the Arab Spring|
|Date||15 May 2011– 2015|
|Caused by||Unemployment, economic conditions, welfare cuts, political corruption, particracy, unrepresentative bipartidism, democratic deficit|
|Goals||Direct democracy, reduce influence of economic powers in politics,|
|Methods||Demonstrations, civil disobedience, civil resistance, rioting, sit-ins, online activism, protest camps occupations|
|Injuries and arrests|
|Anti-austerity protests in the|
|By member state|
|Principal protest parties|
The anti-austerity movement in Spain, also referred to as the 15-M Movement (Spanish: Movimiento 15-M), and the Indignados Movement, was a series of protests, demonstrations, and occupations against austerity policies in Spain that began around the local and regional elections of 2011 and 2012. First starting on 15 May 2011, many of the subsequent demonstrations spread through various social networks such as Real Democracy NOW (Spanish: Democracia Real YA) and Youth Without a Future (Spanish: Juventud Sin Futuro).
Spanish media related the movement to the 2008–14 Spanish financial crisis, the Arab Spring, as well as demonstrations in North Africa, Iran, Greece, Portugal, and Iceland. The movement was also compared to Stéphane Hessel's political manifesto Time for Outrage!, which was seen to empower Spanish youth who were not in school, training, or employment. Protestors rallied against high unemployment rates, welfare cuts, politicians, and the two-party system in Spain, as well as the political system, capitalism, banks, and public corruption. Many called for basic rights, of home, work, culture, health and education. The movement transferred to Europe the model of the protest camp which had been formed in the Arab Spring, adapting it to a more countercultural framework. This would later expand until influencing the creation of Occupy Wall Street.
Since the 2008–2014 Spanish financial crisis began, Spain has had one of the highest unemployment rates in Europe, reaching a eurozone record of 21.3%. The number of unemployed people in Spain stood at 4,910,200 at the end of March 2011, up about 214,000 from the previous quarter, while the youth unemployment rate stands at 43.5%, the highest in the European Union. In September 2010 the government approved a sweeping overhaul of the labour market designed to reduce unemployment and revive the economy. Large trade unions such as CCOO and Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT), among other minor ones, rejected the plan because it made it easier and cheaper for employers to hire and fire workers. Trade unions called for the first general strike in a decade, on 29 September 2010.
For the rest of the year, the government proceeded with economic reforms. In January 2011, the government reached an agreement with the main trade unions to increase the retirement age from 65 to 67. Anarcho-syndicalist and other related unions rejected the plan and called for a strike on 27 January in Galicia, Catalonia and the Basque Country. Other demonstrations in Madrid ended up in altercations with the police. The majority of Spaniards also rejected the higher retirement age. In February a wide-sweeping internet copyright infringement policy known as the Sinde law passed, adding another motivation for the protests. The law allowed an administrative commission to shut down any website that showed links or allowed irregular downloading of copyrighted content without judicial supervision. Users on Spanish forums and social networks criticized the law; the PSOE, PP and Convergence and Union affirmed these criticisms. An anonymous campaign with the #nolesvotes appeared online, calling on citizens to vote against any of the parties that passed the law.
Prior to 15 May, other demonstrations served as precursors to the main protests in Madrid. These demonstrations include the 7 April protest in Madrid by the student group Youth without Future (Juventud Sin Futuro), which gathered 5,000 people. Spanish media drew comparisons between the demonstrations and the 2008-09 protests against the Bologna Process. The anti-austerity movement in Portugal also inspired the demonstrations undertaken in Spain. According to Peter Gelderloos, the movement led to the creation of hundreds of police-free zones across the country, hospitals were occupied and saved from privatisation, neighbourhood assemblies sprang up, unused land and homes were occupied and squatted, worker cooperatives were founded and urban community gardens were established.
In January 2011, users on Spanish social media networks and forums created the digital platform ¡Democracia Real YA! Using Twitter and Facebook, it called "the unemployed, poorly paid, the subcontractors, the precarious, young people..." to take the streets on 15 May in the following places: A Coruña, Albacete, Algeciras, Alicante, Almería, Arcos de la Frontera, Badajoz, Barcelona, Bilbao, Burgos, Cáceres, Cadiz, Cartagena, Castellón, Ciudad Real, Córdoba, Cuenca, Ferrol, Figueres, Fuengirola, Gijón, Granada, Guadalajara, Huelva, Jaén, Lanzarote, La Palma, León, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Lleida, Logroño, Lugo, Madrid, Málaga, Menorca, Mérida, Monforte de Lemos, Murcia, Ourense, Oviedo, Palma, Pamplona, Plasencia, Ponferrada, Puertollano, Salamanca, San Sebastián, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Santander, Santiago de Compostela, Seville, Soria, Tarragona, Toledo, Torrevieja, Ubrique, Valencia, Valladolid, Vigo, Vitoria and Zaragoza. That same day, small demonstrations in support of the Spanish ones were organised in Dublin, Lisbon, Amsterdam, Istanbul, Bologna, London and Paris.
The first event was called under the motto "we are not goods in the hands of politicians and bankers" and was focused on opposition to what the demonstrators called "antisocial means in the hands of bankers." The motto referred partly to the changes made in 2010 to contain the ongoing European sovereign debt crisis through bailout of the banks, which the Spanish society saw as responsible for the crisis. At the same time, the government continued to announce social program cutbacks. Protesters demanded spiritual philanthropy.
According to ¡Democracia Real YA!, 50,000 people gathered in Madrid alone. The National Police placed the number at 20,000. The march started in Plaza de Cibeles and ended in Puerta del Sol, where several manifestos were read. Also according to the organizers, 15,000 gathered in the demonstration in Barcelona, which ended in front of the Parliament of Catalonia. In other cities such as Granada, up to 5,000 protesters attended. These protests took place mostly without incident, except for an exchange of insults between some protesters and members of the Fraternity of the Virgin of Rosario, whose procession overlapped with the end of the protest after the latter continued longer than expected. In Santiago de Compostela, a group of eight hooded people smashed several banks and local businesses. It was estimated by Deconomia that about 130,000 people throughout Spain followed the protesters that day.
