The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (May 2017)
|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
Antifeminism, also spelled anti-feminism, is opposition to some or all forms of feminism. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, antifeminists opposed particular policy proposals for women's rights, such as the right to vote, educational opportunities, property rights, and access to birth control. In the mid and late 20th century, antifeminists often opposed the abortion-rights movement and, in the United States, the Equal Rights Amendment.
In the early 21st century, some antifeminists in the United States see their ideology as a response to one rooted in hostility towards men, holding feminism responsible for several social problems, including lower college entrance rates of young men, gender differences in suicide and a perceived decline in manliness in American culture. 21st century antifeminism has sometimes been an element of violent, far-right extremist acts.
Canadian sociologists Melissa Blais and Francis Dupuis-Déri write that antifeminist thought has primarily taken the form of masculinism, in which "men are in crisis because of the feminization of society".
The term antifeminist is also used to describe public female figures, some of whom (such as Naomi Wolf, Camille Paglia, and Kate Roiphe) define themselves as feminists, based on their opposition to some or all elements of feminist movements. Other feminists label writers such as Christina Hoff Sommers, Jean Bethke Elshtain, Katie Roiphe and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese with this term because of their positions regarding oppression and lines of thought within feminism.
The meaning of antifeminism has varied across time and cultures, and antifeminism attracts both men and women. Some women, like those in the Women's National Anti-Suffrage League, campaigned against women's suffrage.
Men's studies scholar Michael Kimmel defines antifeminism as "the opposition to women's equality". He says that antifeminists oppose "women's entry into the public sphere, the re-organization of the private sphere, women's control of their bodies, and women's rights generally." Kimmel further writes that antifeminist argumentation relies on "religious and cultural norms" while proponents of antifeminism advance their cause as a means of "'saving' masculinity from pollution and invasion". He argues that antifeminists consider the "traditional gender division of labor as natural and inevitable, perhaps also divinely sanctioned."
Antifeminist ideology rejects at least one of the following general principles of feminism:
- That social arrangements among men and women are neither natural nor divinely determined.
- That social arrangements among men and women favor men.
- That there are collective actions that can and should be taken to transform these arrangements into more just and equitable arrangements
Some antifeminists argue that feminism, despite claiming to advocate for equality, ignores rights issues unique to men. They believe that the feminist movement has achieved its aims and now seeks higher status for women than for men via special rights and exemptions, such as female-only scholarships, affirmative action, and gender quotas.
Antifeminism might be motivated by the belief that feminist theories of patriarchy and disadvantages suffered by women in society are incorrect or exaggerated; that feminism as a movement encourages misandry and results in harm or oppression of men; or driven by general opposition towards women's rights.
Furthermore, antifeminists view feminism as a denial of innate psychological sex differences and an attempt to reprogram people against their biological tendencies. They have argued that feminism has resulted in changes to society's previous norms relating to sexuality, which they see as detrimental to traditional values or conservative religious beliefs. For example, the ubiquity of casual sex and the decline of marriage are mentioned as negative consequences of feminism. In a report from anti-extremism charity HOPE not Hate, half of young men from UK believe that feminism has "gone too far and makes it harder for men to succeed".
Moreover, other antifeminists oppose women's entry into the workforce, political office, or the voting process, as well as the lessening of male authority in families. They argue that a change of women's roles is a destructive force that endangers the family, or is contrary to religious morals. For example, Paul Gottfried maintains that the change of women's roles "has been a social disaster that continues to take its toll on the family" and contributed to a "descent by increasingly disconnected individuals into social chaos".
The "women's movement" began in 1848, most famously articulated by Elizabeth Cady Stanton demanding voting rights, joined by Lucy Stone, Susan B. Anthony and others who also pushed for other rights such as education, job freedom, marital and property rights, and the right to choose when or whether to become a mother. However, by the end of the century, a cultural counter movement had begun. Janet Chafetz identified in a study 32 first-wave antifeminist movements, including those in the 19th century and early 20th century movements. These countermovements were in response to some women's growing demands, which were perceived as threatening to the standard way of life. Though men were not the only antifeminists, men experienced what some have called a "crisis of masculinity" in response to traditional gender roles being challenged. Men's responses to increased feminism varied. Some men even subscribed to feminist ideology, but others went the other direction and became decidedly antifeminist. The men who believed in this model cited religious models and natural law to emphasize women's need to return to the private sphere, in order to preserve the current social order.
In the 19th century, one of the major focal points of antifeminism was opposition to women's suffrage, which began as a grassroots movement in 1848 and spanned for 72 years. Opponents of women's entry into institutions of higher learning argued that education was too great a physical burden on women. In Sex in Education: or, a Fair Chance for the Girls (1873), Harvard professor Edward Clarke predicted that if women went to college, their brains would grow bigger and heavier, and their wombs would atrophy. Other antifeminists opposed women's entry into the labor force, their right to join unions, to sit on juries, or to obtain birth control and control of their sexuality.
