|Motto||To stop the defamation of the Jewish people… to secure justice and fair treatment to all.|
|Type||Civil rights law|
|Headquarters||New York City, New York, United States|
|Sigmund Livingston (Founder)
Robert G. Sugarman (Chairman)
|Part of a series on|
Part of Jewish history
The Anti-Defamation League (ADL; formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith) is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States. Describing itself as "the nation's premier civil rights/human relations agency", the ADL states that it "fights anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry, defends democratic ideals, and protects civil rights for all", doing so through "information, education, legislation, and advocacy".
Founded in October 1913 by the Independent Order of B'nai B'rith, a Jewish service organization in the United States, its original mission statement was "to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people". Its ultimate purpose is "to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike, and to put an end forever to unjust and unfair discrimination against and ridicule of any sect or body of citizens". The ADL has 29 offices in the United States and three offices in other countries, with its headquarters located in New York City. Abraham Foxman had been the national director since 1987. In November 2014, it was announced that Jonathan Greenblatt would succeed Foxman as national director in July 2015. The national chair is Barry Curtiss-Lusher.
The Anti-Defamation League has drawn criticism and controversy over its priorities. Noam Chomsky accuses them of "having lost entirely its focus on civil rights issues in order to become solely an advocate for Israeli policy". The ADL has been accused by some of conflating criticism of Israel with anti-Semitism. Journalist Mark Arax has criticized the organization's failure to recognize the Armenian Genocide.
- 1 Origin
- 2 Goals
- 3 Political positions
- 4 Relations with religious and ethnic groups
- 5 Controversies
- 6 Criticism
- 7 See also
- 8 References
The immediate object of the League is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. Its ultimate purpose is to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike and to put an end forever to unjust and unfair discrimination against and ridicule of any sect or body of citizens.
The stated purpose of the ADL is to fight:
anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry (in the United States) and abroad, combat international terrorism, probe the roots of hatred, advocate before the United States Congress, come to the aid of victims of bigotry, develop educational programs, and serve as a public resource for government, media, law enforcement, and the public, all towards the goal of countering and reducing hatred.
Historically, the ADL has opposed groups and individuals it considered to be anti-Semitic and/or racist, including: Nazis, the Ku Klux Klan, Henry Ford, Father Charles Coughlin (leader of the Christian Front), the Christian Identity movement, the German-American Bund, neo-Nazis, the American militia movement and white power skinheads (although the ADL acknowledges that there are also non-racist skinheads). The ADL publishes reports on a variety of countries, regarding alleged incidents of anti-Jewish attacks and propaganda.
Criticism of particular Israeli actions or policies in and of itself does not constitute anti-Semitism. Certainly the sovereign State of Israel can be legitimately criticized just like any other country in the world. However, it is undeniable that there are those whose criticism of Israel or of "Zionism" is used to mask anti-Semitism.
Since 2010, the ADL has published a list of the "ten leading organizations responsible for maligning Israel in the US", which has included ANSWER, the International Solidarity Movement, and Jewish Voice for Peace for its call for BDS.
Had a similar movie been made with either Judaism or Catholicism as its target, it would be immediately denounced for the scurrilous piece that it is. I sincerely hope that people of all faiths will similarly repudiate "The Godmakers" as defamatory and untrue, and recognize it for what it truly represents - a challenge to the religious liberty of all.
Separation of church and state
One of the ADL's major focuses is religious freedom for people of all faiths. In the context of public schools, the ADL has taken the position that because creationism and intelligent design are religious beliefs, and the government is prohibited from endorsing the beliefs of any particular religion, they should not be taught in science classrooms: "The U.S. Constitution guarantees the rights of Americans to believe the religious theories of creation (as well as other theories), but it does not permit them to be taught in public school science classes." Similarly, the ADL supports the legal precedent that it is unconstitutional for the government to post the Ten Commandments in courthouses, schools, and other public places: "True religious liberty means freedom from having the government impose the religion of the majority on all citizens." The ADL has also condemned the public school Bible curriculum published by the National Council on Bible Curriculum in Public Schools, saying that it raises "serious constitutional problems" and "advocates the acceptance of one faith tradition's interpretation of the Bible over another". The ADL opposed Proposition 8 and supported the Matthew Shepard Act.
The ADL keeps track of the activities of various extremist groups and movements. According to ADL Director Abe Foxman, "Our mission is to monitor and expose those who are anti-Jewish, racist, anti-democratic, and violence-prone, and we monitor them primarily by reading publications and attending public meetings …. Because extremist organizations are highly secretive, sometimes ADL can learn of their activities only by using undercover sources … [who] function in a manner directly analogous to investigative journalists. Some have performed great service to the American people—for example, by uncovering the existence of right-wing extremist paramilitary training camps—with no recognition and at considerable personal risk." A person apprehended in connection to the 2002 white supremacist terror plot had drawn a cartoon of himself blowing up the Boston offices of the ADL.
The ADL regularly releases reports on anti-Semitism and extremist activities on both the far left and the far right. For instance, as part of its Law Enforcement Agency Resource Network (L.E.A.R.N.), the ADL has published information about the Militia Movement in America and a guide for law enforcement officials titled Officer Safety and Extremists. An archive of "The Militia Watchdog" research on U.S. right-wing extremism (including groups not specifically cited as anti-Semitic) from 1995 to 2000 is also available on the ADL website.
In the 1990s, some details of the ADL's monitoring activities became public and controversial, including the fact that the ADL had gathered information about some non-extremist groups. In 2013, J.M. Berger, a former nonresident fellow of the Brookings Institution, wrote that media organizations should be more cautious when citing the Southern Poverty Law Center and ADL, arguing that they are "not objective purveyors of data".
Role in arrest of potential assassins of Barack Obama
In October 2008 the ADL reportedly assisted the US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) by providing, on request, information on Daniel Cowart and Paul Schlesselman and their associates and contacts, and on their ties to the Supreme White Alliance. Shortly thereafter the two men were arrested on charges of plotting to murder dozens of African Americans and plotting to assassinate US President-elect Barack Obama.