At the end of the demonstrations in Madrid, protesters blocked the Gran Vía avenue and staged a peaceful sit-in in Callao street, to which police responded by beating protesters with truncheons. As a result of the clashes and the following riots, several shop windows were destroyed and trash containers burned. Police officers arrested 24 people, and five police officers were injured. On 17 May, ¡Democracia Real YA! condemned the "brutal police repression" and rejected any association with the incidents. After the incidents, a group of 100 people headed to Puerta del Sol and started camping in the middle of the square, which would result in the following day's protests.
During the day, several people gathered in Puerta del Sol and decided to stay in the square until the elections on 22 May. Meanwhile, 200 people started a similar action in Barcelona's Plaça Catalunya, although police initially attempted to disperse the crowds. That day the tag #spanishrevolution, as well as other ones related to the protests, became trending topics on Twitter.
In the early hours of 17 May, police cleared the Puerta del Sol square and removed the 150 people who had camped out. Two protesters were arrested and one injured. In response to the eviction and police violence, protesters (independent of the ¡Democracia Real YA! organization) used SMS, Facebook and Twitter to call for a mass response at 8 p.m. in several Spanish squares. Large groups of demonstrators returned to protest in various cities, standing apart from the group in Madrid. The police allowed protesters to camp out in a few cities, like A Coruña, where more than 1,000 people gathered. In Madrid more than 12,000 people gathered and about 200 protesters organized into an assembly, during which they decided to organize themselves for spending the night in the square, creating cleaning, communication, extension, materials and legal committees. Previously, small businesses had provided a great deal of assistance with supplies, including food. Dozens of people also gathered in front of the courthouse in Madrid, where the people arrested during the 15 May demonstration were being held. All detainees were released.
Protests and nighttime camp-outs took place in 30 cities around Spain, including Barcelona and Valencia. The protests gained the support of some people in the United Kingdom, who announced that they would sit outside of the Spanish embassy from 18 to 22 May. The protest in Plaza del Sol on the night of 17 May consisted of about 4,000 people, according to the authorities. As evening fell, the protesters put up a large tarp canopy beneath which they passed out signs with the intention of spending the night. Three hundred of them stayed until the dawn of 18 May. The camp can be considered a form of prefigurative politics and can be understood as a small symbolic city within the city.
According to El País, many protesters wore carnations, imitating protesters during the Portuguese Carnation Revolution. In addition, protesters organized a food stand, which provided food donated by local businesses, and set up a webcam to provide news from Puerta del Sol through the website Ustream.tv. The protesters were advised not to drink alcohol or to organize into groups of more than 20 people, as these acts could provoke a legal police crackdown.
The police ordered protesters to disperse in Valencia, Tenerife and Las Palmas. During the evacuation of the Plaza del Carmen in Granada, three people were arrested. Speeches continued throughout the afternoon. The protests grew to include León, Seville (where a campout started as of 19 May), and other provincial capitals and cities in Spain. Protesters created support groups for each campout on Twitter and other national and international networks. Google Docs and other servers began to receive download requests for documents needed to legally request permission for new protests. In the morning, the Federación de Asociaciones de Vecinos de Barcelona (FAVB) announced its support of the protests in Barcelona. Protesters agreed to hold meetings between their organizing committees each day at 1 p.m. and assemblies at 8 p.m.
The Washington Post covered the protests on 15 May; on 18 May, more media outlets began to publish news reports. Among them was Le Monde, the most widely circulated newspaper written in French, with an article that noted the rarity of such large-scale protests in Spain. The German newspaper Der Spiegel noted the importance of the effects of what has been called "The Facebook Generation" on the protests. The Portuguese paper Jornal de Notícias reported on the protests in Madrid as soon as it was known that they had been prohibited. The New York Times cited El País and noted the strong organization of the protesters, particularly the 200 people who had been placed in charge of security, and the use of Twitter to ensure dissemination of their message. The Washington Post again reported on the protests in Puerta del Sol, giving them the name of a "revolution," estimating that 10,000 people attended Wednesday afternoon's protest, and comparing the protests with those in Cairo's Tahrir Square, which had recently ousted Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak. The BBC made reference to the peaceful nature of the protests in Puerta del Sol.
In the evening, the President of the Regional Electoral Committee of Madrid issued a statement declaring the protests illegal because "calls for a responsible vote can change the results of the elections." Police units stationed at Plaza del Sol, however, received orders from the Government Delegation not to take out any further action.
Appeal before the Supreme Court
Spain's public broadcaster, RTVE, reported that the State Prosecutor upheld the decision taken by the Central Electoral Board to ban the rallies. Meanwhile, the police announced that they had been given instructions not to dissolve the crowd at Puerta del Sol provided that there was no disturbance of the peace.
Appeal before the Tribunal Constitucional
RTVE later reported that the country's Constitutional Court had been deliberating since 7:30 p.m. whether to review an appeal against the decision of the Central Electoral Board. At 10:08 p.m., RTVE reported that the Constitutional Court had rejected the appeal on the formality that the appellant had not appealed first to the Supreme Court.
At 10:47 p.m. United Left announced it would appeal the Supreme Court's decision before the Tribunal Constitucional. They had until midnight.
In Madrid, Barcelona, Malaga and other cities, 21 May started with a "mute scream" followed by cheers and applause. Smaller cities, such as Granada, decided to start before midnight to avoid disturbing the neighbors. These protests occurred even though protests on the day before elections are banned.
Around 28,000 people (according to the police) crowded Puerta del Sol and the neighboring streets despite the prohibition. Other cities also gathered large numbers of people: 15,000 in Malaga, 10,000 in Valencia, 8,000 in Barcelona, 6,000 in Zaragoza, 4,000 in Seville, 3,000 in Bilbao, 3,000 in Palma, 2,000 in Gijón, 2,000 in Oviedo, 1,500 in Granada, 1,000 in Vigo, 800 in Almeria, around 800 in Avilés, 600 in Cadiz, 200 in Huelva, and around 100 in Jaen. Demonstrations also occurred in other European cities, with 300 protesters participating in London, 500 in Amsterdam, 600 in Brussels and 200 in Lisbon. Minor demonstrations occurred in Athens, Milan, Budapest, Tangiers, Paris, Berlin, Vienna and Rome.