The pro-family movement appeared in the late 19th century, by about 1870. This movement was intended to halt the rising divorce rate and reinforce traditional family values. The National League for the Protection of the Family, formerly known as the Divorce Reform League, took over the movement in 1881. Samuel Dike was one of the founders of the League, and was considered an early expert on divorce. Through his efforts, the League garnered attention from pro-family advocates. It underwent a shift from fighting against divorce to promoting marriage and traditional family. Speaking on behalf of the League in an 1887 address to the Evangelical Alliance Conference, Samuel Dike described the ideal family as having "one man and one woman, united in wedlock, together with their children". This movement built the foundation for many pro-family arguments in contemporary antifeminism.
Early 20th century
Women's suffrage was achieved in the US in 1920, and early 20th-century antifeminism was primarily focused on fighting this. Suffragists scoffed at antisuffragists. Anna Howard Shaw, president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) from 1904 to 1915, presumed, perhaps unfairly, that the antisuffragists were merely working under the influence of male forces. Later historians tended to dismiss antisuffragists as subscribing to the model of domestic idealism, that a woman's place is in the home. This undermines and belittles the true power and numbers behind the antisuffrage movement, which was primarily led by women themselves. Arguments employed by antisuffragists at the turn of the century had less to do with a woman's place in the home as much as it had to do with a woman's proper place in the public realm. In fact, leaders of the movement often encouraged other women to leave the home and participate in society. What they opposed was women participating in the political sphere.
There were two reasons antisuffragists opposed women participating in the political realm. Some argued that women were already overburdened. The majority of them, however, argued that a woman's participation in the political realm would hinder her participation in social and civic duties. If they won the right to vote, women would consequently have to align with a particular party, which would destroy their ability to be politically neutral. Antisuffragists feared this would, in fact, hinder their influence with legislative authorities.
Mid 20th century
In 1951, two journalists published Washington Confidential. The novel claimed that Communist leaders used their men and women to recruit a variety of minorities in the nation's capital, such as females, colored males, and homosexual males. The vast popularity of the book caused such a buzz that the Civil Service Commission had to create a "publicity campaign to improve the image of federal employees" in hopes to save their federal employees from losing their jobs. This ploy failed once the journalists linked feminism to communism in their novel and ultimately reinforced antifeminism by implying that defending the "white, Christian, heterosexual, patriarchal family" was the only way to oppose communism.
Late 20th century
Equal Rights Amendment
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is a perennially proposed amendment to the United States Constitution that would grant equal rights and opportunities to every citizen of the United States, regardless of their sex. In 1950 and 1953, ERA was passed by the Senate with a provision known as "the Hayden rider", making it unacceptable to ERA supporters. The Hayden rider was included to keep special protections for women. A new section to the ERA was added, stating: "The provisions of this article shall not be construed to impair any rights, benefits, or exemptions now or hereafter conferred by law upon persons of the female sex." That is, women could keep their existing and future special protections that men did not have. By 1972, the amendment was supported by both major parties and was immensely popular. However, it was defeated in Congress when it failed to get the vote of 38 legislatures by 1982. Supporters of an unaltered ERA rejected the Hayden rider, believing an ERA containing the rider did not provide for equality.
Jerome Himmelstein identified two main theories about the appeal of antifeminism and its role in opposition to the ERA. One theory is that it was a clash between upper-class liberal voters and the older, more conservative lower-class rural voters who often serve as the center for right-wing movements; in other words, this theory identifies particular social classes as more inherently friendly to antifeminism. Another theory holds that women who feel vulnerable and dependent on men are likely to oppose anything that threatens that tenuous stability; under this view, while educated, independent career women may support feminism, housewives who lack such resources are more drawn to antifeminism. Himmelstein, however, says both views are at least partially wrong, arguing that the primary dividing line between feminists and antifeminists is cultural rather than stemming from differences in economic and social status. There are, in fact, similarities between income between activists on both sides of the ERA debate. As it turned out, the most indicative factors when predicting ERA position, especially among women, were race, marital status, age, and education. ERA opposition was much higher among white, married, older, and less educated citizens. Women who opposed the ERA tended to fit characteristics consistent with the Religious Right.
Val Burris, meanwhile, says that high-income men opposed the amendment because they would gain the least with it being passed; that those men had the most to lose, since the ratification of the ERA would mean more competition for their jobs and possibly a lowered self-esteem. Because of the support of antifeminism from conservatives and the constant "conservative reactions to liberal social politics", such as the New Deal attacks, the attack on the ERA has been called a "right-wing backlash". Their methods include actions such as "insults proffered in emails or on the telephone, systematic denigration of feminism in the media, Internet disclosure of confidential information (e.g. addresses) on resources for battered women" and more.
