Page protected

Antifa (United States)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Antifa (U.S.))
Jump to navigation Jump to search

An Antifa sticker

The Antifa (English: /ænˈtfə/ or /ˈæntiˌfɑː/)[1] movement is a conglomeration of autonomous, self-styled anti-fascist militant[2][3][4][5][6] groups in the United States.[7][8][9] The principal feature of antifa groups is their use of direct action,[10] harassing those whom they identify as fascists, racists or right wing extremists.[11] Conflicts are both online and in real life.[11]

They engage in violent protest tactics, which has included property damage and physical violence.[7][12][13][14] They tend to be anti-capitalist[15] and they are predominantly far-left and militant left,[16][10] which includes anarchists, communists and socialists.[17][18][19][20] Their stated focus is on fighting far-right and white supremacist ideologies directly, rather than politically.[10]

History

Logo of Antifaschistische Aktion, the militant anti-fascist network in 1930s Germany that inspired the Antifa movement

The movement draws in part from a tradition of anti-fascism in the United States which stretches back a century, tracing its roots to the 1920s and 1930s, when militant leftists were involved in battles against American pro-Nazi organizations such as the Friends of New Germany.[21] Although there is no organizational connection, the lineage of antifa in America can be traced to Weimar Germany,[22] where the first group described as "antifa" was Antifaschistische Aktion, formed in 1932 with the involvement of the Communist Party of Germany.[23]

After World War II, but prior to the development of the modern antifa movement, violent confrontations with fascist elements continued sporadically.[24]

Modern antifa politics can be traced to opposition to the infiltration of Britain's punk scene by white power skinheads in the 1970s and 1980s, and the emergence of neo-nazism in Germany following the fall of the Berlin Wall.[16] In Germany, young leftists, including anarchists and punk fans, renewed the practice of street-level anti-fascism.[16] Columnist Peter Beinart writes that "in the late '80s, left-wing punk fans in the United States began following suit, though they initially called their groups Anti-Racist Action (ARA) on the theory that Americans would be more familiar with fighting racism than they would be with fighting fascism."[16]

Mark Bray, author of Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook, credits ARA as the precursor of the modern US antifa groups in the United States and Canada.[25] These activists toured with popular punk rock[26] and skinhead [16][27] bands of the late 1980s and the '90s, pursuing Klansmen, neo-Nazis and other assorted white supremacists and trying to ensure that neo-Nazis did not recruit their fans. Their motto was "We go where they go". If Nazi skinheads handed out leaflets at a punk show in Indiana about how "Hitler was right", ARA was there to show them the door. If fascists plastered downtown Alberta's Edmonton with racist posters, ARA tore them down and replaced them with anti-racist slogans.[28] In 2002, they disrupted a speech by Matthew F. Hale, the head of the World Church of the Creator, a white supremacist group in Pennsylvania; 25 people were arrested in the resulting brawl".[16]

Other antifa groups in the U.S. have other genealogies, for example in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where a group called the Baldies was formed in 1987 with the intent to fight neo-Nazi groups directly.[15]

Terminology

Although various antifascist movements have existed in the United States since the beginning of fascism, the word antifa, adopted from German usage,[22][29][30] only came into prominence as an umbrella term in English in 2017.[31][32] The ADL makes a point that the label "antifa" should be limited to "those who proactively seek physical confrontations with their perceived fascist adversaries," and not be misapplied to include all counter-protesters.[11]

Ideology and activities

"Antifa" is an umbrella term for a loose collection of groups, networks and individuals.[11] Since it is composed of autonomous groups, and thus has no formal organization or membership,[16][33] it is impossible to know how many groups are active. Antifa groups either form loose support networks, such as NYC Antifa, or operate independently.[34] Activists typically organize protests via social media and through websites and email lists.[16][33] Some activists have built peer-to-peer networks, or use encrypted-texting services like Signal.[35] According to Salon, it is an organizing strategy, not a group of people.[36] While its numbers cannot be estimated accurately, the movement has grown since the 2016 presidential election and approximately 200 groups currently exist in the US, of varying sizes and levels of engagement.[22] The activists involved subscribe to a range of ideologies, typically on the left and they include anarchists, socialists and communists along with some liberals and social democrats.[37][38][39]

