Anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany
After German doctors became the first to identify the link between smoking and lung cancer, Germany initiated a strong anti-tobacco movement and led the first public anti-smoking campaign in modern history. Anti-tobacco movements grew in many nations from the middle of the 19th century; the campaign in Germany, supported by the government after the Nazis came to power, is probably the best known, though in fact stronger laws were passed in some United States states between 1890 and 1930. The German movement was the most powerful anti-smoking movement in the world during the 1930s and early 1940s. The National Socialist leadership condemned smoking and several of them openly criticized tobacco consumption. Research on smoking and its effects on health thrived under Nazi rule and was the most important of its type at that time. Adolf Hitler's personal distaste for tobacco and the Nazi reproductive policies were among the motivating factors behind their campaign against smoking.
The Nazi anti-tobacco campaign included banning smoking in trams, buses and city trains, promoting health education, limiting cigarette rations in the Wehrmacht, organizing medical lectures for soldiers, and raising the tobacco tax. The National Socialists also imposed restrictions on tobacco advertising and smoking in public spaces, and regulated restaurants and coffeehouses. The anti-tobacco movement did not have much effect in the early years of the Nazi regime and tobacco use increased between 1933 and 1939, but smoking by military personnel declined from 1939 to 1945. Even by the end of the 20th century, the anti-smoking movement in postwar Germany had not attained the influence of the Nazi anti-smoking campaign.
Anti-tobacco sentiment existed in Germany in the early 20th century. Critics of smoking organized the first anti-tobacco group in the country named the Deutscher Tabakgegnerverein zum Schutze der Nichtraucher (German Tobacco Opponents' Association for the Protection of Non-smokers). Established in 1904, this organization existed for a brief period only. The next anti-tobacco organization, the Bund Deutscher Tabakgegner (Federation of German Tobacco Opponents), was established in 1910 in Trautenau, Bohemia. Other anti-smoking organizations were established in 1912 in the cities of Hanover and Dresden. In 1920, a Bund Deutscher Tabakgegner in der Tschechoslowakei (Federation of German Tobacco Opponents in Czechoslovakia) was formed in Prague, after Czechoslovakia was separated from Austria at the end of World War I. A Bund Deutscher Tabakgegner in Deutschösterreich (Federation of German Tobacco Opponents in German Austria) was established in Graz in 1920.
These groups published journals advocating nonsmoking. The first such German language journal was Der Tabakgegner (The Tobacco Opponent), published by the Bohemian organization between 1912 and 1932. Deutscher Tabakgegner (German Tobacco Opponent) was published in Dresden from 1919 to 1935, and was the second journal on this subject. The anti-tobacco organizations were also against consumption of alcoholic beverages.
Hitler's attitude towards smoking
Adolf Hitler was a heavy smoker in his early life—he used to smoke 25 to 40 cigarettes daily—but gave up the habit, concluding that it was "a waste of money". In later years, Hitler viewed smoking as "decadent" and "the wrath of the Red Man against the White Man, vengeance for having been given hard liquor", lamenting that "so many excellent men have been lost to tobacco poisoning". He was unhappy because both Eva Braun and Martin Bormann were smokers and was concerned over Hermann Göring's continued smoking in public places. He was angered when a statue portraying a cigar-smoking Göring was commissioned. Hitler is often considered to be the first national leader to advocate nonsmoking; however, James VI and I, king of Scotland and England, was openly against smoking 330 years prior.
Hitler disapproved of the military personnel's freedom to smoke, and during World War II he said on 2 March 1942, "it was a mistake, traceable to the army leadership at the time, at the beginning of the war". He also said that it was "not correct to say that a soldier cannot live without smoking". He promised to end the use of tobacco in the military after the end of the war. Hitler personally encouraged close friends not to smoke. He even began to offer a gold watch to any of his inner circle who could quit. However, Hitler's personal distaste for tobacco was only one of several catalysts behind the anti-smoking campaign.