The ADL holds that it is important to remember the Holocaust, in order to prevent such an event from reoccurring. Along with sponsoring events and fighting Holocaust deniers and revisionists, the ADL has been active in urging action to stop modern-day ethnic cleansing and genocide in places such as Bosnia, Darfur, and Sudan.
The ADL spoke out against an advertising campaign by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) beginning in 2003 that equated meat-eating with the Holocaust. A press release from the ADL stated that, "PETA's effort to seek 'approval' for their 'Holocaust on Your Plate' campaign is outrageous, offensive and takes chutzpah to new heights. Rather than deepen our revulsion against what the Nazis did to the Jews, the project will undermine the struggle to understand the Holocaust and to find ways to make sure such catastrophes never happen again." In May 2005, PETA apologized for its campaign, with PETA President Ingrid Newkirk stating that causing pain "was never our intention, and we are deeply sorry".
The national ADL issued a "Statement on the Armenian Genocide" on August 21, 2007. The statement declared, "The consequences of those actions were indeed tantamount to genocide." Activists felt that the statement was not a full, unequivocal acknowledgment of the Armenian genocide, because the use of the qualifier "tantamount" was seen as inappropriate, and the use of the word "consequences" was seen as an attempt to circumvent the international legal definition of genocide by avoiding any language that would imply intent, a crucial aspect of the 1948 UN Genocide Convention definition. The ADL convened its national meeting in New York City in early November 2007 at which time the issue of the Armenian Genocide was discussed. Upon conclusion, a one-sentence press statement was issued that, "The National Commission of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) today, at its annual meeting, decided to take no further action on the issue of the Armenian genocide."
The ADL supports the Jewish state, and has vociferously opposed resolutions such as the 1975 United Nations resolution (revoked in 1991) which equated Zionism with racism, and attempts to revive that formulation at the 2001 U.N. World Conference Against Racism in Durban, South Africa. The ADL also has expressed concern over Israeli legislative proposals that would stifle freedom of expression and undermine Israeli democracy.
The ADL honors individuals throughout the year for various reasons. On September 23, 2003, at its Tribute to Italy Dinner, the ADL awarded Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi the ADL's distinguished statesman award, an honor "conferred on world leaders who exhibit a commitment to furthering the achievement of regional and world peace, and who possess a special commitment to promoting human and civil rights". Berlusconi is also known for his staunch pro-Israel stance.
In 2006, the ADL condemned Senate Republicans in the United States for attempting to ban same-sex marriage with the Federal Marriage Amendment, and praised its demise, calling it "discrimination". That same year, the ADL warned that the debate over illegal immigration was drawing neo-nazis and anti-Semites into the ranks of the Minutemen Project.
In 1974, ADL national leaders Arnold Forster and Benjamin R. Epstein published a book called The New Anti-Semitism (New York, 1974), arguing that a new kind of anti-Semitism is on the rise. In 1982, ADL national leader Nathan Perlmutter and his wife, Ruth Ann Perlmutter, released a book entitled The Real Anti-Semitism in America (New York, 1982). In 2003, ADL's national director Abraham Foxman published Never Again? The Threat of the New Anti-Semitism (San Francisco, 2003), where, on page 4, he states: "We currently face as great a threat to the safety and security of the Jewish people as the one we faced in the 1930s—if not a greater one."
In 2010, during a hearing for Florida House Bill 11 (Crimes Against Homeless Persons), which was to revise the list of offenses judged to be hate crimes in Florida by adding a person's homeless status, the League lobbied against the bill, which subsequently passed in the House by a vote of 80 to 28 and was sent to the Senate, taking the position that adding more categories to the list would dilute the effectiveness of the law, which already includes race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, and age.
The ADL supports Comprehensive and DREAM Act legislation that would provide conditional permanent residency to certain illegal aliens of good moral character who graduate from U.S. high schools, arrived in the United States as minors, and lived in the country continuously for at least five years prior to the bill's enactment.
Relations with religious and ethnic groups
Relations with Arabs and Muslims
On June 18, 2004, the ADL issued a news release about the University of California Irvine (UCI) Muslim Students Union in which the student group had invited speakers to campus who made public declarations of support for Hamas, advocated suicide bombings and called for the destruction of Israel. For graduation, Muslim Students Union members chose to wear green (the traditional colour of Islam) graduation stoles bearing the Shahada, the Islamic declaration of faith. The ADL's press release explained that the Shahada is a declaration of faith that has been closely identified with Palestinian terrorists, and said that suicide bombers connected to the Palestinian group Hamas wear green armbands and headbands inscribed with the Shahada as a symbol of their movement, and stated, "We are troubled that members of the (UCI) Muslim Students Union have chosen to display symbolism that is closely identified with Palestinian terrorist groups and that can be especially offensive to Jewish students."
The ADL has publicly opposed anti-Islamic organizations like Stop Islamization of America and Stop Islamization of Europe, and activists like Pamela Geller and David Yerushalmi, describing them as "anti-Muslim bigots".
Relations with African-Americans
In 1997, the National Center for Black-Jewish Relations of Dillard University, a historically black university in New Orleans, awarded the director of the ADL, Abraham H. Foxman, with the first Annual Martin Luther King, Jr. – Donald R. Mintz Freedom and Justice Award.
In 2004, the ADL became the lead partner in the Peace and Diversity Academy, a new New York City public high school with predominantly black and Hispanic students.
In celebration of Black History Month, the ADL created and distributed lesson plans to middle and high school teachers about Shirley Chisholm (1924–2005), the first black woman elected to the US Congress, and an important civil rights leader.
The ADL has also publicly charged certain African Americans with anti-Semitism:
- The ADL has catalogued a three-decade history of Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan's espousal of anti-Semitic rhetoric such as claims that certain Jews are "not real Jews" and that they are "wicked deceivers of the American people" who "sucked [Americans'] blood", and that powerful Jews promote homosexuality and control black leadership. Farrakhan first attracted the attention of the ADL with comments in a March 11, 1984, radio broadcast saying that, "Hitler was a very great man". Farrakhan insists that he was using the word 'great' in the sense of 'Great Depression' or 'great white shark'. and on June 24, 1984, he described the Jewish state as "structured on injustice, thievery, lying and deceit and using the name of God to shield your dirty religion under His holy and righteous name." The ADL has urged various groups including the NAACP (whose leader Benjamin Chavis developed a working relationship with Farrakhan in 1994) to dissociate themselves from Farrakhan and his views.