Abortion remains one of the most controversial topics in the United States. Roe v. Wade was decided in 1973, and abortion was utilized by many antifeminists to rally supporters. Antiabortion views helped further several right-wing movements, including explicit antifeminism, and helped right-wing politicians rise to power. Antiabortion writings and conservative commentary in the late 20th century criticized the feminist movement's embrace of the right to abortion as selfish and self-centered.
Some current antifeminist practices can be traced back to the rise of the religious right in the late 1970s. BBC and Time, among others, have covered the 2014 social media trend #WomenAgainstFeminism. These antifeminists contend that feminism demonizes men (misandry) and that women are not oppressed in 21st century Western countries.
British newspaper The Guardian and the website Jezebel have also reported on an increasing number of women and female celebrities rejecting feminism and instead subscribing to humanism. As a response to a pro-feminism speech by Australian Labor Senator Penny Wong, several women who identify as being humanist and antifeminist argued in an article for the Guardian that feminism is a discriminatory ideology and continues to portray women as victims.
In response to the social media trend, modern day feminists also began to upload similar pictures to websites such as Twitter and Tumblr. Most used the same hashtag, "womenagainstfeminism", but instead made satirical and bluntly parodic comments. In November 2014, Time magazine included "feminist" on its annual list of proposed banished words. After initially receiving the majority of votes (51%), a Time editor apologized for including the word in the poll and removed it from the results.
In March 2019, the German Language Association organized a petition proclaiming that billions of Euros are being wasted on women's studies, gender work equality and gender studies in Germany. This is money the organization believes can be better used to fund hospitals, natural science faculties and virus research institutes.
In April 2022, far-right political party Leviathan, with a significant public profile of almost 300,000 Facebook followers, missed out on a seat in parliament in Serbia's 2022 election. The Leviathan party portrays migrants as criminals, and themselves as the defenders of Serbian women. The group has been praised by some in Serbia for defending ‘traditional family values’ and hierarchical gender roles, while opposing the empowerment of women and feminist ideologies.
Social improvements by women have sparked an anti-feminist backlash, in which disgruntled young men have become vocal critics of feminism and feminist women who speak out in public. Yoon Suk-yeol narrowly won South Korea's 2022 presidential election. During his run for presidency, he called for the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family to be abolished, and accused its officials of treating men like “potential sex criminals.” Yoon also said that he doesn't think systemic structural discrimination based on gender exists in South Korea, despite Korean women being near the bottom of the developed world according to several economic and social indicators.
Founded in the U.S. by Phyllis Schlafly in 1972, Stop ERA, now known as "Eagle Forum", lobbied successfully to block the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment in the U.S. It was also Schlafly who forged links between Stop ERA and other conservative organizations, as well as single-issue groups against abortion, pornography, gun control, and unions. By integrating Stop ERA with the thus-dubbed "new right", she was able to leverage a wider range of technological, organizational and political resources, successfully targeting pro-feminist candidates for defeat.
The Concerned Women of America (CWA) are also an antifeminist organization. Like other conservative women's groups, they oppose abortion and same-sex marriage and make appeals for maternalism and biological differences between women and men.
The Independent Women's Forum (IWF) is another antifeminist, conservative, women-oriented group. It's younger and less established than the CWA, though the two organizations are often discussed in relation to each other. It was founded to take on the "old feminist establishment". Both of these organizations pride themselves on rallying women who do not identify with feminist rhetoric together. These organizations frame themselves as being by women, for women, in order to fight the idea that feminism is the only women-oriented ideology. These organizations chastise feminists for presuming to universally speak for all women. The IWF claims to be "the voice of reasonable women with important ideas who embrace common sense over divisive ideology".
According to Amherst College sociology professor Jerome L. Himmelstein, antifeminism is rooted in social stigmas against feminism and is thus a purely reactionary movement. Himmelstein identifies two prevailing theories that seek to explain the origins of antifeminism: the first theory, proposed by Himmelstein, is that conservative opposition in the abortion and Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) debates has created a climate of hostility toward the entire feminist movement.
The second theory Himmelstein identifies states that the female antifeminists who lead the movement are largely married, low education, and low personal income women who embody the "insecure housewife scenario" and seek to perpetuate their own situation in which women depend on men for fiscal support. However, numerous studies have failed to correlate the aforementioned demographic factors with support for antifeminism, and only religiosity correlates positively with antifeminist alignment.
Authors Janet Saltzman Chafetz and Anthony Gary Dworkin, writing for Gender and Society, argue that the organizations most likely to formally organize against feminism are religious. This is because women's movements may demand access to male-dominated positions within the religious sector, like the clergy, and women's movements threaten male-oriented values of some religions. The more successful a feminist movement is in challenging the authority of male-dominated groups, the more these groups will organize a countermovement.
