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An antipope (Latin: antipapa) is a person who, in opposition to the one who is generally seen as the legitimately elected Pope, makes a significantly accepted competing claim to be the Pope, the Bishop of Rome and leader of the Catholic Church. At times between the 3rd and mid-15th century, antipopes were supported by a fairly significant faction of religious cardinals and secular monarchs and kingdoms. Persons who claim to be pope, but have few followers, such as the modern sedevacantist antipopes, are not classified with the historical antipopes.
Hippolytus of Rome (d. 235) is commonly considered to be the earliest antipope, as he headed a separate group within the Church in Rome against Pope Callixtus I. Hippolytus was reconciled to Callixtus's second successor, Pope Pontian, and both he and Pontian are honoured as saints by the Roman Catholic Church with a shared feast day on 13 August. Whether two or more persons have been confused in this account of Hippolytus and whether Hippolytus actually declared himself to be the Bishop of Rome, remains unclear, since no such claim by Hippolytus has been cited in the writings attributed to him.
Eusebius quotes from an unnamed earlier writer the story of Natalius, a 3rd-century priest who accepted the bishopric of the Adoptionists, a heretical group in Rome. Natalius soon repented and tearfully begged Pope Zephyrinus to receive him into communion.
Novatian (d. 258), another third-century figure, certainly claimed the See of Rome in opposition to Pope Cornelius, and if Natalius and Hippolytus were excluded because of the uncertainties concerning them, Novatian could then be said to be the first antipope.
The period in which antipopes were most numerous was during the struggles between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors of the 11th and 12th centuries. The emperors frequently imposed their own nominees to further their own causes. The popes, likewise, sometimes sponsored rival imperial claimants (anti-kings) in Germany to overcome a particular emperor.
The Western Schism — which began in 1378, when the French cardinals, claiming that the election of Pope Urban VI was invalid, elected antipope Clement VII as a rival to the Roman Pope — led eventually to two competing lines of antipopes: the Avignon line (Clement VII took up residence in Avignon, France), and the Pisan line. The Pisan line, which began in 1409, was named after the town of Pisa, Italy, where the (Pisan) council had elected antipope Alexander V as a third claimant. To end the schism, in May 1415, the Council of Constance deposed antipope John XXIII of the Pisan line. Pope Gregory XII of the Roman line resigned in July 1415. In 1417, the Council also formally deposed antipope Benedict XIII of Avignon, but he refused to resign. Afterwards, Pope Martin V was elected and was accepted everywhere except in the small and rapidly diminishing area that remained faithful to Benedict XIII. The scandal of the Western Schism created anti-papal sentiment and fed into the Protestant Reformation at the turn of the 16th century.
List of historical antipopes
The following table gives the names of the antipopes included in the list of popes and antipopes in the Annuario Pontificio, with the addition of the names of Natalius (in spite of doubts about his historicity) and Antipope Clement VIII (whose following was insignificant).
An asterisk marks those who were included in the conventional numbering of later Popes who took the same name. More commonly, the antipope is ignored in later papal regnal numbers; for example, there was an Antipope John XXIII, but the new Pope John elected in 1958 was also called John XXIII. For the additional confusion regarding Popes named John, see Pope John (numbering).
The list of popes and antipopes in the Annuario Pontificio attaches the following note to the name of Pope Leo VIII (963–965):
At this point, as again in the mid-11th century, we come across elections in which problems of harmonising historical criteria and those of theology and canon law make it impossible to decide clearly which side possessed the legitimacy whose factual existence guarantees the unbroken lawful succession of the successors of Saint Peter. The uncertainty that in some cases results has made it advisable to abandon the assignation of successive numbers in the list of the popes.
Thus, because of the obscurities about mid-11th-century canon law and the historical facts, the Annuario Pontificio lists Sylvester III as a pope, without thereby expressing a judgement on his legitimacy. The Catholic Encyclopedia places him in its List of Popes, but with the annotation: "Considered by some to be an antipope". Other sources classify him as an antipope.