Just after 2:00 p.m. on election day, the indignados (outraged) that had gathered at Puerta del Sol announced that they had voted to stay at least another week, until noon on 29 May. Early analysis of the local and regional elections, won by the People's Party, suggested the protest movement could have contributed to losses for the ruling PSOE, and to increased numbers of spoilt or blank votes, which reached record levels.
In Murcia about 80 people gained access to the headquarters of the television channel 7 Región de Murcia, avoiding security staff, in order to read a manifesto denouncing media manipulation. Approximately 30 people gained unobstructed entry to the Tarragona office of the Ministry of Economy and Finance and shouted slogans against the political and economic systems, before moving to several financial sites in the city centre to do the same.
In Málaga, the Ministry of Defence decided to relocate various activities for Armed Forces Day, including the King's visit, planned for Friday 27. Protesters had already been occupying the Plaza de la Constitución, where the events were scheduled to take place, for eight days.
|P. Catalunya clash gallery|
At approximately 7 a.m. on 27 May, another incident occurred when the city council of Barcelona decided to send 350 police officers from the Mossos d'Esquadra and roughly 100 more from the Guàrdia Urbana to temporarily vacate Plaça de Catalunya so that it could be cleaned ahead of the Champions League final on 28 May, in which FC Barcelona were playing against Manchester United. The resulting violent clash ended in 121 light injuries and provoked new calls to protest in all squares still occupied across Spain. The majority of those injured suffered bruises and open wounds caused by police officers' truncheons; one protester left with a broken arm. The protesters who had been vacated returned to the square by early afternoon.
Similar incidents also occurred in Lleida and Sabadell, where Mossos d'Esquadra officers dismantled the protesters' encampments. According to police figures, more than 12,000 people gathered in Barcelona through the course of the day, angry about the earlier actions of the police and painting their hands white and carrying flowers as symbols of protest. They demanded, among other things, the resignation of the head of the Mossos d'Esquadra, Felip Puig. They also claimed that, following the incident, the encampment likely would not be taken down on Sunday, 29 May, as had previously been stated.
At least 40 people gathered in Montcada i Reixac, Barcelona. They prevented court officials from serving a family with the order to leave their home immediately and protested against banks repossessing people's homes.
Representatives from 53 assemblies around Spain gathered in a mass assembly in Puerta del Sol.
In Madrid, hundreds of people gathered in front of the Congreso de los Diputados, with a police barrier preventing them from entering the building. Demonstrations in front of the Parliament are banned in Madrid, but the protest finished without incident. In Valencia, dozens of people decided to stay in front of the regional Parliament. In Barcelona, around 50 people protested outside the Catalan Parliament against Felip Puig.
In the morning, police clashed with protesters in Valencia, injuring 18. As a response to the police violence, demonstrators called for a protest in the city later that day, which gathered around 2,000 people. Support demonstrations were held in Barcelona and Madrid, the latter ending up in front of the Parliament for a second night. Barcelona's protest finished in front of the Popular Party's office.
Thousands of indignados from the whole country concentrated at the gates of major city halls during the mayors' swearing-ins after the elections. Protesters broke in on the act in Granada, while two activists were arrested in Burgos and three in Palma. In Castellón, the police dissolved the demonstration violently.
On Sunday, 12 June, four weeks after the protests had begun, protesters in the Puerta del Sol in Madrid began to leave, dismantling the camp site; packing up tents, libraries, and shops; and removing protest signs from surrounding sites.
Thousands of people assembled in front of Barcelona's Parc de la Ciutadella and organized themselves to spend the night, in order to start a blockade of the Catalan Parliament (which is inside the park) on the following day and prevent deputies from entering the building, where the debate on the 2011 budget, which would result in cuts in education and health, was to take place.
Clashes between protesters and Mossos d'Esquadra occurred in the early hours of the morning when hundreds of protesters gathered in front of the police cordon, while officers fired plastic bullets in order to disperse a group of protesters who had set up barricades using rubbish containers. Hours later, scuffles broke out as Mossos de Esquadra pushed protesters back so the deputies who arrived on foot could pass through. Some deputies, such as former Minister of Labour Celestino Corbacho, were jostled, heckled and sprayed on their way in, while others used police helicopters to get to the parliament, including the president of Catalonia, Artur Mas. Although lawmakers managed to enter the Catalan Parliament, the scheduled session started with a 15-minute delay.
The protest was criticized by politicians across the country. During a press conference, Mas warned of a possible "legitimate use of force" in case demonstrators stayed outside the Parliament, and he called on the public to be understanding. Some politicians went so far as to denounce an attempted "coup d'etat." Acampadabcn, the organiser of the event, and ¡Democracia Real YA! rejected the use of violence but denounced the criminalization of the movement by the media. On Twitter and other social networks, many users suggested the possibility that secret police, infiltrated to cause the violence, started most of the clashes.[better source needed]
A massive demonstration was carried out in almost 80 Spanish cities and towns. It is believed that more than three million people rallied that day.
The first columns of the Indignant People's March began walking towards Madrid from throughout the country, planning to arrive in the capital on 23 July. The March's goal was to expand the proposals of the Movement while visiting rural areas, collecting their demands, and starting people's assemblies.
The March was organized in eight columns, consisting of dozens of activists from 16 cities:
- Eastern route: from Valencia, 20 June
- Murcia route: from Murcia, 20 June
- Northern route: from Santander, Bilbao and Pamplona, 23 and 29 June
- Northwest route: from Santiago de Compostela, Vigo, Ferrol, Avilés and Gijón, between 24 and 30 June
- Southern route: from Cádiz, 24 June
- Southeastern route: from Málaga and Motril, 25 June
- Northeastern route: from Barcelona, 25 June
- N-II route: from Zaragoza, 7 July
After a month-long walk, the columns of the Indignant People's March joined in Puerta del Sol, where the movement first emerged. Thousands collapsed the main entrances of Madrid in an improvised demonstration, as sympathizers from Madrid and all over Spain joined the walkers.
The eight columns reunited at 9 p.m. in Puerta del Sol under a banner saying "WELCOME DIGNITY," received with cheers and applause. The march culminated in a wrap up and after-action review assembly, at which participants shared the social, political and economic problems of the towns visited along the way, as well as the proposals made by the townspeople. The protesters created The Book of the People to collect these experiences and redacted it into an official document to be deposited in the Congress of Deputies' register. A provisional camp was established in Paseo del Prado to host the thousands of newly arrived walkers.