University of Illinois at Chicago sociology professor Danielle Giffort argues that the stigma against feminism created by antifeminists has resulted in organizations that practice "implicit feminism", which she defines as the "strategy practiced by feminist activists within organizations that are operating in an anti- and post-feminist environment in which they conceal feminist identities and ideas while emphasizing the more socially acceptable angles of their efforts". Due to the stigma against feminism, some activists, such as those involved with Girls Rock, may take the principles of feminism as a foundation of thought and teach girls and women independence and self-reliance without explicitly labeling it with the stigmatized brand of feminism. Thus, most women continue to practice feminism in terms of seeking equality and independence for women, yet avoid the label.
Connections to far-right extremism
Antifeminism has been identified as an underlying motivation in far-right extremism. For example, the perpetrators of the Christchurch massacre and the El Paso shooting appear to have been motivated by the conspiracy theory that white people are being replaced by non-whites largely as a result of feminist stances in Western societies.
According to Helen Lewis, the far-right ideology considers it vital to control female reproduction and sexuality: "Misogyny is used predominantly as the first outreach mechanism", where "You were owed something, or your life should have been X, but because of the ridiculous things feminists are doing, you can’t access them." Similar strands of thought are found in the incel subculture, which centers around misogynist fantasies about punishing women for not having sex with them.
- Ford, Lynne E. (2009). Encyclopedia of Women and American Politics. Infobase Publishing. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4381-1032-5.
- Maddux, Kristy (Fall 2004). "When patriots protest: the anti-suffrage discursive transformation of 1917". Rhetoric & Public Affairs. 7 (3): 283–310. doi:10.1353/rap.2005.0012. S2CID 143856522.
- "How anti-feminism is shaping world politics". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- "'Anti-feminist' YouTuber Sydney Watson launches March for Men in Melbourne". News hub. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- Anderson, Kristin J.; Kanner, Melinda; Elsayegh, Nisreen (2009). "Are Feminists man Haters? Feminists' and Nonfeminists' Attitudes Toward Men". Psychology of Women Quarterly. 33 (2): 216–224. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.692.9151. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01491.x. S2CID 144704304.
- Träbert, Alva (n.d.). At the Mercy of Femocracy? Networks and Ideological Links Between Far-Right Movements and the Antifeminist Men's Rights Movement. Gender and Politics. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 273–288. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-43533-6_18. ISBN 978-3-319-43533-6 – via Springer Link.
- Fielitz, Maik; Thurston, Nick (2019). "Bet ween Anti-Feminism and Ethnicized Sexism". Post-Digital Cultures of the Far Right: Online Actions and Offline Consequences in Europe and the US. Transcript Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8376-4670-2 – via Google Books.
- Lorentzen, Maia Kahlke; Shakir, Kevin (1 June 2020). "The Anti-Feminism of the Far-Right Imageboard Terrorists". Conjunctions. 7 (1): 000010714671119855. doi:10.7146/tjcp.v7i1.119855. ISSN 2246-3755.
- Blais, Melissa; Francis Dupuis-Déri, Francis (2012). "Masculinism and the antifeminist countermovement". Journal of Social, Cultural and Political Protest. 11 (1): 21–39. doi:10.1080/14742837.2012.640532. S2CID 144983000.
- Hammer, Rhonda (2006). "Anti‐feminists as media celebrities". Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies. 22 (3): 207–222. doi:10.1080/1071441000220303. S2CID 143539183.
- Stacey, Judith (Summer 2000). "Is academic feminism an oxymoron?". Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 25 (4): 1189–1194. doi:10.1086/495543. JSTOR 3175510. S2CID 144886664.
- Kamarck Minnich, Elizabeth (Spring 1998). "Feminist attacks on feminisms: patriarchy's prodigal daughters". Feminist Studies. 24 (1): 159–175. doi:10.2307/3178629. JSTOR 3178629.
- Jervis, Lisa; Zeisler, Andi, eds. (2006). BITCHfest : ten years of cultural criticism from the pages of Bitch magazine. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 9780374113438. (Foreword by Margaret Cho.)
- Rover, Constance (22 July 2019). "Ix. The Anti-Suffragists". Women's Suffrage and Party Politics in Britain, 1866–1914. University of Toronto Press. pp. 170–177. doi:10.3138/9781487575250-012. ISBN 978-1-4875-7525-0 – via www.degruyter.com.
- Kimmel, Michael; Aronson, Amy, eds. (2004). "Antifeminism". Men and masculinities a social, cultural, and historical encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 35–37. ISBN 978-1-57607-774-0.
- Clatterbaugh, Kenneth (2007). "Anti-feminism". In Flood, Michael; Kegan Gardiner, Judith; Pease, Bob; Pringle, Keith (eds.). International encyclopedia of men and masculinities. London: Routledge. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-0-41-533343-6.
- Wattenberg, Ben (1994). "Has feminism gone too far?". MenWeb. Archived from the original on 13 October 2006. Retrieved 30 September 2006.
- Pizzey, Erin (1999). "How the women's movement taught women to hate men". Fathers for Life. Archived from the original on 26 September 2006. Retrieved 30 September 2006.
- Shaw Crouse, Janice (7 February 2006). "What Friedan wrought". Concerned Women for America. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 30 September 2006.