The Nazi reproductive policies were a significant factor behind their anti-tobacco campaign. Women who smoked were considered to be vulnerable to premature aging and loss of physical attractiveness; they were viewed as unsuitable to be wives and mothers in a German family. Werner Huttig of the Nazi Party's Rassenpolitisches Amt (Office of Racial Politics) said that a smoking mother's breast milk contained nicotine, a claim that modern research has proven correct. Martin Staemmler, a prominent physician during the Third Reich, opined that smoking by pregnant women resulted in a higher rate of stillbirths and miscarriages. This opinion was also supported by well-known female racial hygienist Agnes Bluhm, whose book published in 1936 expressed the same view. The Nazi leadership was concerned over this because they wanted German women to be as reproductive as possible. An article published in a German gynecology journal in 1943 stated that women smoking three or more cigarettes per day were more likely to remain childless compared to nonsmoking women.
Research and studies on tobacco's effects on the population's health were more advanced in Germany than in any other nation by the time the Nazis came to power. The link between lung cancer and tobacco was first proven in Nazi Germany, contrary to the popular belief that American and British scientists first discovered it in the 1950s. The term "passive smoking" ("Passivrauchen") was coined in Nazi Germany. Research projects funded by the Nazis revealed many disastrous effects of smoking on health. Nazi Germany supported epidemiological research on the harmful effects of tobacco use. Hitler personally gave financial support to the Wissenschaftliches Institut zur Erforschung der Tabakgefahren (Institute for Tobacco Hazards Research) at the University of Jena, headed by Karl Astel. Established in 1941, it was the most significant anti-tobacco institute in Nazi Germany.
Franz H. Müller in 1939 and Dietrich Eberhard Schairer in 1943 first used case-control epidemiological methods to study lung cancer among smokers. In 1939, Müller published a study report in a reputed cancer journal in Germany which claimed that prevalence of lung cancer was higher among smokers. Müller, described as the "forgotten father of experimental epidemiology", was a member of the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK) and the Nazi Party (NSDAP). Müller's 1939 medical dissertation was the world's first controlled epidemiological study of the relationship between tobacco and lung cancer. Apart from mentioning the increasing incidence of lung cancer and many of the causes behind it such as dust, exhaust gas from cars, tuberculosis, X-ray and pollutants emitted from factories, Müller's paper pointed out that "the significance of tobacco smoke has been pushed more and more into the foreground".
Physicians in the Third Reich were aware that smoking was responsible for cardiac diseases, which were considered to be the most serious diseases resulting from smoking. Use of nicotine was sometimes considered to be responsible for increasing reports of myocardial infarction in the country. In the later years of World War II, researchers considered nicotine a factor behind the coronary heart failures suffered by a significant number of military personnel in the Eastern Front. A pathologist of the Heer examined thirty-two young soldiers who had died from myocardial infarction at the front, and documented in a 1944 report that all of them were "enthusiastic smokers". He cited the opinion of pathologist Franz Buchner that cigarettes are "a coronary poison of the first order".
The Nazis used several public relations tactics to convince the general population of Germany not to smoke. Well-known health magazines like the Gesundes Volk (Healthy People), Volksgesundheit (People's Health) and Gesundes Leben (Healthy Life) published warnings about the health consequences of smoking and posters showing the harmful effects of tobacco were displayed. Anti-smoking messages were sent to the people in their workplaces, often with the help of the Hitler-Jugend (HJ) and the Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM). The anti-smoking campaign undertaken by the Nazis also included health education. In June 1939, a Bureau against the Hazards of Alcohol and Tobacco was formed and the Reichsstelle für Rauschgiftbekämpfung (Reich Office for Drug Control) also helped in the anti-tobacco campaign. Articles advocating nonsmoking were published in the magazines Die Genussgifte (The Recreational Stimulants), Auf der Wacht (On the Guard) and Reine Luft (Clean Air). Out of these magazines, Reine Luft was the main journal of the anti-tobacco movement. Karl Astel's Institute for Tobacco Hazards Research at Jena University purchased and distributed hundreds of reprints from Reine Luft.
After recognizing the harmful effects of smoking on health, several items of anti-smoking legislation were enacted. The later 1930s increasingly saw anti-tobacco laws implemented by the Nazis. In 1938, the Luftwaffe and the Reichspost imposed a ban on smoking. Smoking was also banned not only in health care institutions, but also in several public offices and in rest homes. Midwives were restricted from smoking while on duty. In 1939, the Nazi Party outlawed smoking in all of its offices premises, and Heinrich Himmler, the then chief of the Schutzstaffel (SS), restricted police personnel and SS officers from smoking while they were on duty. Smoking was also outlawed in schools.