- In 1984 The Boston Globe reported that then ADL national director, Nathan Perlmutter, said that Rev. Jesse Jackson, Sr. was anti-Semitic, after Jackson referred to New York City as "Hymietown". However, the ADL later reconciled with Jackson and has worked with him on the issue of the Iranian Jewish community.
- Film Director Spike Lee was criticized by the Anti-Defamation League for his portrayal of Jewish nightclub owners Moe and Josh Flatbush in his 1990 film Mo' Better Blues. The Anti-Defamation League claimed that the characterizations of the nightclub owners "dredge up an age-old and highly dangerous form of anti-Semitic stereotyping", and "...disappointed that Spike Lee – whose success is largely due to his efforts to break down racial stereotypes and prejudice – has employed the same kind of tactics that he supposedly deplores". Lee's portrayal also angered the B'nai B'rith and other such Jewish organizations causing Lee to apologize via an Opinion-Editorial article in The New York Times.
- During the 2002 election cycle, the ADL, in a letter to The New York Times, harshly criticized Congressional Black Caucus member Cynthia McKinney of Georgia for launching attacks perceived as racial against her Jewish opponent. According to an August 19, 2002, article in The New York Times, ADL Director Abraham Foxman said, "It made sense that Jewish Americans would want to contribute to efforts to replace Ms. McKinney".
- In February 2005, ADL National Director Abraham Foxman called it hypocritical for hip-hop producer Russell Simmons to lead an ad campaign against anti-Semitism while also, according to Foxman's view, defending or excusing Louis Farrakhan's anti-Semitic statements. Later that year the ADL urged prominent black leaders including Simmons to reconsider their support for Farrakhan and Malik Zulu Shabazz organizing the Millions More Movement and to "stand up" against black anti-Semitism. Simmons, responding to ADL Director Abraham Foxman, said, "simply put, you are misguided, arrogant, and very disrespectful of African Americans, and most importantly, your statements will unintentionally or intentionally lead to a negative impression of Jews in the minds of millions of African Americans".  Foxman replied, "If there were a Jewish event which was led by an out-and-out racist, I would expect Black leaders to say to me that ADL should have nothing to do with it. And I would agree with them, rather than condemn them for their action."
ADL's New England Regional Office has also established a faith-based initiative called "The Interfaith Youth Leadership Program", better known as "Camp If", or Camp Interfaith. Involving teenagers of the Christian, Jewish, and Islamic faiths, the camp brings the teens together for a week at camp where the teens bond and learn about each other's cultures. The camp has emerged as a new attempt to foster good relations between younger members of the Abrahamic faiths.
ADL files controversy
Since the 1930s, the ADL has been gathering information and publishing reports on whatever it identifies as anti-Semitism, racism, and prejudice, and on anti-Jewish, anti-Israel, racist, anti-democratic, violent, and extremist individuals and groups. As a result, the organization amassed what it once called a "famous storehouse of accurate, detailed, unassailable information on extremist individuals and organizations". Over the decades the ADL has assembled thousands of files.
During the 1930s, the ADL, along with the American Jewish Committee, coordinated American Jewish groups across the country in monitoring the activities of the German-American Bund and its pro-Nazis, nativist allies in the United States. In many instances, these community-based defense organizations paid informants to infiltrate these groups and report on what they discovered. The longest-lived and most effective of these American Jewish resistance organizations was the Los Angeles Jewish Community Committee (LAJCC), which was backed financially by the Jewish leaders of the motion picture industry. The day-to-day operations of the LAJCC were supervised by a Jewish attorney, Leon Lewis. Lewis was uniquely qualified to combat the rise of Nazism in Los Angeles, having served as the first national secretary of the Anti-Defamation League in Chicago from 1925-1931. From 1934-1941, the LAJCC maintained its undercover surveillance of the German-American Bund, the Silver Shirts and dozens of other pro-Nazi, nativist groups that operated in Los Angeles. Partnering with the American Legion in Los Angeles, the LAJCC channeled eyewitness accounts of sedition onto federal authorities. Working with the ADL, Leon Lewis and the LAJCC played a strategic role in counseling the McCormack-Dickstein Committee investigation of Nazi propaganda activities in the United States (1934) and the Dies Committee investigation of "un-American activities" (1938-1940). In their final reports to Congress, both Committees found that the sudden rise in political antisemitism in the United States during the decade was due, in part, to the German government's support of these domestic groups.
One of its sources for the 1980s and 1990s was Roy Bullock, an intelligence gatherer for the South African apartheid regime, a private collector of information. He amassed files on 10,000–12,000 individuals and 600 organizations and provided them to the ADL as a secretly paid independent contractor for over 32 years. Bullock often wrote letters to various groups and forwarded copies of their replies to the ADL, clipped articles from newspapers and magazines, and maintained files on his computer. He also used less orthodox, and possibly illegal, methods such as combing through trash and tapping into White Aryan Resistance's phone message system in order to find evidence of hate crimes. Some of the information he obtained and then passed on to the ADL came from confidential documents (including intelligence files on various Nazi groups and driver's license records and other personal information on nearly 1,400 people) that were given to him by San Francisco police officer and former CIA agent Tom Gerard.
On April 8, 1993, police seized Bullock's computer and raided the ADL offices in San Francisco and Los Angeles, California. A search of Bullock's computer revealed that he had compiled files on 9,876 individuals and more than 950 groups across the political spectrum. Many of Bullock's files concerned groups that did not fit the mold of extremist groups, hate groups, and organizations hostile to Jews or Israel that the ADL would usually be interested in. Along with files on the Ku Klux Klan, White Aryan Resistance, Islamic Jihad, and the Jewish Defense League were data on the NAACP, the African National Congress (ANC), the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), the United Auto Workers, the AIDS activist group ACT UP, Mother Jones magazine, the TASS Soviet/Russian news agency, Greenpeace, Jews for Jesus, and the National Lawyers Guild; there were also files on politicians, including Democratic U.S. Representative Nancy Pelosi, former Republican U.S. Representative Pete McCloskey, and activist Lyndon LaRouche. Bullock told investigators that many of those were his own private files, not information he was passing on to the ADL. An attorney for the ADL stated that, "We knew nothing about the vast extent of the files. Those are not ADL's files. … That is all [Bullock's] doing." As for its own records, the ADL indicated that just because it had a file on a group, that did not mean that the ADL opposed the group. The San Francisco district attorney at the time accused the ADL of conducting a national "spy network", but dropped all accusations a few months later, judging it to be a force for good. The ADL then offered the district attorney's office a sum of $75,000 to fight bigotry, which was duly accepted.