- Brosnan, Greg (July 24, 2014). "#BBCtrending: Meet the 'Women Against Feminism'". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- Blee, Kathleen M. (1998), "Antifeminism", in Mankiller, Wilma; et al., eds. (1998). The reader's companion to U.S. women's history. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 32. ISBN 9780395671733.
- "The two major waves of antifeminist activity coincide with the two waves of the women's rights movement: the campaign to secure female suffrage in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and the feminist movement of the late twentieth century. In both periods, those holding a traditional view of women's place in the home and family tried to advance their cause by joining with other conservative groups to forestall efforts to extend women's rights."
- Mertz, Thomas J. (2005), "Antifeminism", in Cline Horowitz, Maryanne, ed. (2005). New dictionary of the history of ideas / Vol. 1, Abolitionism to Common sense. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 94–98. ISBN 9780684313788.
- "Antifeminism, then, repudiates critiques of male supremacy and resists efforts to eliminate it (often accompanied by dismissal of the idea that change is possible). Note that this definition of antifeminism limits its reference to reactions against critiques of gender-based hierarchies and efforts to relieve the oppression of women."
- Howard, Angela Marie (2008), "Antifeminism", in Smith, Bonnie G., ed. (2008). The Oxford encyclopedia of women in world history / Vol. 1, Abayomi to Czech Republic. Oxford England New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 115–119. ISBN 9780195148909.
- "Reform activity that challenged either the subordination of women to men or the patriarchal limitation of women's status provoked an antifeminist response that included an intellectual and political campaign to halt progress toward women's rights and equality."
- Hampton, Jean (1996), "The case for feminism", in Leahy, Michael P.T., ed. (1996). The liberation debate: rights at issue. London New York: Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 9780415116947.
- Desai, Murli (2014), "Feminism and policy approaches for gender aware development", in Desai, Murli, ed. (2014). The paradigm of international social development: ideologies, development systems and policy approaches. New York: Routledge. p. 119. ISBN 9781135010256.
- Barthalow Koch, Patricia (2004), "Feminism and sexuality in the United States", in Francoeur, Robert T.; Noonan, Raymond J., eds. (2004). The Continuum complete international encyclopedia of sexuality. New York: Continuum. p. 1163. ISBN 9780199754700.
- Jaggar, Alison (1983), "Traditional Marxism and human nature", in Jaggar, Alison, ed. (1983). Feminist politics and human. Totowa, N.J: Rowman & Allanheld. p. 75. ISBN 9780710806536.
- Kassian, Mary A. (2005). The feminist mistake: the radical impact of feminism on church and culture. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway Books. ISBN 9781581345704.
- Lukas, Carrie L. (2006). The politically incorrect guide to women, sex, and feminism. Washington, DC Lanham, MD: Regency Publishing. ISBN 9781596980037.
- "Feminism Has 'Gone Too Far', Say 50 Percent of Gen Z Men". www.vice.com. Retrieved 2021-06-10.
- "Young, Male and Anti-Feminist – The Gen Z Boys Who Hate Women". www.vice.com. Retrieved 2021-06-10.
- Busch, Elizabeth Kaufer (2009), "Women against liberation", in Busch, Elizabeth Kaufer; Lawler, Peter Augustine (eds.), Democracy reconsidered, Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, p. 242, ISBN 9780739124819
- Gottfried, Paul (21 April 2001). "The trouble with feminism". LewRockwell.com. Retrieved 30 September 2006.
- Faludi, Susan (1992), "Backlashes then and now", in Faludi, Susan, ed. (2010-05-29). Backlash: the undeclared war against women. London: Vintage. p. 69. ISBN 9781409043447.
- Chafetz, Janet; Dworkin, Anthony (March 1987). "In the face of threat: organized antifeminism in comparative perspective". Gender & Society. 1 (1): 33–60. doi:10.1177/089124387001001003. JSTOR 190086. S2CID 145056212.
- Kimmel, Michael S. (September 1987). "Men's responses to feminism at the turn of the century". Gender and Society. 1 (3): 261–283. doi:10.1177/089124387001003003. JSTOR 189564. S2CID 145428652.
- Dolton, Patricia F. (2014). "The alert collector: women's suffrage movement". Reference and User Services Quarterly. 54 (2): 31–36. doi:10.5860/rusq.54n2.31.
- Clarke, Edward H. (2006). Sex in education. Rockville, Maryland: Wildside Press. pp. 29, 55. ISBN 9780809501700. Preview.
- Adams, Michele (April 2007). "Women's rights and wedding bells: 19th-century pro-family rhetoric and (re)enforcement of the gender status quo". Journal of Family Issues. 28 (4): 501–528. doi:10.1177/0192513X06297465. S2CID 145588708.
- Henderson, C. R. (March 1898). "Reviews: The Report of the National League for the Protection of the Family". American Journal of Sociology. 3 (5): 705. doi:10.1086/210751.