According to Brian Levin, director of the Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism at the California State University, San Bernardino, Antifa activists participate in violent actions because "they believe that elites are controlling the government and the media. So they need to make a statement head-on against the people who they regard as racist".[7] According to Mark Bray, a historian at Dartmouth College sympathetic to the antifa movement's goals, the adherents "reject turning to the police or the state to halt the advance of white supremacy. Instead they advocate popular opposition to fascism as we witnessed in Charlottesville".[38]

The idea of direct action is central to the antifa movement. Antifa organizer Scott Crow told an interviewer: "The idea in Antifa is that we go where they [right-wingers] go. That hate speech is not free speech. That if you are endangering people with what you say and the actions that are behind them, then you do not have the right to do that. And so we go to cause conflict, to shut them down where they are, because we don't believe that Nazis or fascists of any stripe should have a mouthpiece".[7] A manual posted on It's Going Down, an anarchist website, warns against accepting "people who just want to fight". It furthermore notes that "physically confronting and defending against fascists is a necessary part of anti-fascist work, but is not the only or even necessarily the most important part".[40]

According to Beinart, antifa activists "try to publicly identify white supremacists and get them fired from their jobs and evicted from their apartments", in addition to "disrupt(ing) [sic] white-supremacist rallies, including by force".[41] According to a Washington Post book review, antifa tactics include "no platforming", i.e. denying their targets platforms from which to speak; obstructing their events and defacing their propaganda; and when antifa activists deem it necessary, deploying violence to deter them.[39] According to National Public Radio, "people who speak for the Antifa movement acknowledge they sometimes carry clubs and sticks" and their "approach is confrontational".[42] CNN describes antifa as "known for causing damage to property during protests".[7] Scott Crow, described by CNN as "a longtime Antifa organizer", argues that destroying property is not a form of violence.[7] The groups have been associated with physical violence in public against police[43] and against people whose political views its activists deem repugnant.[44] Antifa activists used clubs and dyed liquids against the white supremacists in Charlottesville[45] and caused property damage.[7] In one incident, an apparent antifa supporter punched white supremacist Richard Spencer in the face as he was giving an impromptu street interview[46][47] and on another occasion, in Berkeley, it was reported that some threw Molotov cocktails.[7]

Apart from the other activities, antifa activists engage in mutual aid, such as disaster response in the case of Hurricane Harvey.[48][49] According to Natasha Lennard in The Nation, antifa "collectives are working with interfaith groups and churches in cities around the country to create a New Sanctuary Movement, continuing and expanding a 40-year-old practice of providing spaces for refugees and immigrants, which entails outright refusal to cooperate with ICE".[50]

In June 2017, the antifa movement was linked to "anarchist extremism" by the New Jersey Office of Homeland Security and Preparedness.[51] In September 2017, an article in Politico stated that the website had obtained confidential documents and interviews indicating that in April 2016, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Bureau of Investigation believed that "anarchist extremists" were the primary instigators of violence at public rallies against a range of targets. The Department of Homeland Security was said to have classified their activities as domestic terrorism. Politico interviewed law enforcement officials who noted a rise in activity since the beginning of the Trump administration, particularly a rise in recruitment (and on the part of the far right as well) since the Charlottesville Unite the Right rally. Politico stated that one internal assessment acknowledged an inability to penetrate the groups' "diffuse and decentralized organizational structure". Politico also reported that the agencies were (as of April 2016) monitoring "conduct deemed potentially suspicious and indicative of terrorist activity".[52]

In June 2018, a Nebraska antifa group published a list of names and photographs of 1,595 U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) officials, drawn from LinkedIn profiles.[53]

Antifa activists often use the black bloc tactic, in which people dress all in black and cover their faces, in order to thwart surveillance and create a sense of equality and solidarity among participants.[54]

Notable street protests and violence

Antifa groups, along with black bloc activists, were among those who protested the 2016 election of Donald Trump.[16][50] They also participated in the February 2017 Berkeley protests against alt-right[55][56][57][58] speaker Milo Yiannopoulos, where they gained mainstream attention,[33] with media reporting them "throwing Molotov cocktails and smashing windows"[7] and causing $100,000 worth of damage.[59]