In the weeks following the raids, twelve civil rights groups led by the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee and the National Lawyers Guild, filed a lawsuit demanding that the ADL release its surveillance information and end its investigations, as well as ordering it to pay punitive damages. The lawsuit fueled speculation that the organization was waging a secret campaign to repress political dissent. The plaintiffs' attorney, former Representative McCloskey, claimed that the information the ADL gathered constituted an invasion of privacy. The ADL, while distancing itself from Bullock, countered that it is entitled like any researcher or journalist to research organizations and individuals. Richard Cohen, legal director of the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Alabama, stated that like journalists, the ADL's researchers "gather information however they can" and welcome disclosures from confidential sources, saying "they probably rely on their sources to draw the line" on how much can legally be divulged. Bullock admitted that he was overzealous, and that some of the ways in which he gathered information may have been illegal.
The lawsuit was settled out of court in 1999. The ADL agreed to pay $175,000 for the court costs of the groups, two of them Jewish, that sued it, promised that it would not seek information from sources it knew could not legally disclose such information, consented to remove sensitive information like criminal records or Social Security numbers from its files, and spent $25,000 in order to further relations between the Jewish, Arab and black communities. When the case was settled, Hussein Ibish, director of communications for the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC), claimed that the ADL had gathered data "systematically in a program whose clear intent was to undermine civil rights and Arab-American organizations". ADL national director Abraham Foxman called the ADC's claims "absolutely untrue", saying that, "if it were true, they would have won their case", and noted that no court found the ADL guilty of any wrongdoing. The ADL released a statement saying that the settlement "explicitly recognizes ADL's right to gather information in any lawful and constitutionally protected manner, which we have always done and will continue to do". John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt claim that the organization, rather than defending Jews from bigotry, was targeting individuals critical of Israel or of U.S. support for Israel.
Executive Order 12333
During congressional testimony in 1990, the organization was implicated in the use of Executive Order 12333 to facilitate some of its intelligence initiatives. This compounded on a partnership with the FBI expanded by William Webster beginning in 1978 and resulting in a memorandum in 1985 in which the "agencies" would cooperate through liaisons with direct lines of communication.
A case which has been compared to the Bullock case was that of James Mitchell Rosenberg, aka Jim Anderson. Rosenberg/Anderson was an undercover operative of the ADL who acted as an agent provocateur, posing as a racist right-wing paramilitary extremist. He appeared in this role as part of a TV documentary entitled Armies of the Right which premiered in 1981. Rosenberg was arrested that same year in New York for carrying an unregistered firearm in public view. In 1984, ADL fact-finding director Irwin Suall identified Rosenberg as an ADL operative in a court deposition.
Armenian Genocide controversy
In 2007, Abraham Foxman came under criticism for his stance on the Armenian Genocide. The ADL had previously described it as a "massacre" and an "atrocity", but not as a "genocide". Foxman had earlier opposed calls for the U.S. Government to recognise it as a "genocide". "I don't think congressional action will help reconcile the issue. The resolution takes a position; it comes to a judgement", said Foxman in a statement issued to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency. "The Turks and Armenians need to revisit their past. The Jewish community shouldn't be the arbiter of that history, nor should the U.S. Congress, and "a Congressional resolution on such matters is a counterproductive diversion and will not foster reconciliation between Turks and Armenians, and may put at risk the Turkish Jewish community and the important multilateral relationship between Turkey, Israel, and the United States".
In early August 2007, complaints about the Anti-Defamation League's refusal to acknowledge the Armenian Genocide led to Watertown, Massachusetts's, unanimous town council decision to end its participation in the ADL's "No Place for Hate" campaign. (Watertown is known for its Armenian population.) Also in August 2007, an editorial in The Boston Globe criticized the ADL by saying that, "as an organization concerned about human rights, it ought to acknowledge the genocide against the Armenian people during World War I, and criticize Turkish attempts to repress the memory of this historical reality". Then on August 17, 2007, the ADL fired its regional New England director, Andrew H. Tarsy, for breaking ranks with the main organization and for saying that the ADL should recognize the genocide. In an August 21, 2007, press release, the ADL changed its position and acknowledged the genocide, but maintained its opposition to congressional resolutions aimed at recognizing it. Foxman wrote, "the consequences of those actions", by the Ottoman Empire against Armenians, "were indeed tantamount to genocide". The Turkish government condemned the league's statement. Andrew H. Tarsy was rehired by the league on August 27, though he has since chosen to step down from his position.
The ADL was criticized by many in the Armenian community including The Armenian Weekly newspaper, in which writer Michael Mensoian stated:
The belated backtracking of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) in acknowledging the planned, systematic massacre of 1,500,000 Armenian men, women and children as "…tantamount to genocide…" is discouraging. Tantamount means something is equivalent. If it's equivalent, why avoid using the term? For the ADL to justify its newly adopted statement because the word genocide did not exist at the time indicates a halfhearted attempt to placate Armenians while not offending Turkey. Historians use the term genocide simply because it is the proper term to describe the horrific events that the Ottoman Turkish government unleashed on the Armenian people.
After Foxman's capitulation, the New England ADL pressed the organization's national leadership to support a congressional resolution acknowledging the genocide. After hours of closed-door debate at the annual national meeting in New York, the proposal was ultimately withdrawn. The organization issued a statement saying it would "take no further action on the issue of the Armenian genocide". The ADL had earlier received direct pressure from the Turkish Foreign ministry. Tarsy submitted his resignation on December 4.