- Thurner, Manuela (Spring 1993). ""Better citizens without the ballot": American antisuffrage women and their rationale during the progressive era". Journal of Women's History. 5 (1): 33–60. doi:10.1353/jowh.2010.0279. S2CID 144309053.
- Storrs, Landon R.Y. (Spring 2007). "Attacking the Washington "Femmocracy": antifeminism in the Cold War Campaign against "Communists in Government"". Feminist Studies. 33 (1): 118–152. doi:10.2307/20459124. JSTOR 20459124.
- Paul, Alice (November 1972 and May 1973). "Conversations with Alice Paul: Woman Suffrage and the Equal Rights Amendment (interview with Amelia R. Fry)". cdlib.org. Suffragists Oral History Project, University of California, Berkeley.
- Freeman, Jo (June 1996). "What's in a Name? Does it matter how the Equal Rights Amendment is worded?". jofreeman.com.
- Burris, Val (June 1983). "Who opposed the ERA? An analysis of the social bases of antifeminism". Social Science Quarterly. 64 (2): 305–317. JSTOR 42874034.
- Harrison, Cynthia Ellen (1989), ""Reasonable distinctions": an alternative to the ERA", in Harrison, Cynthia Ellen, ed. (1988). On Account of Sex: The Politics of Women's Issues, 1945–1968. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 31–32. ISBN 9780520061217.
- Himmelstein, Jerome (March 1986). "The social basis of antifeminism: Religious networks and culture". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 25 (1): 1–15. doi:10.2307/1386059. JSTOR 1386059.
- Marshall, Susan E. (May 1991). "Who speaks for American Women? The future of antifeminism". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 515 (1): 50–62. doi:10.1177/0002716291515001005. JSTOR 1046927. S2CID 145178814.
- Brady, David W.; Tedin, Kent L. (March 1976). "Ladies in pink: religion and political ideology in the anti-ERA movement". Social Science Quarterly. 56 (4): 564–575. JSTOR 42860411.
- Petchesky, Rosalind Pollack (Summer 1981). "Antiabortion, antifeminism, and the rise of the new right". Feminist Studies. 7 (2): 206–246. doi:10.2307/3177522. JSTOR 3177522.
- Joffe, Carole (June 1987). "Abortion and antifeminism". Politics & Society. 15 (2): 207–211. doi:10.1177/003232928701500206. S2CID 153392612.
- Young, Cathy (July 24, 2014). "Stop fem-splaining: what 'Women Against Feminism' gets right". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- Kim, Eun Kyung (July 30, 2014). "Is feminism still relevant? Some women saying they don't need it". Today. NBC. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- Young, Cathy. "Daughters of feminism strike back". Newsday. Cablevision. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- Boesveld, Sarah (July 25, 2014). "Not all feminists: How modern feminism has become complicated, messy and sometimes alienating". National Post. Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on March 24, 2015. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- Durgin, Celina (28 July 2014). "Anti-feminists baffle feminists". National Review. National Review, Inc. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- Hardy, Elle; Lehmann, Claire; Jha, Trisha; Matthewson, Paula (14 April 2014). "Am I a feminist? Four women reply (and they're not from the left)". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- Dries, Kate (2 November 2013). "The many misguided reasons famous ladies say 'I'm Not a Feminist'". jezebel.com. Gawker Media. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- Taylor, Lenore (11 April 2014). "'Feminism is not an extreme term,' says Penny Wong". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- Chang, Charis. "#WomenAgainstFeminism goes viral as people explain why they don't need feminism anymore". news.com.au. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- Steinmetz, Katy (12 November 2014). "Which word should be banned in 2015?". Time.
- Rabouin, Dion (15 November 2014). "Time Magazine apologizes for including 'feminist' in 2015 word banishment poll". International Business Times.
- Debionne, Philippe (28 March 2020). "Verein macht Gender-Studien für fehlende Finanzmittel bei Virusforschung verantwortlich". Berliner Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 2022-05-24.
- "Extreme Entitlement: Misogyny, Anti-Feminism in Far-Right Recruitment". Balkan Insight. 2022-05-10. Retrieved 2022-05-24.
- "How South Korea's Next President Capitalized on Anti-Feminist Backlash". Time. Retrieved 2022-05-24.
- Seoul, Raphael Rashid in (2022-03-11). "'Devastated': gender equality hopes on hold as 'anti-feminist' voted South Korea's president". the Guardian. Retrieved 2022-08-02.
- Tierney, Helen (1999), "Antifeminist movements", in Tierney, Helen, ed. (1999). Women's studies encyclopedia: A–F. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 95. ISBN 9780861721122.
- Basu, Srimati (2006). "Playing off courts: the negotiation of divorce and violence in plural legal settings in Kolkata". The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law. 38 (52): 41–75. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.485.7052. doi:10.1080/07329113.2006.10756591. S2CID 144414017.