During the day's rally, protesters sprayed red hand graffiti on buildings and posted bills saying "GUILTY" on bank offices and ministries, referencing the widely held belief that the crisis was caused by banks, the Government, and cuts in social services. Due to the large crowds, the demonstration split into two columns to avoid congestion. The demonstration ended with a protest camp in front of the Congress of Deputies.
The "I Foro Social del 15M" was held in order to coordinate the mobilizations of the following winter. During the economics assembly, 2001 Nobel Prize winner Joseph Stiglitz appeared to show his support to the movement. The camp in front of the Congress continued.
Fifty indignados left Puerta del Sol walking in an International March to Brussels planning to arrive on 8 October, a week before the demonstrations of 15 October, in order to give the people's proposals to the European Parliapoment.
Police violently removed the camp in Paseo del Prado, injuring a dozen people. As a response, 500 demonstrators rallied towards the Congress. Meanwhile, several activists crossed the police line in the Congress wearing formal dresses and succeeded entering the Congress of Deputies, where the Book of the People, containing the rural problematics found during the Indignant People's March, was delivered. Deputy Gaspar Llamazares compromised on presenting it to the Congress and forwarded it to the Prime Minister. However, he made clear that he had no connection to the Movement.
When the assembly decided on 12 June to dismantle the tent city in Puerta del Sol, it also decided by consensus to leave behind an information booth, called PuntoSol, where people interested in the movement could find information about how it had been decentralized to the neighborhood assemblies. An organic garden surrounding one of the fountains in Sol was also left behind in the square. At 6:30 a.m. on 2 August, the national and municipal police evicted the remaining protesters at the information booth, and cleaning crews dismantled PuntoSol and the organic garden. At the same time, they evicted the tent city that had sprung up on the Paseo del Prado. The police then blocked off all access to Sol, including Metro and Cercanías, and filled the square with over 300 police, including riot police, and 50 police vans.
In response, protesters called an immediate convergence to try to access the square. The heavy police presence impeded their entry. The protestors, then numbering over 5,000, decided to turn to the streets, demonstrating from Callao, Gran Vía, Cibeles, and Paseo del Prado, all the way to the Congress of Deputies building, where they were met by more riot police, police barricades and police vans. Protesters then turned to Atocha and once more to Sol, where they again encountered an overwhelming police presence. The decision was then made by the protesters to occupy Plaza Mayor, where an emergency participatory assembly was held in order to decide what to do. Ultimately, protesters set up a temporary information booth in Plaza Mayor, and some stayed to camp through the night. At the end of the night, two people were arrested, and released the day after.
During the Plaza Mayor assembly, protesters decided to hold another assembly at Jacinto Benavente on the next day at 6 p.m. in order to attempt entering the square again. Police then cordoned off the square, and metro and train stations closed, while police asked for identification from anyone trying to pass into the square. Police also asked customers from shops around Sol to close their businesses several hours earlier than usual. As the attempt to enter the square failed, the protesters decided to start a new march from Atocha two hours later. The march from Atocha grew larger as people began passing through Cibeles and up the Gran Vía heading toward Puerta del Sol, where officers and police vans prevented the demonstrators from marching up San Jerónimo street. Police and about 4,000 demonstrators then played a game of cat-and-mouse as the demonstrators tried to enter Puerta del Sol through different streets. There were several moments of tension at different points and by 11 p.m., the groups of demonstrators disbanded and retreated to Callao Square, where they held an assembly and decided to hold a demonstration at 12 p.m. on the following day and attempt to enter Sol once again at 8 p.m.
A half million people took part in the demonstration that filled the street and marched from Alcala and Cibeles toward Puerta del Sol square in Madrid, home of the "Indignants" movement. Another 450,000 people participated in Barcelona. In both cities, thousands remained and participated in the activities and general assembly.
Two hundred police officers cleared a hotel in Madrid that had been occupied since 15 October. No injuries were reported. Later that day, 3,000 people marched against the eviction in the center of Madrid.
Around 3,000 protesters marched in the center of Madrid in what was called the "Cabalgata de los Indignados" (Outraged Cavalcade). At the beginning of the protest, demonstrators clashed with police, leaving five injured, including two police officers. Two people were arrested. After the initial scuffles with police officers, demonstrators made their way to Puerta del Sol without further incident.
In May, the protesters celebrated the first anniversary of the "Indignants" protest movement with thousands of people gathering in several Spanish cities[which?] at the same time. As part of a global day of action, similar protests occurred simultaneously in other cities including London, Lisbon, Frankfurt and Tel Aviv. In Spain, at least 100,000 were estimated to have marched against the austerity measures.
Asturian miners' strike
In late May, a physical altercation between protestors and the police, involving more than 8,000 coal miners, involved demonstrations on a march to the federal capital, Madrid. The demonstrators concerns stemmed from a diminishing coal industry in Spain. Between 1990 and 2015 coal extraction in Spain dropped by 76.5 percent and the number of workers employed in the industry declined by 85.7 percent. On 15 June, clashes were reported by the Ministry of the Interior to have resulted in seven injuries, two of them serious, comprising four police officers and three journalists.
Marinaleda Mayor Juan Manuel Sánchez Gordillo led protests started by labor union SAT (Sindicato Andaluz de Trabajadores, "Andalusian Union of Workers") to get the federal government, led by Mariano Rajoy, to end austerity measures that involved budget cuts and layoffs of public sector workers. The labor unions stole food from several supermarkets to feed jobless people and to ignite controversy, earning Gordillo the nickname of "Robin Hood." The goal of these actions was to stress that the attention was currently on the Spanish risk premium, debt and deficit instead of on the hunger of the middle and lower classes.
On 31 January 2015, the protestors joined, in central Madrid, the Podemos political party, then an insurgent force within the movement. Podemos’ anti-corruption platform and its singularity in "threatening to bring an end to the [two-party] political system that has governed Spain since the death of general Francisco Franco in 1975" brought Podemos to the top of opinion polls last year in anticipation of "a year packed with municipal, regional, and general elections". The new party won 1.2 million votes and five seats in May's European elections.