In 1989, the linguist and left-wing commentator and activist Noam Chomsky characterized the ADL as having lost entirely its focus on civil rights issues in order to become solely an advocate for Israeli policy; he held that the ADL cast all left-wing opposition to Israeli interests as antisemitism.
Role in cancellation of speech by Tony Judt at Polish Consulate
In 2006, the ADL, in addition to the American Jewish Committee, was criticized by academic Tony Judt for allegedly pressuring the Polish Consulate-General in New York to cancel a scheduled appearance by Judt at Network 20/20, a non-profit organization that rents space from the consulate. In an interview with the New York Sun, Foxman claimed that the group "had nothing to do with the cancellation", insisting that the ADL only called to ask if the event was being sponsored by the Polish government. Polish Consul General Krzysztof Kasprzyk suggested in an interview with The Washington Post that calls by the ADL and the American Jewish Committee were "exercising a delicate pressure". In reference to the role of the ADL and the American Jewish Committee in organizing the cancellations, Judt told The Washington Post: "This is serious and frightening, and only in America—not in Israel—is this a problem. These are Jewish organizations that believe they should keep people who disagree with them on the Middle East away from anyone who might listen." The ADL denied the charges. According to Foxman, "I think they made the right decision... He's taken the position that Israel shouldn't exist. That puts him on our radar."
Denver defamation suit
In 1994, the ADL became embroiled in a dispute between neighbors in Denver, Colorado. Upon the involvement of the ADL, the petty quarreling of next door neighbors, initially about garden plants and pets, quickly escalated into both civil and criminal court cases involving charges of anti-Semitism, and counter charges of defamation.
Candace and Mitchell Aronson, Jewish next door neighbors of William and Dorothy Quigley, used a Radio Shack police scanner to listen in on the cordless telephone conversations of Mr.& Mrs. Quigley. When the Aronsons heard the Quigleys discuss a campaign to drive them from the neighborhood with "Nazi scare tactics", the Aronsons contacted the Denver office of the ADL. Upon the advice of the ADL, the Aronsons then recorded the Quigley's private telephone conversations. The conversations included discussions of putting pictures of oven doors on the Aronsons' home (a reference to the Holocaust), burning one of the Aronson children, and wishing that the Aronsons had been killed in a suicide bombing. (The Quigleys later indicated that these remarks were not anti-Semitic, and were only intended to be sick humor.) Neither the Aronsons nor the ADL were aware that Congress had amended federal wiretap law which made it illegal to record conversations from a cordless telephone, to transcribe the material and to use the transcriptions for any purpose.
Not knowing about the new federal law, the Aronsons used the tapes as the basis for a federal civil lawsuit against the Quigleys in December 1994. A day later, Saul Rosenthal, Regional Director of the ADL, appeared at a news conference with the Aronsons in which he described their encounter with the Quigleys as "a vicious anti-Semitic campaign", based solely on conversations he and associates had with the Aronsons. Later that day, Mr. Rosenthal expanded on his remarks in an interview on a Denver radio talk show.
Two days later, Jefferson County prosecutors used the tapes as the basis for filing criminal charges against the Quigleys.
The Quigleys became the target of scorn and ridicule. They received threats, and were forced to hire security guards for their home. A package of dog feces was mailed to their house. When they attended church, their priest openly chastised them in his sermon. The family was forced to shop in other towns, to avoid being recognized. Mr. Quigley's career with United Artists suffered serious damage.
Upon investigation, and after assistant district attorney Steven Jensen heard on the tapes the context of Mrs. Quigley's remarks, all charges but one, a misdemeanor traffic violation against Mr. Quigley, were dropped. The district attorney issued two letters of apology to the Quigleys, saying he found no evidence that either had engaged in "anti-Semitic conduct or harassment".
The Quigleys brought a lawsuit against the ADL, Rosenthal, the Aronsons, and two ADL volunteer attorneys. The two attorneys agreed to pay $350,000 to the Quigleys in settlement of their claims. The Quigley settlement with the Aronsons did not involve a cash payment. The Quigleys maintained their action against the ADL and Rosenthal, which was heard in federal court. A federal jury returned a verdict of $10 million in favor of the Quigleys. The ADL appealed.
According to an April 13, 2001, article in The Forward, upon hearing the appeal, a federal judge "lambasted the ADL for labeling a nasty neighborhood feud as an anti-Semitic event" and upheld most of Quigley's $10 million lawsuit for defamation. According to a report in the Rocky Mountain News, with accrued interest, the judgment amounted to more than $12 million.
New antisemitism controversy
In 1974, ADL national leaders Arnold Forster and Benjamin R. Epstein published a book called The New Anti-Semitism (New York, 1974), arguing that a new kind of anti-Semitism is on the rise. In 1982, ADL national leader Nathan Perlmutter and his wife, Ruth Ann Perlmutter, released a book entitled The Real Anti-Semitism in America (New York, 1982). In 2003, ADL's national director Abraham Foxman published Never Again? The Threat of the New Anti-Semitism (San Francisco, 2003), where on page 4 he states: "We currently face as great a threat to the safety and security of the Jewish people as the one we faced in the 1930s—if not a greater one."
Reviewing Forster and Epstein's work in Commentary, Earl Raab, founding director of the Nathan Perlmutter Institute for Jewish Advocacy at Brandeis University, argued that a "new anti-Semitism" was indeed emerging in America, in the form of opposition to the collective rights of the Jewish people, but he criticized Forster and Epstein for conflating it with anti-Israel bias. Allan Brownfeld writes that Forster and Epstein's new definition of antisemitism trivialized the concept by turning it into "a form of political blackmail" and "a weapon with which to silence any criticism of either Israel or U.S. policy in the Middle East", while Edward S. Shapiro, in "A Time for Healing: American Jewry Since World War II", has written that, "Forster and Epstein implied that the new anti-Semitism was the inability of Gentiles to love Jews and Israel enough".
Norman Finkelstein claims that organizations such as the Anti-Defamation League have brought forward charges of new anti-Semitism at various intervals since the 1970s, "not to fight antisemitism, but rather to exploit the historical suffering of Jews in order to immunize Israel against criticism". The Washington Post has noted that the ADL has repeatedly accused Finkelstein of being a "Holocaust denier", and that "these charges have proved baseless".