In April 2017, two groups described as "anti-fascist/anarchist", including the socialist/environmentalist Direct Action Alliance, threatened to disrupt the 82nd Avenue of Roses Parade after hearing the Multnomah County Republican Party would participate. The parade organizers also received an anonymous email, saying: "You have seen how much power we have downtown and that the police cannot stop us from shutting down roads so please consider your decision wisely". The two groups denied having anything to do with the email. The parade was ultimately canceled by the organizers due to safety concerns.[60][61]

On June 15, 2017, some antifa groups joined protestors at Evergreen State College to oppose Patriot Prayer's event. Patriot Prayer was supporting biology professor Bret Weinstein who became the central figure in a controversy after he criticized changes to one of the college's events. In addition to peaceful antifa activists who held up a "community love" sign, USA Today reported that one slashed the tires of right-wing activist Joey Gibson and another was wrestled to the ground by Patriot Prayer activists after being seen with a knife.[62]

Antifa counter-protesters at the 2017 Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia in August 2017 "certainly used clubs and dyed liquids against the white supremacists".[45] Journalist Adele Stan interviewed an antifa protester at the rally who said the sticks carried by the protesters are a justifiable countermeasure to the fact that "the right has a goon squad".[63] Some antifa participants at the Charlottesville rally chanted that counter-protesters should "punch a Nazi in the mouth".[42] A woman described as "an AntiFa protestor" by the USA Herald was arrested for property damage after allegedly tearing down a Confederate statue in Charlottesville. [64] Antifa participants also protected Cornel West and various clergy from attack by white supremacists, with West stating he felt that antifa had "saved his life".[65][66] Antifa activists also defended the First United Methodist Church, where the Charlottesville Clergy Collective provided refreshments, music and training to the counter-protesters and, according to a local rabbi, "chased [the white supremacists] off with sticks".[65][67]

Groups that had been preparing to protest the Boston Free Speech Rally saw their plans become viral following the violence in Charlottesville. The event drew a largely peaceful crowd of 40,000 counter-protestors. In The Atlantic, McKay Coppins stated that the 33 people arrested for violent incidents were "mostly egged on by the minority of 'Antifa' agitators in the crowd".[68] President Trump described the protestors outside his August 2017 rally in Phoenix, Arizona as "Antifa".[69]

During a Berkeley protest on August 27, 2017, an estimated one hundred antifa protesters joined a crowd of 2,000–4,000 counter-protesters to attack a reported "handful" of alt-right demonstrators and Trump supporters who showed up for a "Say No to Marxism" rally that had been cancelled by organizers due to security concerns.[59][70] Protestors threatened to smash the cameras of anyone who filmed them.[71] Jesse Arreguin, the mayor of Berkeley, suggested classifying the city's antifa as a gang.[72] The group Patriot Prayer cancelled an event in San Francisco the same day following counter protests. Joey Gibson, the founder of Patriot Prayer, blamed antifa, along with By Any Means Necessary (BAMN), for breaking up the event.[73]

Response

Mainstream

Antifa actions have been subject to criticism from Republicans, Democrats and political commentators in the U.S. media.[74][75][76] House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi condemned the violence of Antifa activists in Berkeley on August 29, 2017.[77] Conservative talk show host and Fox News contributor Laura Ingraham suggested labeling antifa as a terrorist organization.[78]

Trevor Noah, host of the popular late-night television program The Daily Show jokingly referred to antifa as "Vegan ISIS".[79]

The Anti-Defamation League posited that "All forms of antifa violence are problematic. ... Images of these 'free speech' protesters being beaten by black-clad and bandana-masked antifa provide right wing extremists with a powerful propaganda tool," but goes on to note "that said, it is important to reject attempts to claim equivalence between the antifa and the white supremacist groups they oppose."[11]

White House petition

In August 2017, a petition requesting that "AntiFa" be classified by the Pentagon as a terrorist organization was launched on the White House petitioning system We the People. It gathered more than 100,000 signatures in three days and therefore under policy set by the Obama administration would have received an official review and response from the White House (at over 300,000 signatures, by late August it was the third most-signed submission posted).[80]