In 1941, tobacco smoking in trams was outlawed in sixty German cities. Smoking was also outlawed in bomb shelters; however, some shelters had separate rooms for smoking. Special care was taken to prevent women from smoking. The President of the Medical Association in Germany announced, "German women don't smoke". Pregnant women and women below the age of 25 and over the age of 55 were not given tobacco ration cards during World War II. Restrictions on selling tobacco products to women were imposed on the hospitality and food retailing industry. Anti-tobacco films aimed at women were publicly shown. Editorials discussing the issue of smoking and its effects were published in newspapers. Strict measures were taken in this regard and a district department of the National Socialist Factory Cell Organization (NSBO) announced that it would expel female members who smoked publicly. The next step in the anti-tobacco campaign came in July 1943, when public smoking for persons under the age of 18 was outlawed. In the next year, smoking in buses and city trains was made illegal, on the personal initiative of Hitler, who feared female ticket takers might be the victims of passive smoking.
Restrictions were imposed on the advertisement of tobacco products, enacted on 7 December 1941 and signed by Heinrich Hunke, the President of the Advertising Council. Advertisements trying to depict smoking as harmless or as an expression of masculinity were banned. Ridiculing anti-tobacco activists was also outlawed, as was the use of advertising posters along rail tracks, in rural regions, stadiums and racing tracks. Advertising by loudspeakers and mail was also prohibited.
Restrictions on smoking were also introduced in the Wehrmacht. Cigarette rations in the military were limited to six per soldier per day. Extra cigarettes were often sold to the soldiers, especially when there was no military advance or retreat in the battleground, however these were restricted to 50 for each person per month. Teenaged soldiers serving in the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend, composed of Hitler Youth members, were given confectionery instead of tobacco products. Access to cigarettes was not allowed for the Wehrmacht's female auxiliary personnel. Medical lectures were arranged to persuade military personnel to quit smoking. An ordinance enacted on 3 November 1941 raised tobacco taxes by approximately 80–95% of the retail price. It would be the highest rise in tobacco taxes in Germany until more than 25 years after the collapse of the Nazi regime.
The early anti-smoking campaign was considered a failure, and from 1933 to 1937 there was a rapid increase in tobacco consumption in Germany. The rate of smoking in the nation increased faster even than in neighboring France, where the anti-tobacco movement was tiny and far less influential. Between 1932 and 1939, per capita cigarette consumption in Germany increased from 570 to 900 per year, while the corresponding numbers for France were from 570 to 630.
The cigarette manufacturing companies in Germany made several attempts to weaken the anti-tobacco campaign. They published new journals and tried to depict the anti-tobacco movement as "fanatic" and "unscientific". The tobacco industry also tried to counter the government campaign to prevent women from smoking and used smoking models in their advertisements. Despite government regulations, many women in Germany regularly smoked, including the wives of many high-ranking Nazi officials. For instance, Magda Goebbels smoked even while she was interviewed by a journalist. Fashion illustrations displaying women with cigarettes were often published in prominent publications such as the Beyers Mode für Alle (Beyers Fashion For All). The cover of the popular song Lili Marleen featured singer Lale Andersen holding a cigarette.
The Nazis implemented more anti-tobacco policies at the end of the 1930s and by the early years of World War II, the rate of tobacco usage declined. As a result of the anti-tobacco measures implemented in the Wehrmacht, the total tobacco consumption by soldiers decreased between 1939 and 1945. According to a survey conducted in 1944, the number of smokers increased in the Wehrmacht, but average tobacco consumption per military personnel declined by 23.4% compared to the immediate pre-World War II years. The number of people who smoked 30 or more cigarettes per day declined from 4.4% to 0.3%.
The Nazi anti-tobacco policies were not free of contradictions. For example, the Volksgesundheit (People's Health) and Gesundheitspflicht (Duty to be Healthy) policies were enforced in parallel with the active distribution of cigarettes to people who the Nazis saw as "deserving" groups (e.g. frontline soldiers, members of the Hitler Youth). On the other hand, "undeserving" and stigmatized groups (Jews, war prisoners) were denied access to tobacco.