In Spain, nearly 25% of people were unemployed and evictions had reached a rate of as high as 500 per day among a wide variety of other economic issues, leading to a number of generally peaceful protests seeking change in the way the government handles them. In addition to forming the foundation of Podemos, these protests have elicited multiple attempts by the government to silence them culminating in what many see as "something out of the generalissimo's handbook". The measures the law takes to silence the voices of the Spanish people are devastating, including steep fines or jail time for disrespecting police officers (€600), taking and sharing images of state security forces that might endanger them or their operations" (€30,000), protesting in front of government buildings, protesting at a time or location not approved by the police (€600,000), or even using a hashtag in a tweet publicizing an event that breaks the rules in any way. Internet activity alone can result in up to five years behind bars. The law also extends to even more restrictive and vague measures, such as "playing games or sports in public spaces that are not designed for such activity" (€1,000), "projecting 'luminous devices' (e.g. lasers) in the vicinity of public transport in a way that 'might cause accidents'” (€600,000), insulting the state or "participating in the disruption of citizens' security while using hoods, helmets, or any other article of clothing or object that covers the face, rendering identification difficult or impossible" (€30,000), and "failure to cooperate with law enforcement during crime investigations or in the prevention of acts that might put citizens' security at risk" (€30,000). Acts of terrorism under the act include clauses as loosely defined as "the commission of any serious crime against...liberty".
According to Spain's interior minister, Jorge Fernández Diaz, "It's a law for the 21st Century. It provides better guarantees for people's security and more judicial security for people's rights". What is allegedly an act against terrorism "to guarantee a freer and more peaceful coexistence for all Spaniards...eradicating violence", ironically quite seriously threatens this ideal by making police and federal security personnel (who are often responsible for committing this type of violence) significantly less accountable, while expanding the role of private security forces "lacking both proper training and the proper level of public accountability" (assuming that normal police forces do indeed possess these qualities). Another problem with this policy is that it is fundamentally anti-immigrant in nature, crippling the group targeted most severely by austerity measures even more by forcing everyone to present identity documents at internet cafés, prohibitively complicating undocumented migrants' communications outside the country. The law also contains a provision validating and formalizing the process of expulsion for Moroccans who jump the border fence into Spain's African outposts of Ceuta and Melilla, which according to the International Federation for Human Rights "restrict[s] the right to seek asylum and violate[s] the principle of non-refoulement and the prohibition of collective expulsions" as well as "[exposing] migrants to a serious risk of torture and ill-treatment by denying them the possibility of filing a claim against law enforcement personnel in case of abuse".
The anti-austerity movement in Spain was fundamentally rooted in resistance to Spain's unopposed right-wing government led by the People's Party. The recently passed Citizens Security Law (dubbed the "gag law"), viewed by protestors as a restriction of civil liberties comparable to the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, was designed to quell this opposition. In response, the Spanish people subverted these measures by protesting via holograms instead, avoiding arrest and setting an incredibly unique precedent across the world.
The day before a closely watched Andalusian parliamentary election, 2015, thousands of people took part in a "march for dignity" in Madrid on Saturday 21 March 2015 to protest against austerity measures.
These gatherings have been fundamental in shaping the narrative of Spanish politics both in the media and in policy over the last few years. In response to this restriction, Spanish citizens launched a protest that questioned not only the People's Party but how the internet and digital media have changed the way the world changes. On 11 April 2015, Instead of marching in front of government buildings in person, they created recordings of themselves marching and projected them as holograms instead. The project was largely crowdsourced, reaching out to individuals across the internet to add their face and voice to the mass, collapsing digital space to physical space in defiance. This type of subversion creates new modes of action that promise some higher degree of equality by enabling the creation of an entirely new type of space where individuals can freely enact the rights they are fighting for.
The main political parties issued statements on 16 May 2011, following debate. On 15 May, the day of the first demonstration, almost every party was willing to be quoted on the situation. Jaime Mayor Oreja, Member of the European Parliament representing the Partido Popular, was critical of the alleged intention of activists to not cast ballots in the coming election. So was Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) member and Minister of Public Works and Transport José Blanco. United Left had a positive view of the activists' demands. The United Left's political coordinator Cayo Lara defended the refusal of the activists to become a "lost generation" and criticized their removal from the Puerta del Sol on 16 May. Other politicians, such as PSOE's José Antonio Griñán, showed sympathy for the movement while insisting that abstaining from voting was not a solution. Esteban González Pons, general vicesecretary of the Partido Popular, linked the demonstrations to the "antisystem far left".
Former prime minister Felipe González compared the movement, which he considered "an extraordinarily important phenomenon," with the Arab Spring, saying out that "in the Arab world they are demanding the right to vote while here they are saying that voting is pointless."
On 25 July 2011, Nobel Prize-winning economist Joseph Stiglitz participated at the "I Foro Social del 15M" organized in Madrid expressing his support for the movement. During an informal speech, he made a brief review of some of the problems in the United States and Europe, including the high unemployment rate and the situation in Greece. "This is an opportunity for economic contribution social measures," argued Stiglitz. He encouraged those present to respond to the "bad ideas" not with indifference, but with "good ideas." "This does not work, you have to change it," he said. On 15 September 2012, Stiglitz said "accepting the bailout would be suicidal" for the country.
- 15 October 2011 global protests
- 2009 Iranian presidential election protests
- 2011 Chilean protests
- 2011 Israeli social justice protests
- 2013 Bulgarian protests
- Anti-austerity movement in Greece
- Anti-austerity protests in Ireland
- Anti-austerity protests in Portugal
- Anti-austerity movement in the United Kingdom
- Real democracy NOW (Spanish: Democracia real YA)
- 2012 European general strike
- Kitchenware Revolution (Iceland)
- Occupy movement
- Plataforma de Afectados por la Hipoteca
- Protests of 1968
- Spanish Teen Rally (Estudiar en primavera)
- Time for Outrage!
- List of protests in the 21st century
- "Más de seis millones de españoles han participado en el Movimiento 15M" (in Spanish), Rtve.es
- "Tahrir Square in Madrid: Spain's Lost Generation Finds Its Voice". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
- Rainsford, Sarah (14 October 2011). "Spain's 'Indignants' lead international protest day". BBC. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Vanden, Harry E.; Funke, Peter N.; Prevost, Gary (16 March 2017). The New Global Politics: Global Social Movements in the Twenty-First Century. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-315-52228-9.