Conflict with Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership
ADL is an advocate for gun control legislation. The ADL supported the District of Columbia before the US Supreme Court in District of Columbia v. Heller which argued that the city's ban on the possession of handguns and any functional firearms, even for self-defense in the home is not prohibited by the Second Amendment. The League urged the Court to ensure that states retain the ability to keep guns out of the hands of "violent bigots".
Gun rights group Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership (JPFO) has been highly critical of the Anti-Defamation League. In pamphlets such as "Why Does the ADL Support Nazi-Based Laws?", and "JPFO Facts vs. ADL Lies", the JPFO has accused the ADL of undermining the welfare of the Jewish people by promoting gun control. In a 2007 handbill, the JPFO accused ADL Director Abraham Foxman of knowingly supporting the "use of Nazi gun control laws in America". Foxman has written about the JPFO: "Anti-Semitism has a long and painful history, and the linkage to gun control is a tactic by Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership to manipulate the fear of anti-Semitism toward their own end."
Park51 Community Center controversy
On July 28, 2010, the ADL issued a statement in which it expressed opposition to the Park51 Community Center, which sponsors planned to build near the World Trade Center site in New York. The ADL stated, "The controversy which has emerged regarding the building of a Community Center at this location is counterproductive to the healing process. Therefore, under these unique circumstances, we believe the City of New York would be better served if an alternative location could be found." The ADL denounced what it saw as bigoted attacks on the project. Foxman opined that some of those who oppose the mosque are "bigots", and that the plan's proponents may have every right to build the mosque at that location. Nevertheless, he said that building the mosque at that site would unnecessarily cause more pain for families of some victims of 9/11.
This opposition to the Community Center led to criticism of the statement from various parties, including one ADL board member, the American Jewish Committee, the Jewish Community Relations Council of New York, Rabbi Irwin Kula, columnists Jeffrey Goldberg and Peter Beinart, the Interfaith Alliance, and the Shalom Center. In an interview with The New York Times Abe Foxman published a statement in reaction to criticism. In protest of ADL's stance, CNN host Fareed Zakaria returned the Hubert H. Humphrey First Amendment Freedoms Prize the ADL awarded him in 2005. ADL chair Robert G. Sugarman responded to a critical New York Times editorial writing, "we have publicly taken on those who criticized the mosque in ways that reflected anti-Muslim bigotry or used the controversy for that purpose" and stating that the ADL has combated Islamophobia.
Accusation of Armenian genocide denial
Mark Arax, a former Los Angeles Times writer and current Salon writer of Armenian descent, strongly criticized the role of the ADL in American Armenian Genocide denial. In 2007, he spoke with Abraham Foxman, who said:
Our focus is Israel. If helping Turkey helps Israel, then that's what we're in the business of doing. Was it genocide? It was wartime. Things get messy. The Turks and Armenians need to revisit their past. The Jewish community shouldn't be the arbiter of that history. And I don't think the U.S. Congress should be the arbiter, either.
Arax later wrote on this: "I almost had to revisit his website to make sure that the ADL was still in the business of fighting not only anti-Semitism, but "bigotry and extremism", and "securing justice and fair treatment to all." When Arax pointed out that the genocide had been documented as a fact by many prominent historians, and that Congress recognizes all sorts of people's history, including resolutions commemorating the victims of the Holocaust, Foxman replied: "You're not suggesting that an Armenian Genocide is the same as the Holocaust, are you?"
- American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
- American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee
- Antisemitism in the United States
- Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations
- Defamation (Documentary movie by Yoav Shamir)
- Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation
- Israel lobby in the United States
- Jewish Council for Public Affairs
- Membership discrimination in California social clubs
- Southern Poverty Law Center
- "About ADL". ADL. Retrieved May 28, 2007.
- "More About ADL". ADL.
- "White House aide Jonathan Greenblatt to succeed Abe Foxman as ADL chief", Jewish Telegraphic Agency, November 6, 2014.
- Barry Curtiss-Lusher, National Chair ADL.org, accessed November 9, 2014.
- ARAX, MARK. "Suddenly, the Israel lobby discovers a genocide". Salon. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
- Moore, Deborah Dash (1981). B'nai B'rith and the Challenge of Ethnic Leadership. State University of New York Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-87395-480-8.
- Jerome A. Chanes (2001). "Who Does What?". In Louis S; y Maisel; Ira N. Forman; Donald Altschiller; Charles Walker Bassett. Jews in American Politics: Essays. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-7425-0181-2.
- "Racist Skinhead Project". ADL.
- Salberg, Melvin. Letter to the editor ("A.D.L. Acknowledges Nonracist Skinheads"). New York Times. April 29, 1994.
- "Anti-Semitism and Criticism of Israel". ADL.
- Benhorin, Yitzhak. "Jewish group makes ADL blacklist." ynet news. October 15, 2010.
- Mozgovaya, Natasha. "ADL slams Shas spiritual leader for saying non-Jews 'were born to serve Jews'." Haaretz Service. October 20, 2010.
- Letter to Dr. Richard Lindsay, Director of Public Communications, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, May 25, 1984
- "Religious Freedom". Anti-Defamation League. Archived from the original on October 19, 2007. Retrieved December 2, 2007.
Safeguarding religious freedom for all Americans – whether in the majority or minority.
- "Religion in the Science Class? Why Creationism and Intelligent Design Don't Belong". ADL.
- "The Ten Commandments Controversy: A First Amendment Perspective – Prohibitions on Display of the Ten Commandments". ADL.
- "ADL Says Bible Teaching Guide for Public Schools 'Unacceptable'" (Press release). ADL. November 7, 2005.
- "Extremism". ADL.
- "A League of His Own", letter to the editor, The Village Voice 38:20 (May 18, 1993)
- "Boston Couple Plotted Blasts to Incite Race War, Prosecutor Says". New York Times. July 16, 2002.
- "The Militia Movement – Extremism in America". ADL.
- "Officer Safety and Extremists: An Overview for Law Enforcement Officers". ADL.
- Berger, J. M. "The Hate List". Foreign Policy.