Association with antisemitism and racism
Apart from public health concerns, the Nazis were heavily influenced by ideology; specifically, the movement was influenced by concepts of racial hygiene and bodily purity. Nazi leaders believed that it was wrong for the master race to smoke and that tobacco consumption was equal to "racial degeneracy". The Nazis viewed tobacco as a "genetic poison". Racial hygienists opposed tobacco use, fearing that it would "corrupt" the "German germ plasm". Nazi anti-tobacco activists often tried to depict tobacco as a vice of the degenerate Negroes.
The Nazis claimed that the Jews were responsible for introducing tobacco and its harmful effects. The Seventh-day Adventist Church in Germany announced that smoking was an unhealthy vice spread by the Jews. Johann von Leers, editor of the Nordische Welt (Nordic World), during the opening ceremony of the Wissenschaftliches Institut zur Erforschung der Tabakgefahren in 1941, proclaimed that "Jewish capitalism" was responsible for the spread of tobacco use across Europe. He said that the first tobacco on German soil was brought by the Jews and that they controlled the tobacco industry in Amsterdam, the principal European entry point of Nicotiana.
After World War II
After the collapse of Nazi Germany at the end of World War II, American cigarette manufacturers quickly entered the German black market. Illegal smuggling of tobacco became prevalent, and the anti-smoking campaign started by the Nazis ceased to exist after the fall of the Third Reich. In 1949, approximately 400 million cigarettes manufactured in the United States entered Germany illegally every month. In 1954, nearly two billion Swiss cigarettes were smuggled into Germany and Italy. As part of the Marshall Plan, the United States sent tobacco to Germany free of charge; the amount of tobacco shipped into Germany in 1948 was 24,000 tons and was as high as 69,000 tons in 1949. Per capita yearly cigarette consumption in post-war Germany steadily rose from 460 in 1950 to 1,523 in 1963. At the end of the 20th century, the anti-tobacco campaign in Germany was unable to approach the level of the Nazi-era climax in the years 1939–41 and German tobacco health research was described by Robert N. Proctor as "muted".
- Roffo, A. H. (January 8, 1940). "Krebserzeugende Tabakwirkung [Carcingogenic effects of tobacco]" (PDF) (in German). Berlin: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag. Retrieved 2009-09-13.
- Young 2005, p. 252
- Szollosi-Janze 2001, p. 15
- Richard Doll (June 1998), "Uncovering the effects of smoking: historical perspective", Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 7 (2): 87–117, doi:10.1191/096228098668199908, PMID 9654637, retrieved 2008-06-01,
Societies were formed to discourage smoking at the beginning of the century in several countries, but they had little success except in Germany where they were officially supported by the government after the Nazis seized power. Efforts outside of Germany were hampered by the backlash against NAZI Germany whose anti-Semitic ideology alienated other European countries as well as most of the rest of the world.