Those with asterisks (*) were counted in subsequent Papal numbering.
|Pontificate||Common English name||Regnal (Latin) name||Personal name||Place of birth||Age at Election / Death or Resigned||# years as Antipope (days)||Notes||In opposition to|
|c. 199 - c. 200||Natalius||Natalius||Natalius||ca. 159 Rome, Roman Empire||38 / 48||1 year, 0 days (365)||Later reconciled (see above)||Zephyrinus|
|20 Dec 217–28 Sept 235||Saint Hippolytus||Hippolytus||Hippolytus||170 Rome. Roman Empire||45 / 65 (†66)||17 years, 282 days (6491)||Later reconciled with Pope Pontian (see above)||Callixtus I|
|Mar 251–Aug 258||Novatian||Novatianus||Novatian||ca. 200 Rome, Roman Empire||51 / 58 (†93)||7 years, 153 days (2710)||Founder of Novatianism||Cornelius|
|20 April 309 - 16 Aug 310||Heraclius||Heraclius||Heraclius||ca. 165 Rome, Roman Empire||45 / 46||1 year, 118 days (483)||Eusebius|
|355–26 Nov 365||Felix II*||Felix secundus||Felix||ca. 170 Rome, Roman Empire||80 / 90||10 years, 329 days (3982)||Installed by Roman Emperor Constantius II||Liberius|
|1 Oct 366– 16 Nov 367||Ursicinus||Ursicinus||Ursinus||ca. 200 Rome, Roman Empire||66 / 67||1 year, 46 days (411)||Damasus I|
|27 December 418–3 April 419||Eulalius||Eulalius||Eulalius||ca. 370 Rome, Roman Empire||38 / 39 (†42)||1 year, 46 days (411)||Boniface I|
|22 Nov 498–Aug 506/8||Laurentius||Laurentius||Lorenzo Celio||ca. 460 Rome, Roman Empire||38 / 46 (†48)||9 years, 283 days (3569)||Supported by Byzantine emperor Anastasius I||Symmachus|
|22 September 530 - 14 Oct 530||Dioscorus||Dioscurus||Dióskoros||ca, 450 Alexandria, Aégyptus||70 / 70||22 days (22)||Boniface II|
|21 Sept 687||Theodore||Theodorus||Theodore||ca. 599 Rome, Western Roman Empire||88 / 88 (†92)||97 days (97)||Sergius I|
|21 Sept 687||Paschal (I)||Paschalis||Pascale||ca. 598 Rome, Western Roman Empire||89 / 89 (†94)||97 days (97|
|28 June 767–6 Aug 768||Constantine II||Constantinus secundus||Konstantinus||ca.700 Rome, Western Roman Empire||67 / 68 (†69)||1 year, 39 days (405)||Between Paul I and Stephen III|
|31 Jul 768||Philip||Philippus||Philip||ca. 701 Rome, Western Roman Empire||68 / 68 (†99)||0 days (0)||Installed by envoy of Lombard King Desiderius||Stephen III|
|25 Jan - 31 May 844||John VIII||Joannes octavus||Giovanni||ca. 800 Rome, Papal States||44 / 44 (†91)||151 days (151)||Elected by acclamation||Sergius II|
|Jan 855 - 31 Mar 855||Anastasius III Bibliothecarius||Anastasius tertius||Anastasius||ca. 810 Rome, Papal States||45 / 45 (†68)||89 days (89)||Benedict III|
|3 Oct 903–27 Jan 904||Christopher||Christophorus||Christoforo||ca. 850 Rome, Papal States||53 / 54||116 days (116)||Between Leo V and Sergius III|
|July 974||Boniface VII*||Bonifacius||Franco Ferrucci||ca. 900 Rome, Papal States||73 / 73 and 84 / 85||
30 days (30)|
334 days (334)
total 364 days (364 days)
|Between Benedict VI and Benedict VII|
|20 August 984–20 July 985||Between John XIV and John XV|
|April 997–Feb 998||John XVI*||Joannes||John Filagatto||ca. 941 Rossano, Calabria, Papal States (Italy)||56 / 56 (†59)||1 year, 0 days (365)||Supported by Byzantine emperor Basil II||Gregory V|
|June, 1012||Gregory VI||Gregorius Sextus||Gregorio||ca. 960 Rome, Papal States||52 / 52 (†60)||29 days (29)||Benedict VIII|
|4 April 1058–24 Jan 1059||Benedict X*||Benedictus Decimus||Giovanni Mincio dei Conti di Tusculo||ca. 1000 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire||58 / 59 (†80)||295 days (295 )||Supported by the Counts of Tusculum||Nicholas II|
|July 1061–31 May 1064||Honorius II||Honorius Secundus||Pietro Cadalus||1010 Verona, Papal States||51 / 54 (†62)||2 years, 335 days (1065)||Supported by Agnes, regent of the Holy Roman Empire||Alexander II|