- "ADL releases 'Who's Who' guide of alt-right and alt-lite extremists". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
- "From Alt Right to Alt Lite: Naming the Hate". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
- "ADL Applauds Law Enforcement for Preventing Killing Spree and Obama Assassination Attempt", ADL Press Release, October 27, 2008.
- "ADL helped probe into neo-Nazis", Jewish Telegraph Agency (JTA)(reprinted by the Jerusalem Post), October 28, 2008.
- "ADL Denounces Peta for its "Holocaust On Your Plate" Campaign; Calls Appeal for Jewish Community Support 'The Height Of Chutzpah'" (Press release). ADL. February 24, 2003.
- Matthew Wagner (February 19, 2008). "Rabbinate to phase out 'shackle and hoist' animal slaughter. More humane method to be adopted following claims of cruelty". The Jerusalem Post.
PETA has denied being motivated by anti-Semitism and even mentions on its Web site the humaneness of traditional Jewish slaughtering methods when done properly. However, PETA has a history of controversial campaigns. On May 5, 2005, PETA issued an apology for its "Holocaust on Your Plate" exhibit, which traveled to more than 100 cities. The exhibit compared the treatment of farm animals to that of victims of the Nazi concentration camps. PETA President Ingrid Newkirk said she realized that the campaign had caused pain: "This was never our intention, and we are deeply sorry."
- "U.N. World Conference Against Racism". ADL.
- "U.N. World Conference Against Racism". ADL.
- ADL 'Concerned That Proposed Legislation on NGO Funding in Israel Would Erode Nation’s Democratic Character,' Anti-Defamation League Press ReleaseJanuary 11, 2016:'In 2011, the League urged the Israeli government to work to modify two similar bills regarding donations from foreign governments to Israeli NGOs, and voiced concern over laws that stifle free expression.'
- "Reform joins ADL, AJC in opposing Israel's NGO bill".
- "Speech by Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi at the Anti-Defamation League Tribute to Italy Dinner". ADL.
- "Pro-Israel Italian leader Berlusconi To Visit in May". Arutz Sheva. April 22, 2008.
- "Netanyahu Nixes Meeting With Obama Envoy". CBS News. June 23, 2009. "Berlusconi's pro-Israel stance has made Italy perhaps Israel's best friend in Europe."
- Malloy, Sean; Lorimer, Doug; al, Doug Lorimer et (2002). The Palestinian Struggle, Zionism and Anti-Semitism. Resistance Books. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-876646-37-0.
- Norwood, Stephen Harlan; Pollack, Eunice G. (2008). Encyclopedia of American Jewish History. ABC-CLIO. p. 245. ISBN 978-1-85109-638-1.
- "ADL Welcomes Demise Of Same-Sex Marriage Amendment; Expresses 'Dismay' At Senate Vote" (Press release). ADL. June 7, 2006.
- "Never Again? The Threat of the New Anti-Semitism". ADL.
- "flhouse.gov HB 11 – Crimes Against Homeless Persons". Retrieved April 22, 2010.
- "flhouse.gov HB 11 Apr 20 2010 – Voting record Florida House of Representatives". Retrieved April 22, 2010.
- "Homeless could be added to Florida's hate crimes law". Retrieved April 22, 2010. Miami Herald, Miami Herald Media Co., April 21, 2010, by Lee Logan, Tallahassee Bureau: "During a committee hearing on the bill, the Anti-Defamation League spoke against the bill, arguing that adding more categories to the hate crimes law would dilute its effect. But lawmakers were swayed by arguments in favor of protecting the homeless."
- "Afirman que con el debate de reforma migratoria subieron los crímenes de odio". EFE News Services. January 25, 2013.
La Liga Antidifamación Judía ( ADL ) aseguró hoy que desde que se inició el debate sobre una reforma migratoria integral en Estados Unidos se ha registrado un aumento de los crímenes de odio contra los hispanos. ... Por su parte, el director del Departamento de Asuntos Legales de ADL , Steven Freeman, dijo a Efe que esta organización aboga por una reforma migratoria integral y el Dream Act
- "ADL Statement On The Muslim Student Union at UC-Irvine" (Press release). ADL. June 18, 2004.
- Civil Rights: Discrimination: SOIA
- "Farrakhan In His Own Words". ADL.
- "Farrakhan and the Jewish Rift; How It All Started". The Final Call.
- Memo, 12–22–97; Letter From Farrakhan
- Foxman, Abraham H. (July 20, 1994). "Today's N.A.A.C.P. Draws on History; Set Farrakhan Aside". The New York Times.
- "Post Reaffirms Report On Jackson Comment". The New York Times: 13. February 23, 1984.
- "Jackson Admits Saying 'Hymie' And Apologizes At A Synagogue". The New York Times: 16. February 27, 1984.
- "Rev. Jesse Jackson Meets with Iranian Jewish Families Pledges to Intercede on Behalf of Imprisoned Jews" (Press release). ADL. June 11, 1999.
- Caryn James (August 16, 1990). "Spike Lee's Jews and the Passage From Benign Cliche Into Bigotry". The New York Times.
- Ariel Levy (August 13, 2006). "The Angriest Auteur". New York Magazine.
- "ADL Calls on Russell Simmons to Distance Himself from Minister Farrakhan" (Press release). ADL. February 14, 2005.
- "ADL Urges Prominent African-American Leaders to Reconsider Their Support for the "Millions More Movement"" (Press release). ADL. May 2, 2005.
- Simmons, Russell (May 9, 2005). "Russell Simmons Responds to Abraham Foxman about the Millions More Movement". Millions More Movement.
- "Response to Russell Simmons". ADL. May 9, 2005.
- Siek, Stephanie V. (April 6, 2006). "A different kind of camp". The Boston Globe.
- "1930–1940 The World and ADL Were Changing..." History of the ADL. ADL.
- John Mearsheimer, Stephen Walt, The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy, Penguin Books 2007 p.187.
- Paul Findley, They Dare Speak Out: People and Institutions Confront Israel's Lobby 3rd edition, Chicago Review Press, 2003 p. 61.