The originator of the "AntiFa" petition, who goes by the pseudonym "Microchip", remarked to Politico that getting conservatives to share and discuss the petition was the entire point, rather than prompting any concrete action by the government. As of October 2017, the petition had over 350,000 signatures.[81]

The White House responded to the petition, stating "Although Federal law provides a mechanism to designate and sanction foreign terrorist organizations and foreign state sponsors of terrorism, there is currently no analogous mechanism for formally designating domestic terrorist organizations. Nonetheless, law enforcement has many tools at its disposal to address violent individuals and groups." (emphasis added)[82]

Twitter hoax

In August 2017, a #PunchWhiteWomen photo hoax campaign was started by members of the alt-right in an attempt to discredit the antifa movement.[83]

In August 2017, the image of British actress Anna Friel portraying a battered woman in a 2007 Women's Aid anti-domestic violence campaign was re-purposed using fake antifa Twitter accounts organized by way of 4chan, which was discovered after an investigation by Bellingcat researcher Eliot Higgins. The image is captioned "53% of white women voted for Trump, 53% of white women should look like this" and includes an antifa flag. Another image featuring an injured woman is captioned "She chose to be a Nazi. Choices have consequences" and includes the hashtag #PunchANazi. Eliot Higgins remarked to the BBC that "[t]his was a transparent and quite pathetic attempt, but I wouldn't be surprised if white nationalist groups try to mount more sophisticated attacks in the future".[84]