|25 June 1080, 21 March 1084–8 Sept 1100||Clement III||Clemens Tertius||Guibert of Ravenna||ca. 1029 Parma, Papal States||51 / 51, 54 / 71||20 years, 44 days (7348)||Supported by Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor||Gregory VII|
|8 Sept 1100–Jan 1101||Theodoric||Theodoricus||Theodoro||ca. 1030 Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire||70 / 71 (†72)||121 days (-244)||Successor to Clement III||Paschal II|
|Jan 1101 - Feb 1102||Adalbert or Albert||Adalbertus||Albert||ca. 1046 Atella, Campania, Papal States, H.R.E.||55 / 56 (†85)||31 days (31)||Successor to Theodoric|
|8 Nov 1105.–11 Apr 1111||Sylvester IV||Sylvester Quartus||Maginulf||ca. 1050 Rome, Papal States||49 / 55 (†56)||5 years, 324 days (31)||Supported by Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor|
|10 Mar 1118 - 22 Apr 1121||Gregory VIII* |||Gregorius Octavus||Maurice Burdain||ca. 1057 Limousin, Occitania, France||61 / 65 (†72)||3 years, 43 days (1139)||Gelasius II|
|16 Dec. 1124||Celestine II||Cœlestinus Secundus||Teobaldo Boccapecci||ca. 1050 Rome, Papal States||74 / 74 (†86)||0 days (0)||Honorius II|
|14 Feb. 1130–25 Jan. 1138||Anacletus II||Anacletus Secundus||Pietro Pierleoni||ca. 1090 Rome, Papal States||48 / 48||7 years, 345 days (2902)||Innocent II|
|23 Mar 1138||Victor IV||Victor Quartus||Gregorio Conti||ca. 1057 Ceccano, Papal States||81 / 81 (†90)||2 days (2)||Successor to Anacletus II|
|7 Sept. 1159–20 Apr. 1164||Victor IV||Victor Quartus||Ottavio di Montecelio||ca. 1095 Tivoli, Papal States||64 / 69||4 years, 226 days (1687)||Supported by Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor||Alexander III|
|22 Apr 1164–28 Sept. 1168||Paschal III||Paschalis Tertius||Guido di Crema||ca. 1110 Crema, Lombardy, Papal States||54 / 58||4 years, 159 days (1620)|
|Sept. 1168–29 Aug. 1178||Callixtus III||Callixtus Tertius||Giovanni of Struma||ca. 1090 Arezzo, Papal States||78 / 88 (†90)||9 years, 362 days (3649)|
|29 Sept. 1179–Jan. 1180||Innocent III||Innocentius Tertius||Lanzo of Sezza||ca. 1120 Sezze, Papal States||59 / 60 (†63)||95 days (95)|
|12 May 1328–12 Aug. 1330||Nicholas V||Nicolaus Quintus||Pietro Rainalducci||ca. 1258 Corvaro, Papal States||70 / 74||822 (2 years, 92 days)||Supported by Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor||John XXII|
|20 Sept. 1378–16 Sept. 1394||Clement VII||Clemens||Robert of Geneva||1342 Annecy, [France||36/52||15 years, 361 days (5840)||Avignon||Urban VI|
|28 Sept. 1394–23 May 1423||Benedict XIII||Benedictus||Pedro de Luna||25 November 1328 Illueca, Aragon||65/94||28 years, 237 days (10463)||Avignon|
|25 Jun 1409–3 May 1410||Alexander V*||Alexander||Pietro Philarghi||ca. 1339 Crete, Republic of Venice||70 / 71||312 days (312)||Pisa||Gregory XII|
|25 May 1410–29 May 1415||John XXIII||Ioannes Vicecimus Tertius||Baldassare Cossa||ca. 1365||45 / 50 (†54)||5 years, 6 days (1832)||Pisa|
|10 Jun 1423–26 Jul 1429||Clement VIII||Clemens Octavus||Gil Sánchez Muñoz y Carbón||1370 Teruel, Aragon||52 / 59 (†77)||6 years, 49 days (2241)||Avignon||Martin V|
|1424–1430||Benedict XIV||Benedictus Quartus Decimus||Bernard Garnier||1370 France||54 / 59 (†89)||6 years, 211 days (2403)||Claimed successor to Benedict XIII|
|1430–1437||Benedict XIV||Benedictus Quartus Decimus||Jean Carrier||ca. 1370 France||59 / 66||7 years, 242 days (2799)||The "hidden pope"|
|5 Nov 1439–7 Apr 1449||Felix V||Fœlix||Duke Amadeus VIII of Savoy||4 September 1383 Chambéry, Savoy||56/65 (†67)||9 years, 153 days (3441)||Elected by the Council of Basel||Eugene IV|
Many antipopes created cardinals, known as quasi-cardinals, and a few created cardinal-nephews, known as quasi-cardinal-nephews.