- Borio, Gene (1993–2003), Tobacco Timeline: The Twentieth Century 1900-1949--The Rise of the Cigarette, Tobacco.org, archived from the original on 17 October 2008, retrieved 2008-11-15
- Fifteen of the states of the United States prohibited the sale or use of cigarettes at various times between 1890 and 1930, as a result of the activities of the Anti-Cigarette League of America.Alston, Lee; Dupré, Ruth; Nonnenmacher, Tomas (2002). "Social reformer and regulation: The prohibition of cigarettes in the United States and Canada" (PDF). "Explorations in Economic History". 39: 425–445. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
- Robert N. Proctor (December 1996), "The anti-tobacco campaign of the Nazis: a little known aspect of public health in Germany, 1933-45", British Medical Journal, 313 (7070): 1450–3, doi:10.1136/bmj.313.7070.1450, PMC , PMID 8973234, archived from the original on 19 May 2008, retrieved 2008-06-01
- Bynum et al. 2006, p. 375
- Proctor, Robert N. (1996), Nazi Medicine and Public Health Policy, Dimensions, Anti-Defamation League, archived from the original on 31 May 2008, retrieved 2008-06-01
- Clark, Briggs & Cooke 2005, pp. 1373–74
- Proctor 1999, p. 219
- George Davey Smith (December 2004), "Lifestyle, health, and health promotion in Nazi Germany", British Medical Journal, 329 (7480): 1424–5, doi:10.1136/bmj.329.7480.1424, PMC , PMID 15604167, archived from the original on 24 July 2008, retrieved 2008-07-01
- Gilman & Zhou 2004, p. 328
- Proctor 1999, p. 228
- Clark, Briggs & Cooke 2005, p. 1374
- Proctor, Robert (1997), "The Nazi War on Tobacco: Ideology, Evidence, and Possible Cancer Consequences" (PDF), Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 71 (3): 435–88, doi:10.1353/bhm.1997.0139, PMID 9302840, archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-14, retrieved 2008-07-22,
The first German antitobacco organization was established in 1904 (the short-lived Deutscher Tabakgegnerverein zum Schutze für Nichtraucher); this was followed by a Bund Deutscher Tabakgegner based in the town of Trautenau, in Bohemia (1910), and similar associations in Hanover and Dresden (both founded in 1912). When Czechoslovakia was severed from Austria after the First World War, a Bund Deutscher Tabakgegner in der Tschechoslowakei was established in Prague (1920); that same year in Graz a Bund Deutscher Tabakgegner in Deutschösterreich was founded.
- Proctor 1999, p. 177
- Proctor 1999, p. 178
- Proctor 1999, p. 173
- Tillman 2004, p. 119
- Proctor 1999, p. 187
- Anders Dahlström; Christina Ebersjö; Bo Lundell (August 2008), "Nicotine in breast milk influences heart rate variability in the infant", Acta Pædiatrica, 97 (8): 1075–1079, doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.00785.x, PMID 18498428, retrieved 2008-11-15
- M Pellegrini; E Marchei; S Rossi; F Vagnarelli; A Durgbanshi; O García-Algar; O Vall; S Pichini (2007), "Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry assay for determination of nicotine and metabolites, caffeine and arecoline in breast milk" (PDF), Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 21 (16): 2693–2703, doi:10.1002/rcm.3137, PMID 17640086, retrieved 2008-11-15
- Julie A. Mennella; Lauren M. Yourshaw; Lindsay K. Morgan (September 2007), "Breastfeeding and Smoking: Short-term Effects on Infant Feeding and Sleep", Pediatrics, 120 (3): 497–502, doi:10.1542/peds.2007-0488, PMC , PMID 17766521, retrieved 2008-11-15
- Kenneth F. Ilett; Thomas W. Hale; Madhu Page-Sharp; Judith H. Kristensen; Rolland Kohan; L.Peter Hackett (December 2003), "Use of nicotine patches in breast-feeding mothers: transfer of nicotine and cotinine into human milk", Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 74 (6): 516–524, doi:10.1016/j.clpt.2003.08.003, PMID 14663454, retrieved 2008-11-17
- Proctor 1999, p. 189
- Johan P. Mackenbach (June 2005), "Odol, Autobahne and a non-smoking Führer: Reflections on the innocence of public health", International Journal of Epidemiology, 34 (3): 537–9, doi:10.1093/ije/dyi039, PMID 15746205, archived from the original on 9 July 2008, retrieved 2008-06-01
- Schaler 2004, p. 155
- Coombs & Holladay 2006, p. 98
- Proctor 1999, p. 207
- Proctor 1999, p. 191
- Proctor 1999, p. 194
- George Davey Smith; Sabine A Strobele; Matthias Egger (June 1994), "Smoking and health promotion in Nazi Germany", Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 48 (3): 220–3, doi:10.1136/jech.48.3.220, JSTOR 25567902, PMC , PMID 8051518
- Berridge 2007, p. 13
- Proctor 1999, p. 199
- Robert N. Proctor (February 2001), "Commentary: Schairer and Schöniger's forgotten tobacco epidemiology and the Nazi quest for racial purity", International Journal of Epidemiology, 30 (1): 31–34, doi:10.1093/ije/30.1.31, PMID 11171846, retrieved 2008-08-24
- George Davey Smith; Sabine Strobele; Matthias Egger (February 1995), "Smoking and death. Public health measures were taken more than 40 years ago", British Medical Journal, 310 (6976): 396, PMC , PMID 7866221, retrieved 2008-06-01
- Proctor 1999, p. 203
- Daunton & Hilton 2001, p. 169
- Guenther 2004, p. 108
- Uekoetter 2006, p. 206
- Proctor 1999, p. 204
- Proctor 1999, p. 206
- Meyer 2005, p. 13
- Lee 1975
- Bachinger E, McKee M, Gilmore A (May 2008), "Tobacco policies in Nazi Germany: not as simple as it seems", Public Health, 122 (5): 497–505, doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2007.08.005, PMC , PMID 18222506
- Proctor 1999, p. 174
- Proctor 1999, p. 220
- Proctor 1999, p. 179
- Proctor 1999, p. 208
- Proctor 1999, p. 245
- Berridge, Virginia (2007), Marketing Health: Smoking and the Discourse of Public Health in Britain, 1945-2000, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-926030-3.