- Richard C. Paddock, "New Details of Extensive ADL Spy Operation Emerge", Los Angeles Times, April 13, 1993, A1
- Burghardt, Tom (January 16, 1997). "The 'Public-Private Partnership'". Antifa Info-Bulletin.
- Meredith Jane Adams (May 3, 1993) "B'nai B'rith Is Target Of Probe", Chicago Tribune
- Wiener, Julie (October 1, 1999). "ADL settles with Arabs, others to wrap up 6-year lawsuit". The Jewish News Weekly of Northern California.
- James Bolden, Coalition of Civil Rights Groups Sue Anti-Defamation League, Los Angeles Sentinel, November 3, 1993.
- "Anti-Defamation League Accused of Spying", New York Times. October 24, 1993. Retrieved 27 feb 2017
- Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations for 1991: Testimony of members of Congress and other interested individuals and organizations. United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990. p. 77.
- "Confronting Right Wing Extremism and Terrorism in the USA", George Michael. Routledge, Sep 2, 2003. p. 167. Retrieved 27 feb 2017
- Jeffrey Kaplan, Heléne Lööw, The cultic milieu: oppositional subcultures in an age of globalization, ISBN 0-7591-0204-X
- "ADL Statement on the Armenian Genocide". August 21, 2007.
- "Fire Foxman: Denying the Armenian Genocide should be the last atrocity perpetrated by the ADL chief".
- "A genocide not to be denied". Boston Globe. August 3, 2007.
- O'Brien, Keith (August 18, 2007). "ADL local leader fired on Armenian issue: Genocide question sparked bitter debate". The Boston Globe.
- O'Brien, Keith (August 22, 2007). "ADL chief bows to critics: Foxman cites rift, calls Armenian deaths genocide". The Boston Globe.
- Levenson, Michael (August 24, 2007). "Turkey condemns statement by ADL". The Boston Globe.
- O'Brien, Keith (September 7, 2007). "Anti-Defamation League rehires New England director". The Boston Globe.
- Axelbank, Rachel (December 6, 2007). "Tarsy Resignation Draws Mixed Emotions From Area Colleagues". Jewish Advocate.
- "The Armenian Weekly", Volume 73, No. 34, August 25, 2007, By Michael G. Mensoian
- Woolhouse, Megan (December 5, 2007). "ADL's regional leader resigns: Backers cite rift on genocide issue". The Boston Globe.
- טורקיה לישראל: עזרו לנו לעצור הכרה אמריקאית בשואה הארמנית Haaretz, 10/10/07, Barak Ravid
- "Necessary Illusions: Appendix V [20/33]".
- Stoll, Ira (October 4, 2006). "Poland Abruptly Cancels a Speech By Local Critic of the Jewish State". The New York Sun.
- Foxman, Abraham H. (November 16, 2006). "Article on Free Speech and Israel Gets it Wrong". ADL.
- Powell, Michael (October 9, 2006). "In N.Y., Sparks Fly Over Israel Criticism". The Washington Post: A03.
- "Jewish News Weekly".
- "Quigley v. Rosenthall". Findlaw. Findlaw. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
- Lane, George. "Charges of bigotry backfire" (April 29, 2000). Denver Post. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
- "Privacy Rights Win Over Bias Charges In Defamation Case". The New York Times. May 13, 2000.
- "ADL Pays More Than $12 Million to Former Evergreen Couple. (City Desk/Local)". March 12, 2004.
- Raab, Earl. "Is there a New Anti-Semitism?", Commentary, May 1974, pp. 53–54.
- Brownfeld, Allan (1987). "Anti-Semitism: Its Changing Meaning". Journal of Palestine Studies. Institute for Palestine Studies. 16 (3): 53–67. doi:10.2307/2536789. ISSN 1533-8614. JSTOR 2536789 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (. ))
- Edward S. Shapiro. A Time for Healing: American Jewry Since World War II. Johns Hopkins University Press. 1992. ISBN 0-8018-4347-2. p. 47.
- Finkelstein, Norman. Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History, University of California Press, 2005, pp. 21–22.
- Powell, Michael. "In N.Y., Sparks Fly Over Israel Criticism". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- "ADL Presentation to the Platform Committees of the Democratic and Republican National Conventions" (pdf). ADL. June 2004. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 27, 2008. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
The Anti-Defamation League has been an advocate for strong, effective, and sensible gun control legislation.
- "ADL To Supreme Court: States Should Regulate Firearms" (Press release). ADL. January 11, 2008.
The League urged the Court to ensure that states retain the ability to keep guns out of the hands of 'violent bigots'.
- The Liberty Crew (September 20, 2007) "Why Does the ADL Support Nazi-Based Laws?" JPFO.org.
- Editors (1997–1999) "JPFO Facts vs. ADL Lies." JPFO.org.
- JPFO editors "The Anti-Defamation League Is Anti-American." JPFO.org.
- Foxman, Abraham H. (May 21, 1995) "N.R.A. Doesn't Represent George Bush or Even Most Members; Jewish Pro-Gun Group." New York Times.
- Jacob Berkman, ADL opposes World Trade Center Mosque, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, July 30, 2010.
- Jacoby, Susan (August 6, 2010). "The Spirited Atheist: Ground Zero mosque protected by First Amendment – but it's still salt in a wound". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 17, 2010. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
- "The ADL, the Mosque and the Fight Against Bigotry". The New York Times. August 4, 2010.
- "Statement On Islamic Community Center Near Ground Zero", Anti-Defamation League, July 28, 2010.
- Adam Dickter, "In Wake Of ADL, Jewish Groups Back Ground Zero Mosque", The Jewish Week, August 3, 2010.
- Grace Rauh, "Jewish Leaders Rally In Support Of WTC Mosque", NY1, August 5, 2010.
- Abraham H. Foxman, "The Mosque at Ground Zero", originally published in Huffington Post, August 2, 2010.
- CNN host returns ADL award over stance on Islamic center, CNN, August 9, 2010.
- A Monument to Tolerance, New York Times editorial, August 3, 2010.
- Robert G. Sugarman, "Letter to New York Times" (August 4, 2010) New York Times
- Arax, Mark (June 16, 2010). "Suddenly, the Israel lobby discovers a genocide". Salon. Retrieved January 23, 2016.