|Giacomo Alberti||Antipope Nicholas V||15 May 1328||Excommunicated by Pope John XXII.|
|Amedeo Saluzzo||Antipope Clement VII||23 December 1383||Abandoned Antipope Benedict XIII after having been deposed by him on 21 October 1408; participated in the Council of Pisa, the election of Pope Alexander V (now regarded as an antipope), the Council of Constance, and the conclave of Pope Martin V.|
|Tommaso Brancaccio||Antipope John XXIII||6 June 1411||Attended the Council of Constance, and the conclave of Pope Martin V.|
|Gil Sánchez Muñoz||Antipope Clement VIII||26 July 1429||Submitted to Pope Martin V after his uncle abdicated.|
Modern claimants to papacy
In modern times various people claim to be pope and, though they do not fit the technical definition of "antipope", are sometimes referred to as such. They are usually leaders of sedevacantist groups who view the See of Rome as vacant and elect someone to fill it. They are sometimes referred to as conclavists because of their claim, on the basis of an election by a "conclave" of perhaps half a dozen laypeople, as in the case of David Bawden ("Pope Michael I"), to have rendered the See no longer vacant. A significant number of these have taken the name "Peter II", owing to its special significance. From the point of view of the Roman Catholic Church, they are schismatics, and as such are automatically excommunicated.
- Michel Collin, self-proclaimed Pope Clement XV (1961–1974) in France, founder of the Apostles of Infinite Love)
- Jean-Gaston Tremblay, Gregory XVII (1968–2011), in Canada
Palmarian Catholic Church
- Clemente Domínguez y Gómez (Pope Gregory XVII), mystically self-proclaimed (1978–2005) in Spain
- Manuel Corral (Pope Peter II) (2005–11)
- Ginés Jesús Hernández (Pope Gregory XVIII) (2011–2016)
- Joseph Odermatt (Pope Peter III) (2016–present)
The Palmarian Catholic Church regards Pope Paul VI, whom they revere as a martyr, and his predecessors as true popes, but hold, on the grounds of claimed apparitions, that the Pope of Rome is excommunicated and that the position of the Holy See has, since 1978, been transferred to the See of El Palmar de Troya.
The following were elected by allegedly faithful Catholics, none of whom was a cardinal:
- Popes of the "Legio Maria", based in western Kenya (not technically Conclavist): Timothy Joseph Blasio Atila (1963–1998). Pius Lawrence Jairo Chiaji Adera (1998–2004). Raphael Titus Otieno (2004–present).
- David Bawden (Pope Michael I), (1990–present) elected in Kansas, USA.
- Victor von Pentz (Pope Linus II), (1994–present). Another conclave, this time held in Assisi, Italy, elected the South African Victor von Pentz, an ex-seminarian of the Society of St Pius X, as Pope Linus II in 1994. Linus took up residence in Hertfordshire, England.
- Pope of the "True Catholic Church": Lucian Pulvermacher (Pope Pius XIII), (1998–2009), elected in Montana, USA.
- Mirko Fabris (Pope Krav I), (1978–2012), elected in Zagreb, Croatia.
- Joaquín Llorens (Pope Alexander IX), (2005–present), elected in Elx, Spain.
- Popes of the "Iglesia Católica Apostólica Remanente", based in Buenos Aires, Argentina: Oscar Michaelli, elected on 24 March 2006 by a group of 34 episcopi vagantes as Pope Leo XIV. On his death on 14 February 2007, he was succeeded by Juan Bautista Bonetti, who took the name of Pope Innocent XIV, but resigned on 29 May 2007. Alexander IX was chosen in his place.
Antipope of Alexandria
As the Patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt, has historically also held the title of Pope, a person who, in opposition to someone who is generally accepted as a legitimate Pope of Alexandria, claims to hold that position may also be considered an Antipope. In 2006, the defrocked married Coptic lector Max Michel became an Antipope of Alexandria, calling himself Maximos I. His claim to the Alexandrine Papacy was dismissed by both the Coptic Orthodox Pope Shenouda III and Pope Theodore II of the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria. The Coptic Pope of Alexandria and the Greek Pope of Alexandria currently view one another, not as Antipopes, but rather as successors to differing lines of apostolic succession that formed as a result of christological disputes in the fifth century.
Another Coptic (Alexandrian) Antipope is known to have laid claim in the Fourth Century. His name was Gregory of Cappadocia.
Antipopes have appeared as fictional characters. These may be either in historical fiction, as fictional portraits of well-known historical antipopes or as purely imaginary antipopes.