- Bynum, William F.; Hardy, Anne; Jacyna, Stephen; Lawrence, Christopher; Tansey, E. M. (2006), The Western Medical Tradition, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-47524-4.
- Clark, George Norman; Briggs, Asa; Cooke, A. M. (2005), A History of the Royal College of Physicians of London, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925334-X.
- Coombs, W. Timothy; Holladay, Sherry J. (2006), It's Not Just PR: Public Relations in Society, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 1-4051-4405-X.
- Daunton, Martin; Hilton, Matthew (2001), The Politics of Consumption: Material Culture and Citizenship in Europe and America, Berg Publishers, ISBN 1-85973-471-5.
- Gilman, Sander L.; Zhou, Xun (2004), Smoke: A Global History of Smoking, Reaktion Books, ISBN 1-86189-200-4.
- Guenther, Irene (2004), Nazi Chic?: Fashioning Women in the Third Reich, Berg Publishers, ISBN 1-85973-400-6.
- Lee, P. N. (1975), Tobacco Consumption in Various Countries (4th ed.), London: Tobacco Research Council.
- Meyer, Hubert (2005), The 12th SS: The History of the Hitler Youth Panzer Division, Stackpole Books, ISBN 978-0-8117-3198-0.
- Proctor, Robert (1999), The Nazi War on Cancer, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-07051-2.
- Schaler, Jeffrey A. (2004), Szasz Under Fire: A Psychiatric Abolitionist Faces His Critics, Open Court Publishing, ISBN 0-8126-9568-2.
- Szollosi-Janze, Margit (2001), Science in the Third Reich, Berg Publishers, ISBN 1-85973-421-9.
- Tillman, Barrett (2004), Brassey's D-Day Encyclopedia: The Normandy Invasion A-Z, Potomac Books Inc., ISBN 1-57488-760-2.
- Uekoetter, Frank (2006), The Green and the Brown: A History of Conservation in Nazi Germany, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-84819-9.
- Young, T. Kue (2005), Population Health: Concepts and Methods, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-515854-7.
- Bachinger, E; McKee, M (September 2007), "Tobacco policies in Austria during the Third Reich", The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 11 (9): 1033–7, PMID 17705984
- Brooks, Alexander (19 January 1996), "Guest Column: Forward to the Past", The Daily Californian
- Doll, Richard (2001), "Commentary: Lung cancer and tobacco consumption", International Journal of Epidemiology, 30 (1): 30–31, doi:10.1093/ije/30.1.30
- Haustein, Knut-Olaf (2004), Fritz Lickint (1898-1960) – Ein Leben als Aufklärer über die Gefahren des Tabaks (PDF) (in German), Suchtmedizin in Forschung und Praxis
- Proctor, Robert N (1999), "Why did the Nazis have the world's most aggressive anti-cancer campaign?", Endeavour, 23 (2): 76–9, doi:10.1016/S0160-9327(99)01209-0, PMID 10451929
- Proctor, Robert (1988), Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-74578-7
- R. Nicosia, Francis; Huener, Jonathan (2002), Medicine and Medical Ethics in Nazi Germany, Berghahn Books, ISBN 1-57181-386-1