A report by ProPublica said that both overtly and covertly pro-Russian social media accounts were found using the hashtag #Antifa in reference to the events and aftermath of the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, in which an anti-fascist protester was killed.[85] Nafeesa Syeed of Bloomberg reported that "[t]he most-tweeted link in the Russian-linked network followed by the researchers was a petition to declare Antifa a terrorist group".[86]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Language Log » Ask Language Log: How to pronounce "Antifa"?". languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu. Retrieved September 23, 2017. 
  2. ^ Alcorn, Chauncey (August 15, 2017). "A timeline of major 2017 pro-Trump, anti-Trump clashes before Charlottesville". Mic. Retrieved October 30, 2017. The alt-right demonstrators are frequently confronted by anti-Trump progressive groups, including militant antifa and anarchist factions. 
  3. ^ Miller, Michael E. (September 14, 2017). "Antifa: Guardians against fascism or lawless thrill-seekers?". Washington Post. Retrieved October 13, 2017. It was a call to arms for militant anti-fascists, or “antifa” — and Hines was heeding it. 
  4. ^ "An Inside Look at the Antifa Movement". KNTV. September 27, 2017. Retrieved October 13, 2017. NBC Bay Area sat down with several militant Antifa protesters... 
  5. ^ Blow, Ashli (September 18, 2017). "Man with swastika armband gets punched in downtown Seattle while yelling at people". KIRO-TV. Retrieved October 13, 2017. Antifa, a militant anti-fascist political movement... 
  6. ^ Cummings, Ian; Rice, Glenn E. (September 14, 2017). "Confused about antifa, protests and KC guns laws? Here's the deal". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved October 13, 2017. Antifa ... is a movement of militant leftist activists promoting direct action against white supremacists and fascists. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Seurth, Jessica (August 14, 2017). "What is Antifa?". CNN. Retrieved August 15, 2017. 
  8. ^ Savage, Charlie (August 16, 2017). "Justice Dept. Demands Data on Visitors to Anti-Trump Website, Sparking Fight". The New York Times. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  9. ^ Ellis, Emma Grey (February 4, 2017). "Neo-Nazis Face a New Foe Online and IRL: the Far-Left Antifa". Wired. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c Cammeron, Brenna (August 14, 2017). "Antifa: Left-wing militants on the rise". BBC News. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  11. ^ a b c d e "Who are the Antifa?", Anti-Defamation League, 2017; retrieved June 12, 2018.
  12. ^ Steakin, William (May 4, 2017). "What is Antifa? Controversial far-left group defends use of violence". AOL. Retrieved August 15, 2017. 
  13. ^ Cammeron, Brenna (August 14, 2017). "Antifa: Left-wing militants on the rise". BBC News. Retrieved August 15, 2017. 
  14. ^ Kaste, Martin; Siegler, Kirk (June 16, 2017). "Fact Check: Is Left-Wing Violence Rising?". National Public Radio. Retrieved August 15, 2017. 
  15. ^ a b "What is Antifa?". The Economist. July 29, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i Beinhart, Peter (September 6, 2017). "The Rise of the Violent Left". The Atlantic. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  17. ^ Fuller, Thomas; Feuer, Alan; Kovaleski, Serge F. (August 17, 2017). "'Antifa' Grows as Left-Wing Faction Set to, Literally, Fight the Far Right". The New York Times. Retrieved September 10, 2017. [...] the diverse collection of anarchists, communists and socialists has found common cause in opposing right-wing extremists and white supremacists .
  18. ^ Pasha-Robinson, Lucy (September 4, 2017). "Antifa: US security agencies label group 'domestic terrorists'". The Independent. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  19. ^ "A look at the violent anarchist group Antifa". CNN. August 18, 2017. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  20. ^ Johnson, Lizzie; Allday, Erin; Cabanatuan, Michael; Asimov, Nanette (August 28, 2017). "Masked anarchists violently rout right-wing demonstrators in Berkeley". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  21. ^ "Three out on Bail As Aftermath of Nazi Brawl in Milwaukee". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. June 27, 1934. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  22. ^ a b c Sales, Ben (August 16, 2017). "What you need to know about antifa, the group that fought white supremacists in Charlottesville". Jewish Telegraph Agency. Retrieved August 25, 2017. 
  23. ^ Dorpalen, Andreas (1986). German History in Marxist Perspective: The East German Approach. I.B. Tauris. p. 384. ISBN 978-1-85043-024-7. 
  24. ^ "The Greensboro Massacre". University of North Carolina – Greensboro. Retrieved February 2, 2014. 
  25. ^ Bray, Mark (2017). "Introduction". Antifa: The Antifascist Handbook. Melville House. ISBN 978-1-61219-703-6. In the United States, most [antifa groups] have been anarchist or antiauthoritarian since the emergence of modern antifa under the name Anti-Racist Action (ARA) in the late eighties. 
  26. ^ Stein, Perry (August 16, 2017). "Anarchists and the antifa: The history of activists Trump condemns as the 'alt-left'". Chicago Tribune.com. Retrieved November 10, 2017. 