- Alcaide, Soledad (17 May 2011). "Movimiento 15-M: los ciudadanos exigen reconstruir la política (15-M Movement: citizens demand political reconstruction)". El País. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- "Spanish youth rally in Madrid echoes Egypt protests". BBC. 18 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- Congleton, Roger D.; Grofman, Bernard N.; Voigt, Stefan (14 December 2018). The Oxford Handbook of Public Choice, Volume 2. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-046978-8.
- "Στα χνάρια των Ισπανών αγανακτισμένων (On the footsteps of the Spanish 'indignados')" (in Greek). skai.gr. 26 May 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- ""Geração à rasca" é referência para Espanha – JN" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- "Los sábados de Islandia llegaron al 15-M (Icelandic saturdays appear on 15-M)". El País. 17 May 2011. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- "Indignados en la calle". EL PAÍS. 17 May 2011. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- EFE. "Miles de personas exigen dejar de ser 'mercancías de políticos y banqueros'". El Mundo. Archived from the original on 4 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
- "La manifestación de 'indignados' reúne a varios miles de personas en toda España (Outraged demonstration brings together several thousand people in Spain)". El País. 15 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- Ramírez Blanco, Julia (2018). Artistic Utopias of Revolt: Claremont Road, Reclaim the Streets, and the City of Sol. Palgrave Studies in Utopianism. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-3-319-71421-9.
- Castañeda, Ernesto (2012). "The Indignados of Spain: A Precedent to Occupy Wall Street". Social Movement Studies. 11 (3–4): 309–319. doi:10.1080/14742837.2012.708830. S2CID 143081582.
- "Ipsos Public Affairs' statistic about Spanish protests". RTVE. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
- "Spain unemployment hits record high". BBC News. 25 April 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
- Alomon, Kyle (14 July 2011). "Who's got the highest (and lowest) unemployment rates?". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
- "Unemployment in Spain rises sharply to 21.3 percent". EITB. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "El desempleo juvenil alcanza en España su mayor tasa en 16 años". La Voz de Galicia. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Buck, Tobias (18 December 2013). "OECD hails Spain's labour market reform". www.ft.com. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
- Donadio, Rachel; Fuchs, Dale (17 February 2010). "Spanish Premier Insists Economic Recovery Is Near". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
- "Spain overhauls labour market, as unions plan general strike". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "Spain retirement age going to 67 in austerity push". Deseret News. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "Hoy huelga en Euskadi, Navarra, Galicia y Catalunya". Público. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "Un 79% de los españoles, en contra del retraso de la jubilación a los 67 años". El Mundo. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "Spain adopts tough new piracy law". BBC News. 8 March 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
- "Congress has given the definitive approval to the Law Sinde". Spain Review. Archived from the original on 23 April 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "El movimiento del 15-M, balance y perspectivas tras un mes de actividad". Rebelion. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
- Gelderloos, Peter (2015). The Failure of Nonviolence.
- "El 15 -M sacude el sistema". El País. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- ¡Democracia Real Ya!; Convocatorias Archived 18 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 15 May 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
- "La Plataforma 15M ocupa una oficina del Banco Santander". Tercera Información. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Rainsford, Sarah (15 October 2011). "Spain's 'Indignant' protesters return". BBC News. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
- Younge, Gary (23 November 2019). "Streets on fire: how a decade of protest shaped the world". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
- "Comunicado de prensa de 'Democracia Real Ya'". Democraciarealya.es. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- "Protests over austerity measures injure 36 in Barcelona". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
- "1.000 personas se manifiestan en Compostela reclamando Democracia Real Ya". Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
- Juan Enrique Gómez (16 May 2011). "5.000 personas toman las calles de Granada para exigir "democracia real, ya"". Ideal.es. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- "Democracia Real Ya: Bronca al cruzarse con la procesión de la Virgen del Rosario. Ideal". Ideal.es. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- deconomia. "Razones que demuestran que España fue rescatada". deconomia.
- Epstein, Irving (26 June 2015). The WholeWorld is Texting: Youth Protest in the Information Age. Springer. ISBN 978-94-6300-055-0.
- "24 detenidos y cinco policías heridos en la protesta antisistema de Madrid". El Mundo. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "Comunicado de Democracia real YA". insurgente.org. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "Madrid". El Mundo. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "Sol power: the 15-M story so far". El País. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
- "El colectivo 'Democracia real ya' anuncia más protestas tras el desalojo de Sol". El Mundo. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
- "Spanish police break up Madrid sit-in". EFE. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
- (in Spanish) "Miles de 'indignados' vuelven a tomar la Puerta del Sol", 17 May 2011 El Diario Montañés. Retrieved 17 May 1011.
- (in Spanish) "Varias acampadas reavivan las movilizaciones de «indignados» en Galicia", 17 May 2011. La Voz de Galicia. Retrieved 17 May 1011.
- Pérez-Lanzac, Carmen (in Spanish) "Indignados y acampados", 17 May 2011 El País. Retrieved 17 May 1011.
- Muñoz Lara, Aurora, de El País; El movimiento 15-M abarrota Sol
- El Mundo; Acampadas en cadena hasta el próximo 22-M
- "Miles de personas toman las calles y pasan la noche en la Puerta del Sol". El Mundo. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- Ideal.es; La Policía Nacional retira a los 'indignados' acampados en la Plaza del Carmen de Granada (Retrieved 18 May 2011).
- Ideal.es; Tres 'indignados' detenidos tras el desalojo en la Plaza del Carmen de Granada (Retrieved 18 May 2011).
- "La #spanishrevolution se blinda legalmente a gracias Google Docs". Antena 3. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- Federación de Asociaciones de Vecinos de Barcelona (en catalán); La Favb crida a recolzar l'acampada de plaça Catalunya, 18 May 2011 (consultado el mismo día).
- El País; Un ágora instalado en el kilómetro 0, 18 May 2011 (consultado el mismo día).
- Le Monde (en francés); Les jeunes Espagnols dans la rue pour clamer leur ras-le-bol, 18 May 2011 (consultado el mismo día).
- Der Spiegel (en alemán); "Job-Misere treibt Spaniens Jugend auf die Straße", 18 May 2011 (consultado el mismo día).
- Jornal de Notícias (en portugués); Manifestação proibida no centro de Madrid, 18 May 2011 (consultado el mismo día).