- Jean Raspail's novel l'Anneau du pêcheur (The Fisherman's Ring), and Gérard Bavoux's "Le Porteur de lumière" (The Light-bringer).
- The fictional synth-pop artist Zladko Vladcik claims to be "The Anti-Pope" in one of his songs.
- Dan Simmons's novels Endymion and Rise of Endymion feature a Father Paul Duré who is the routinely murdered antipope Teilhard I. At the end of the last novel, it is mentioned that the person calling himself the pope of the Technocore loyal Catholics is recognized by very few even among those, and he is referred to as an antipope.
- In the Girl Genius comics series, set in a gaslamp fantasy version of Europe thrown into chaos by mad science (among other things), there is a brief reference to the existence of seven Popes—all of whom apparently ordered a particular text burned.
- Ralph McInerny's novel The Red Hat features a schism between liberals and conservatives following the election of a conservative African Pope; the liberal faction elect an Italian cardinal who calls himself "Pius XIII".
- In the video game Crusader Kings II by Swedish developer Paradox Interactive, Catholic rulers may appoint one of their bishops as an antipope. An emperor-tier ruler such as the Holy Roman Emperor may declare war on the Papal States to install their antipope as the "true" pope, thereby vassalizing the Papacy.
- In episode 3 of The Black Adder (set in the late 15th century), "The Archbishop", Baldrick remarks on selling counterfeit papal pardons, that one for the highest crimes requires the signatures of "both popes" (implying one pope and one antipope). At the end of the episode, the Mother Superior of the local convent informs Edmund that he has been excommunicated by "all three popes".
- "One who opposes the legitimately elected bishop of Rome, endeavours to secure the papal throne, and to some degree succeeds materially in the attempt" (Encyclopædia Britannica: Antipope).
- "The catacombs the destination of the great jubilee". Vatican City. Archived from the original on 10 September 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
- Historia Ecclesiastica, V, 28
- Dix, Gregory; Chadwick, Henry (2013). The Treatise on the Apostolic Tradition of St Hippolytus of Rome, Bishop and Martyr. Routledge. p. xvii. ISBN 9781136101465. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
- Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature: Zephyrinus
- "Monarchians – Dynamists, or Adoptionists". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
- Michael Ott, "Pope Martin V" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1910)
- Annuario Pontificio 2012 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2008 ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0), p. 12*
- "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: List of Popes". Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- Charles William Previté-Orton The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History (Cambridge University Press 1952, republished 1975 ISBN 0-521-20962-5), vol. 1, p. 477
- Joseph Épiphane Darras, A General History of the Catholic Church, vol. III, p. 58
- Miranda, Salvador. 1998. "14th Century (1303–1404)."
- Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: Biographical Dictionary: Antipope] John XXIII (1410–1415): Consistory of 6 June 1411 (I)."
- Miranda, Salvador. 1998. "15th Century (1404–1503)."
- Code of Canon Law, canon 1364
- "Self-styled 'Pope' dies in France". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, IL. Reuters. 24 June 1974. Retrieved 13 April 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
- "10 Most Bizarre People on Earth". Oddee. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- George D. Chryssides, Historical Dictionary of New Religious Movements (Rowman & Littlefield 2011 978-0-81087967-6)
- "Iglesia Católica Apostólica Española Tradicionalista y Mercedaria - Iglesia Católica Apostólica Española Tradicionalista y Mercedaria". Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- Rosentrater, Erwin (2015). The Esoteric Codex: Antipopes. lulu.com. p. 3. ISBN 131298922X.
- Iglesia Católica Remanente. "Iglesia Católica Apostólica Remanente". Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "Common Statement Between The Coptic Orthodox Church And The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and all Africa Regarding Max Michel" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-11. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
- Jean Raspail, "L'Anneau du pêcheur," Paris: Albin Michel, 1994. 403 p. ISBN 2-226-07590-9
- Gérard Bavoux, "Le Porteur de lumière," Paris: Pygmalion, 1996. 329 p. ISBN 2-85704-488-7
- Zladko Vladcik - I am the Antipope. YouTube. 21 January 2007. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
|Look up antipope in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Catholic Encyclopedia: "Antipope"
- Encyclopædia Britannica: "Antipope"
- The Pope Encyclopaedia: "Antipope"
- Kelly, J.N.D, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, Oxford University Press, USA (1 June 1986), ISBN 0-19-213964-9.
- Raspail, Jean, 'L'Anneau du pêcheur, Paris: Albin Michel, 1994. 403 pp. ISBN 2-226-07590-9.
- Bavoux, Gérard, Le Porteur de lumière, Paris: Pygmalion, 1996. 329 pp ISBN 2-85704-488-7.