  27. ^ Snyders, Matt (February 20, 2008). "Skinheads at Forty". City Pages. Archived from the original on August 3, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2012. 
  28. ^ Bray, Mark (August 16, 2017). "Analysis | Who are the antifa". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved November 10, 2017. 
  29. ^ Balhorn, Loren (2017). "The Lost History of Antifa", Jacobin. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  30. ^ "Antifa", Grammarist. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  31. ^ "Words We're Watching: 'Antifa'," Merriam Webster, November 2017. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  32. ^ "Antifa: a word on the rise", Oxford Dictionaries, December 15, 2017. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  33. ^ a b c Beale, Andrew; Kehrt, Sonner (August 4, 2017). "Behind Berkeley's Semester of Hate". The New York Times. Retrieved August 7, 2017. 
  34. ^ Lennard, Natasha (January 19, 2017). "Anti-Fascists Will Fight Trump's Fascism in the Streets". The Nation. Retrieved August 14, 2017. 
  35. ^ Mallett, Whitney (May 10, 2017). "California Anti-Fascists Want Racists and the Trump Administration to Be Afraid". Vice. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  36. ^ Devega, Chauncey (July 20, 2017). "There's a legacy of people resisting white supremacy in the US. Antifa is not new". Salon. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  37. ^ "Unmasking the leftist Antifa movement". CNN. August 17, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  38. ^ a b Illing, Sean (August 25, 2017). "'They have no allegiance to liberal democracy': an expert on antifa explains the group". Vox. Retrieved August 27, 2017. 
  39. ^ a b Lozada, Carlos (September 1, 2017). "The history, theory and contradictions of antifa". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 1, 2017. 
  40. ^ "Trump and the right's post-Charlottesville bogeyman is antifa, a movement with a complicated history". Business Insider Deutschland. August 23, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2017. 
  41. ^ Beinart, Peter (August 16, 2017). "What Trump Gets Wrong About Antifa". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  42. ^ a b Mann, Brian (August 14, 2017). "Trump Supporter: 'He Called For Unity, I Never Saw Obama Call For Unity'". National Public Radio. Retrieved August 14, 2017. 
  43. ^ Shepherd, Katie (June 23, 2017). "Portland Police Chief Says Antifa Protesters Used Slingshot to Launch Urine and Feces-Filled Balloons at Riot Cops". Willamette Week. Retrieved September 2, 2017. 
  44. ^ John, Paige St.; Queally, James (August 29, 2017). "'Antifa' violence in Berkeley spurs soul-searching within leftist activist community". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved September 2, 2017. 
  45. ^ a b Qiu, Linda (August 15, 2017). "Trump Asks, 'What About the Alt-Left?' Here's an Answer". The New York Times. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  46. ^ Nash, Amalie C (January 20, 2017). "White nationalist Richard Spencer punched during D.C. protests". USA Today. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  47. ^ Enzinna, Wes (January 26, 2017). "The long history of "Nazi punching"". Mother Jones. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  48. ^ "The Red Cross Won't Save Houston. Texas Residents Are Launching Community Relief Efforts Instead". Democracy Now!. August 30, 2017. Retrieved September 2, 2017. 
  49. ^ Smith, Lydia (August 31, 2017). "Hurricane Harvey: Antifa are on the ground in Texas helping flooding relief efforts". The Independent. Retrieved September 2, 2017. 
  50. ^ a b Lennard, Natasha (January 19, 2017). "Anti-Fascists Will Fight Trump's Fascism in the Streets". The Nation. Retrieved August 7, 2017. 
  51. ^ "Anarchist Extremists: Antifa". New Jersey Office of Homeland Security and Preparedness. June 12, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2017. 
  52. ^ Meyer, Josh (September 1, 2017). "FBI, Homeland Security warn of more 'antifa' attacks". Politico. Archived from the original on September 1, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2017. Federal authorities have been warning state and local officials since early 2016 that leftist extremists known as 'antifa' had become increasingly confrontational and dangerous, so much so that the Department of Homeland Security formally classified their activities as 'domestic terrorist violence', according to interviews and confidential law enforcement documents obtained by POLITICO .
  53. ^ Mindock, Clark (June 22, 2018). "Antifa group shares link to list of 1,600 ICE employees alongside photos, locations, and job titles". The Independent. Retrieved July 4, 2018. 
  54. ^ Paulas, Rick (November 29, 2017). "What to Wear to Smash the State". The New York Times. Retrieved August 9, 2018. 
  55. ^ Tuttle, Ian (August 16, 2017). "On the Alt-Right and the 'Alt-Left'". National Review. Retrieved September 23, 2017. 
  56. ^ Roose, Kevin (August 9, 2017). "The Alt-Right Finds a New Enemy in Silicon Valley". The New York Times. Retrieved September 23, 2017. 
  57. ^ Porter, Tom (August 12, 2017). "Who are the alt-right leaders and provocateurs addressing the Charlottesville white nationalist rally?". Newsweek. Retrieved September 23, 2017. 