- Kulkarni, Mangesh (2014), "Critical masculinity studies in India", in Dasgupta, Rohit K.; Gokulsing, K. Moti, eds. (2013-12-20). Masculinity and its challenges in India: essays on changing perceptions. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. p. 65. ISBN 9780786472246.
- Schreiber, Ronnee (2008). Righting feminism: conservative women and American politics. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195331813.
- Schreiber, Ronnee (October 2002). "Injecting a woman's voice: Conservative women's organizations, gender consciousness, and the expression of women's policy preferences". Sex Roles. 47 (7–8): 331–341. doi:10.1023/A:1021479030885. S2CID 140980839.
- Stack, Liam (15 August 2017). "Alt-right, alt-left, antifa: a glossary of extremist language". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
- Hawley, George. Making Sense of the Alt-Right. Columbia University Press. p. 17.
- Carranco, Shannon; Milton, Jon; Curtis, Christopher (May 20, 2018). "Alt-right in Montreal: The war against women". Montreal Gazette.
- Romano, Aja (December 14, 2016). "How the alt-right's sexism lures men into white supremacy". Vox.
- Giffort, Danielle M. (October 2011). "Show or tell? Feminist dilemmas and implicit feminism at girls' rock camp". Gender & Society. 25 (5): 569–588. doi:10.1177/0891243211415978. JSTOR 23044173. S2CID 145503177.
- Lewis, Helen (2019-08-07). "To Learn About the Far Right, Start With the 'Manosphere'". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2020-04-06.
- Ling, Justin (19 June 2018). "'Not as ironic as I imagined': the incels spokesman on why he is renouncing them". The Guardian.
- Andelin, Helen (2007) . Fascinating womanhood. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 9780553384277.
- Barron, Alan J. (1986). The death of Eve: women, liberation, disintegration. Bullsbrook, W.A. Sudbury: Veritas Bloomfield. ISBN 9780949667366.
- Benatar, David (2012). The second sexism: discrimination against men and boys. Malden, Massachusetts Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9780470674512.
- Campagnolo, Ana (2019). Feminismo: Perversão e Subversão (in Portuguese). Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil: VIDE Editorial. ISBN 9788595070547.
- Carlson, Allan C. (2003). The family in America: searching for social harmony in the industrial age. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 9780765805362.
- Carlson, Allan C. (1991). Family questions: reflections on the American social crisis. New Brunswick, U.S.A: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 9781560005551.
- Chesterton, G. K. (1990). Brave new family: G.K. Chesterton on men and women, children, sex, divorce, marriage & the family. San Francisco: Ignatius Press. ISBN 9780898703184.
- Clarke, E. H. (1873). Sex in education, or, a fair chance for the girls. Boston: James R. Osgood & Co. OCLC 317558506.
- Crittenden, Danielle (2000). What our mothers didn't tell us: why happiness eludes the modern woman. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780684859590.
- Decter, Midge (1974). The new chastity and other arguments against women's liberation. New York: Capricorn Books. ISBN 9780399503078.
- Ellis, Thomas (2005). The rantings of a single male: losing patience with feminism political correctness... and basically everything. Austin, Texas: Rannenberg Publishing. ISBN 9780976261315.
- Faludi, Susan (1991). Backlash: the undeclared war against American women. New York: Crown. ISBN 9780517576984.
- Faraut, Martine (2003). "Women resisting the vote: a case of anti-feminism?". Women's History Review. 12 (4): 605–621. doi:10.1080/09612020300200376. S2CID 145708717.
- Farrell, Warren (1996). The myth of male power: why men are the disposable sex. New York: Berkeley Publishing Group. ISBN 9780425155233.
- Fleming, Thomas (2017) . The politics of human nature. Abingdon, Oxon New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 9781315133973.
- Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth (1996). Feminism is not the story of my life: how today's feminist elite has lost touch with the real concerns of women. New York: Nan A. Talese. ISBN 9780385467902.
- Gilder, George (1992). Men and marriage. Gretna, Louisiana: Pelican Pub. Co. ISBN 9780882899466.
- Goldberg, Steven (1993). Why men rule: a theory of male dominance. Chicago: Open Court. ISBN 9780812692372.
- Goldberg, Steven (1973). The inevitability of patriarchy. New York: W. Morrow. ISBN 9780688051754.
- Graglia, F. Carolyn (1998). Domestic tranquility: a brief against feminism. Dallas, Texas: Spence. ISBN 9781890626099.
- Himmelfarb, Gertrude (1995). The de-moralization of society: from Victorian virtues to modern values. New York: A.A. Knopf. ISBN 9780679764908.
- Hise, Richard T. (2004). The war against men: perpetrators, weapons, fallout, and counter-attack strategies. Oakland, Oregon: Red Anvil Press. ISBN 9781930859616.
- Hoff Sommers, Christina (1995). Who stole feminism?: how women have betrayed women. New York: Touchstone/Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780684801568.
- Hoff Sommers, Christina (2000). The war against boys: how misguided feminism is harming our young men. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780684849577.