- The New York Times (en inglés); Protesters Rally in Madrid Despite Ban, 18 May 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Flock, Elizabeth (18 May 2011). "Spanish 'revolution': Thousands gather in Madrid's Puerta del Sol Square". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- Elpais.es; Acuerdo de la Junta Electoral Provincial de Madrid
- "La Policía tiene la orden de no desalojar Sol – 3080803 – EcoDiario.es". El Economista. 18 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- Giles Tremlett (20 May 2011). "Spain bans young protesters ahead of elections". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- ÁLVAREZ, PILAR; LÁZARO, JULIO M. (20 May 2011). "El Supremo estudia el recurso de IU contra la prohibición de las concentraciones". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
- El País; El Supremo delibera sobre el recurso de IU, al que se opone la Fiscalía, 20 May 2011 (consultado el mismo día).
- RTVE.es "La Fiscalía respalda la decisión de la JEC de prohibir las movilizaciones el sábado y el domingo". Retrieved 20 May 2011
- "Documento oficial de la desestimación del recurso presentado por Izquierda Unida", 20 May 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011
- Europa Press; "La Policía no desalojará la Puerta del Sol mientras no haya incidentes", 20 May 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011
- "Sala Segunda del Constitucional estudia desde las 19.30 hora peninsular si admite a trámite el recurso de amparo interpuesto por un abogado de Murcia contra la decisión de la JEC.". Retrieved 20 May 2011
- 22.08 "El Tribunal Constitucional rechaza admitir el recurso del abogado de Murcia porque no ha agotado todas las vías.. Retrieved 20 May 2011
- RTVE: 22.47 Izquierda Unida presentará antes de la medianoche un recurso de amparo ante el Tribunal Constitucional. Retrieved 20 May 2011
- RTVE.es (18 May 2011). "Minuto a minuto: Los acampados debaten hoy el futuro del movimiento 15M tras las elecciones". RTVE.es. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- González, Miguel; Santaeulalia, Inés; Saleh, Samira (22 May 2011). "El movimiento 15-M acampará una semana más en Sol | Política | EL PAÍS". El País. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- "Thousand Defy Protest Ban to Rally Ahead of Spanish Elections". Voice of America. 21 May 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- Wjard. "Radical political economics". radecon.blogspot.com.
- RTVE: 'Los "indignados" de Sol deciden mantener las protestas al menos una semana más'. Retrieved 22 May 2011
- Yahoo! Noticias; Sociólogos califican 22-M de 'tsunami' pero no de ensayo general Archived 26 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 23 May 2011 (accessed the same day).
- El País; Aumentan el voto en blanco y nulo en más de un punto, 23 May 2011 (accessed the same day).
- "AMP.- 15M.- Un centenar de 'indignados' entran la sede de la TV murciana para leer un manifiesto". Europa Press. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "Una treintena de 'indignados' irrumpen en la delegación de Hacienda de Tarragona". Diari de Tarragona. 24 May 2011. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- Defensa cambia de ubicación varios actos del Día de las Fuerzas Armadas por el 15-M, Cadena SER
- "El Govern defiende la carga y la actuación de los Mossos". La nueva España. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- Rainsford, Sarah (28 May 2011). "Anger as Spanish police move on Barcelona protest camp". BBC. Archived from the original on 28 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- The Washington Post; Scores injured as Spanish police clash with protesters in makeshift camp, 27 May 2011 (accessed the same day).
- El País; Los 'indignados' recuperan la plaza de Catalunya tras la retirada de la policía, 27 May 2011 (accessed the same day).
- El Mundo; La dureza policial multiplica la indignación en Barcelona, 28 May 2011 (accessed the same day).
- "Antena 3 se impone en la cobertura del desalojo de 'indignados' en Barcelona por los Mossos". Europa Press. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- "#bcnsinmiedo lidera la lista de "trending topics" mundial". Silicon News (in Spanish). 27 May 2011. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- El Mundo; El defensor del pueblo catalán investiga si los Mossos iban bien identificados en el desalojo, 27 May 2011 (accessed the same day).
- "Aplazan el segundo intento de desahuciar a una familia". El Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- "Spanish youths take anti-crisis protests to parliament". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "Diario de una revolución en Valencia: Centenares de indignados pasan la noche frente al Parlamento valenciano". El Periodico de Aqui. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "Medio centenar de personas exigen ante el Parlament la dimisión de Puig". El Mundo. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
- "18 injured as Spanish protesters clash with police" Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Channel 6 News. 9 June 2011. Retrieved 11 June 2011
- "'Indignados' de Barcelona protestan ante la sede del PP por las cargas de Valencia". El Mundo. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
- "Los 'indignados' abandonan la protesta frente al Congreso". El Mundo. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
- "Los "indignados" protagonizan la jornada de constitución de los ayuntamientos. Diario de Noticias de Navarra". Noticiasdenavarra.com. 16 June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 18 January 2012.
- ""Los indignados del movimiento 15-M se levantan bajo el lema "No nos vamos, nos expandimos", El País, 12 June 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011". El País. 12 June 2011.
- "Los 'indignados' acampan ante los agentes de policía que custodian el 'Parlament'". Cadena Ser. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- "Catalan politicians take to the skies to avoid protesters". The Guardian. London. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
- "Una veintena de diputados acorralados se ha tenido que refugiar en una comisaría". El Mundo. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- "15M Barcelona rechaza la violencia y CiU habla de un golpe de estado encubierto". RTVE. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- "'Democracia real Ya' rechaza a la minoría que no representa el espíritu pacífico del movimiento". Nación Red. Archived from the original on 31 July 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- "#Spanishrevolution blockades Parliament in Barcelona, violence tinges the #15M movement #europeanrevolution". WL Central. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- "Indignados de Valencia parten en una marcha a pie hasta Madrid que durará 34 días". El Mundo (in Spanish). 20 June 2011. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- "El 15-M vuelve al lugar donde empezó todo – Público.es". Público. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- "Xavier Trias es proclamado alcalde de Barcelona". La Voz de Asturias. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
- "Las siete columnas de los indignados, a las puertas de Sol". Público. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "Decenas de "indignados" acampan en el Paseo del Prado". Las Provincias TV.com. 24 July 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "Joseph Stiglitz apoya el movimiento 15-M". YouTube. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- Santaeulalia, Inés (28 July 2011). "La policía intenta desalojar a los indignados del Paseo del Prado". El País. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "Vístete bien y entrarás al Congreso". Rioja2.com. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "MPI: Documentación entregada al Congreso de los Diputados". Movimiento 15-M Málaga. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- asambleapopulardevillaverde. "Toma los barrios | Asamblea Popular de Madrid: En la Asamblea Popular de Madrid nos coordinamos más de 120 asambleas populares madrileñas. Este portal es uno de los medios de comunicación colectiva de los que nos hemos dotado. ¡Todo el poder para las asambleas!". Madrid.tomalosbarrios.net. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "Los indignados toman las calles de Madrid contra el desalojo de Sol". ElPúblico. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "La policía desaloja InfoSol y la acampada del Paseo del Prado".