  58. ^ Luckhurst, Phoebe (November 25, 2016). "Who is Milo Yiannopoulos? Everything you need to know about Donald Trump's alt-Right poster boy". London Evening Standard. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  59. ^ a b Swenson, Kyle (August 28, 2017). "Black-clad antifa attack peaceful right wing demonstrators in Berkeley". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 28, 2017. 
  60. ^ Brown, Doug (April 25, 2017). "82nd Avenue of the Roses Parade Cancelled after Threats of Political Protests, Violence". The Portland Mercury. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  61. ^ Mettler, Katie (April 27, 2017). "Portland rose parade canceled after 'antifascists' threaten GOP marchers". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 14, 2017. 
  62. ^ Bancalari, Kellie (June 30, 2017). "Evergreen State College looks to mend campus following protests". USA Today. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  63. ^ Stan, Adele (August 14, 2017). "White Supremacist Chaos in Charlottesville Is Just the Beginning". Moyers & Company. Retrieved August 14, 2017. 
  64. ^ Seunagal, Gabrielle (August 16, 2017). "AntiFa Protester Arrested For Destruction of Property". USA Herald. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  65. ^ a b Lithwick, Dahlia (August 16, 2017). "Yes, What About the "Alt-Left"?". Slate. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  66. ^ Flood, Alison (August 22, 2017). "Antifa: the Anti-fascist Handbook". The Guardian. Retrieved August 27, 2017. What Trump said made the book seem even more urgent. Rushed into print after the US president said there were 'fine people on both sides' of the Charlottesville clashes, Mark Bray's guide provides tactics for those hoping to 'defeat the resurgent far right.' 
  67. ^ Bellows, Kate (July 6, 2017). "Charlottesville activists, religious leaders to counter KKK rally with community events Saturday". The Cavalier Daily. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  68. ^ Coppins, McKay (August 19, 2017). "The far right's day in Boston". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  69. ^ Smith, David (August 23, 2017). "Trump paints himself as the real victim of Charlottesville in angry speech". The Guardian. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  70. ^ Bowman, Emma (August 28, 2017). "Scattered Violence Erupts At Large, Left-Wing Berkeley Rally". National Public Radio. Retrieved August 28, 2017. 
  71. ^ Queally, James; St. John, Paige; Oreskes, Benjamin; Zahniser, David (August 27, 2017). "Counter-demonstrators vastly out number Trump supporters at Berkeley rally". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  72. ^ Porter, Tom (August 29, 2017). "Berkeley's mayor wants antifa to be classified as a gang". Newsweek. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  73. ^ Bauer, Shane (August 25, 2017). "Pro-Trump group cancels San Francisco rally as hundreds of counterprotesters march on the streets". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 4, 2018. 
  74. ^ "Calmer voices on the left must disavow antifa's tactics — or else they will give rhetorical ammunition to Trump". New York Daily News. August 20, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2017. 
  75. ^ Berrien, Hank (August 15, 2017). "Crowder Slams Antifa, Alt-Right". The Daily Wire. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  76. ^ Oppenheim, Maya (August 22, 2017). "Noam Chomsky: Antifa is a 'major gift to the right'". The Independent. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  77. ^ Pelosi, Nancy (August 29, 2017). "Pelosi Statement Condemning Antifa Violence in Berkeley". democraticleader.gov. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  78. ^ Concha, Joe (August 29, 2017). "Laura Ingraham proposes declaring antifa a 'terrorist organization'". The Hill. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  79. ^ Noah, Trevor (August 31, 2017). "Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Antagonists of the Alt-Right: The Daily Show". YouTube. Retrieved October 13, 2017. 
  80. ^ "Petition urging terror label for Antifa gets enough signatures for White House response". Fox News. August 21, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2017. 
  81. ^ Musgrave, Shawn (August 24, 2017). "White House 'antifa' petition written by pro-Trump troll". Politico. Retrieved August 25, 2017. 
  82. ^ "The White House is answering online petitions again, but does it still matter?". Theverge.com. Retrieved July 4, 2018. 
  83. ^ Maldonado, Alessandra (August 24, 2017). "Antifa '#PunchWhiteWomen' campaign revealed as 4Chan hoax". Salon. Retrieved August 30, 2017. Reportedly, 'alt-right' activists have been using masked Twitter accounts and doctored photos of battered women to run a smear campaign against the antifa movement .
  84. ^ "Far-right smear campaign against Antifa exposed by Bellingcat". BBC News. August 24, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2017. 
  85. ^ Arnsdorf, Isaac (August 28, 2017). "Pro-Russian Bots Take Up the Right-Wing Cause After Charlottesville". ProPublica. Retrieved September 18, 2017. 
  86. ^ Syeed, Nafeesa (September 1, 2017). "Pro-Russian Bots Sharpen Online Attacks for 2018 U.S. Vote". Bloomberg Politics. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 

Further reading