- Howard, Angela; Adams Tarrant, Sasha Ranaé, eds. (1997). Redefining the new woman, 1920-1963: Antifeminism in America: a collection of readings from the literature of the opponents to U.S. feminism, 1848 to the present. New York: Garland Pub. ISBN 9780815327141.
- James, Thomas P. (2003). Domestic violence: the 12 things you aren't supposed to know. Chula Vista, California: Aventine Press. ISBN 9781593301224.
- Kampwirth, Karen (Summer 2006). "Resisting the feminist threat: antifeminist politics in post-Sandinista Nicaragua". NWSA Journal. 18 (2): 73–100. S2CID 145487146.
- Kampwirth, Karen (July 2003). "Arnoldo Alemán takes on the NGOs: antifeminism and the new populism in Nicaragua". Latin American Politics and Society. 45 (2): 133–158. doi:10.1111/j.1548-2456.2003.tb00243.x. JSTOR 3176982. S2CID 153608755.
- Kampwirth, Karen (Summer 1998). "Feminism, antifeminism, and electoral politics in post-war Nicaragua and El Salvador". Political Science Quarterly. 113 (2): 259–279. doi:10.2307/2657856. JSTOR 2657856.
- Kassian, Mary A. (2005). The feminist mistake: the radical impact of feminism on church and culture. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway Books. ISBN 9781581345704.
- Kelly, Linda (1 January 2003). "Disabusing the Definition of Domestic Violence: How Women Batter Men and the Role of the Feminist State". Florida State University Law Review. 30 (4): 791–855.
- Kinnard, Cynthia D. (1986). Antifeminism in American thought: an annotated bibliography. Boston, Massachusetts: G.K. Hall & Co. ISBN 9780816181223.
- Kipnis, Laura (2007). The female thing: dirt, sex, envy, vulnerability. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 9780307275776.
- Lehrman, Karen (1997). The lipstick proviso: women, sex & power in the real world. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 9780385474818.
- Lyndon, Neil (1992). No more sex war: the failures of feminism. London: Sinclair-Stevenson. ISBN 9781856191913.
- Magnet, Myron (2001). Modern sex: liberation and its discontents. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 9781566633840.
- Mansbridge, Jane (1986). Why we lost the ERA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226503578.
- Mansfield, Harvey (2006). Manliness. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300106640.
- Nathanson, Paul; Young, Katherine K. (2001). Spreading misandry: the teaching of contempt for men in popular culture. Montreal, Quebec: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 9780773522725.
- Nathanson, Paul; Young, Katherine K. (2006). Legalizing misandry: from public shame to systemic discrimination against men. Montreal Ithaca: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 9780773528628.
- Nielsen, Kim E. (2001). Un-American womanhood : antiradicalism, antifeminism, and the first Red Scare. Columbus: Ohio State University Press 978-0-8142-0882-3. ISBN 978-0-8142-0882-3.
- O'Beirne, Kate (2006). Women who make the world worse: and how their radical feminist assault is ruining our families, military, schools, and sports. New York: Sentinel. ISBN 9781595230096.
- Patai, Daphne; Koertge, Noreta (1994). Professing feminism: cautionary tales from the strange world of women's studies. New York: BasicBooks. ISBN 9780465098279.
- Piper, John; Grudem, Wayne (1991). Recovering biblical manhood and womanhood: a response to Evangelical feminism. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway Books. ISBN 9780891075868.
- Pizzey, Erin (1982). Prone to violence. Feltham, Middlesex, England: Hamlyn. ISBN 9780600205517.
- Pride, Mary (2010). The way home: beyond feminism, back to reality. Fenton, Missouri: Home Life Books. ISBN 9781453699300.
- Quayle, Dan; Medved, Diane (1996). The American family: discovering the values that make us strong. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 9780060173784.
- Schlafly, Phyllis (1977). The power of the positive woman. New Rochelle, N.Y: Arlington House. ISBN 9780870003738.
- Schlafly, Phyllis (2003). Feminist fantasies. Dallas, Texas: Spence Pub. Co. ISBN 9781890626464.
- Schreiber, Ronnee (2008). Righting feminism: conservative women and American politics. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195331813.
- Schwartz, Howard (2003). The revolt of the primitive: an inquiry into the roots of political correctness. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 9780765805379.
- Swanson, Gillian (2013). Antifeminism in America: a historical reader. City: Routledge. ISBN 9781299866676.
- Tiger, Lionel (1999). The decline of males. New York: Golden Books. ISBN 9780312263119.
- Vilar, Esther (1998) . The manipulated man. London: Pinter & Martin. ISBN 9780953096428.
- Wylie, Philip (1996) . Generation of vipers (20th ed.). Normal, Illinois: Dalkey Archive Press. ISBN 9781564781468.
- Zemmour, Eric (2006). Le premier sexe. Paris: Denoël. ISBN 9782207257449.