- "El cierre de Sol reaviva el 15-M y lleva a 5.000 indignados al centro de Madrid". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Tensión en Sol". laSexta. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Dos detenidos durante la marcha improvisada por el centro de Madrid". ElPúblico. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Desalojada la veintena de 'indignados' que permanecía en la Plaza Mayor de Madrid". cadenaSER. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Dos detenidos durante la marcha improvisada por el centro de Madrid". Público. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- "Third day of Sol state of siege". El País. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- La policía carga contra cientos de indignados en el Ministerio del Interior – El País (in Spanish)
- "El movimiento 15-M paraliza el mundo". YouTube. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "El 15-M busca techos tras el desalojo del Hotel Madrid". El País. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "15-M protestors return to Sol in "Procession of the Indignant Ones"". El País. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- Guy Hedgecoe. "Spain's 'Indignants' mark protest anniversary". BBC. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- "Thousands march against economic gloom in Spain, UK – Yahoo!! News". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- At Least 100,000 March in Spain Over Austerity 12 May 2012
- Moloney, Mark (11 June 2012). "8,000 Spanish miners strike against cuts". An Phoblacht. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- Herrero & Lemkow 2015, p. 219.
- "7 injured as Spanish miners clash with police". Fox News. 15 June 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- "Spanish mayor begins anti-austerity campaign". Aljazeera.
- "Robin Hood mayor promises more supermarket food raids". El Pais. 8 August 2012.
- "Police Fire Rubber Bullets at Spanish Protesters". NPR.org. 26 September 2012.
- "Madrid anti-austerity protests - in pictures". The Guardian. 25 September 2012. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
- Ashifa Kassam (31 January 2015). "100,000 flock to Madrid for Podemos rally against austerity". The Guardian.
- Belen Fernandez, “Outlawing public opinion in Spain” AlJazeera, 11 April 2015, accessed 22 May 2015.
- Miguel-Anxo Murado, “What has gone wrong for Podemos” The Guardian, 11 March 2015, accessed 22 May 2015.
- Belen Fernandez, “Outlawing public opinion in Spain.”
- "Outlawing public opinion in Spain". aljazeera.com.
- Belen Fernandez, “Spain's Rightward Plunge,” AlJazeera, 22 April 2014, accessed 22 May 2015.
- “The impact of Spain's ‘gag law’” AlJazeera, 21 April 2015, accessed 22 May 2015.
- Belen Fernandez, “Outlawing public opinion in Spain."
- Belen Fernandez, “Spain's Rightward Plunge.”
- Belen Fernandez. "Spain's rightward plunge". aljazeera.com.
- Belen Fernandez, "Outlawing public opinion in Spain."
- "Protesters march against austerity measures in Madrid". The Guardian. 21 March 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- “The impact of Spain's ‘gag law’” AlJazeera.
- Jethro Mullen, “Virtual Protest: Demonstrators challenge new law with holograms.”
- El Pais;« Seguidores del 15-M y la cultura libre en Internet ponen en marcha el Partido X
- Ríos, Sara, de 20minutos; La mayoría de partidos miran para el otro lado y evitan pronunciarse sobre las protestas, 16 May 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- ""Democracia real ya" hace reaccionar a los dos principales partidos". La Voz de Galicia. 16 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- La Voz de Galicia; "Cayo Lara: «Zapatero ha traído más beneficios para los amos y la porra para los de abajo»" Archived 22 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 17 May 2011 (consultado el mismo día).
- "González Pons vincula a parte de 'Democracia Real Ya' con la "extrema izquierda del PSOE"". 20minutos.es. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- Ideal.es; Felipe González, sobre los 'indignados': "Están hartos, los partidos no deberían descalificarlos" 17 May 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- Ideal.es; Felipe González compara a los 'indignados' con los protagonistas de las revueltas árabes 18 May 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
- "Joseph Stiglitz apoya el movimiento 15-M". YouTube. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- "Stiglitz advierte de que pedir el rescate podría ser un suicidio para España". El Pais.
- "Joseph Stiglitz: Spain Bank Bailout 'Not Going To Work'". Huffington Post.
- Herrero, Amaranta; Lemkow, Louis (2015). "Environmentally Blind Discourses on Coal Extraction and the Idealization of the Miner in Spain". Capitalism Nature Socialism. 26 (4): 215–235. doi:10.1080/10455752.2015.1054849. S2CID 147501176.
This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (December 2021)
- 15Mpedia, an encyclopedia about the movement (in Spanish)
- ¡Democracia real Ya! Official Web
- Toma la plaza.net
- Spanish Revolution collection at Internet Archive
- SolTV (live streaming)
- Brochure protests convened on 19 June
- "Inside 15m: 48h with the indignants" is a documentary (English subtitles) about the Spanish protests made by the people's assemblies of Madrid.
- Timeline, political analysis, and eyewitness reportage of the Spanish protests on crimethinc
- Republican Reflections on the 15-M movement by Philip Pettit
- 15M: "Excellent. A Wake-up call. Important" Written and directed by: Stéphane M. Grueso, Documental, CC BY-SA
- Documentary "SPANISH TEEN RALLY (Estudiar en primavera)"
- Peña-López, I., Congosto, M. & Aragón, P. (2014). "Spanish Indignados and the evolution of the 15M movement on Twitter: towards networked para-institutions".
- Ramírez-Blanco, J. (2021). 15M. El tiempo de las plazas. Alianza 2021. A book on the movement.