Antimachus II

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Antimachus II Nikephoros "The Victorious"
Indo-Greek king
Coin of Antimachus II.jpg
Coin of Antimachus II.
Obv: Nike with Greek legend BASILEOS NIKEPHOROU ANTIMACHOU.
King on horse, with Kharoshti legend.
Reign 174–165 BCE

Antimachus II Nikephoros (Greek: Ἀντίμαχος Β΄ ὁ Νικηφόρος; the epithet means "the Victorious") was an Indo-Greek king. He ruled on a vast territory from the Hindu-Kush to the Punjab around 170 BCE. He was almost certainly identical with the eponymous son of Antimachus I, who is known from a unique preserved tax-receipt.[1] Bopearachchi dated Antimachus II to 160–155 BCE on numismatical grounds, but changed this to 174–165 BCE after the tax-receipt was revealed to synchronise his reign with that of Antimachus I.[2] R. C. Senior has not dated Antimachus II but thinks that his coins were possibly Indian issues of Antimachus I, despite their different epithets and coin types.

In both of Boperachchi's reconstructions, Antimachus II was succeeded by Menander I who inherited three of his four monograms. Antimachus II probably fought with the Bactrian king Eucratides I, who had dethroned his father in Bactria.

Coins of Antimachus II[edit]

Coin Antimachos II Nikephoros with Gorgone and victory wreath.

Just like his predecessor or contemporary Apollodotus I, Antimachus II did not strike a portrait on his coins, likely since this was not custom in India. Neither did the early kings strike tetradrachms. Antimachus II struck a large number of bilingual drachms on the same lighter Indian standard as Apollodotus I, though round in shape. On the obverse is Nike, and on the reverse a king on horseback.

He also issued bilingual bronzes with aegis / laurel wreath and palm. Both these and the goddess Nike seem to allude to his epithet "the Victorious".

Indo-Greek Kings, territories and chronology
Based on Bopearachchi (1991)[3]
Greco-Bactrian kings Indo-Greek kings
Territories/
dates
West Bactria East Bactria Paropamisade
Arachosia Gandhara Western Punjab Eastern Punjab
326-325 BCE Campaigns of Alexander the Great in India Alexander the Great India coin.jpg
312 BCE Creation of the Seleucid Empire
305 BCE Seleucid Empire after Mauryan war
280 BCE Foundation of Ai-Khanoum
255–239 BCE Independence of the
Greco-Bactrian kingdom
Diodotus I Gold coin of Diodotos I of Bactria.jpg
239–223 BCE Diodotus II Coin of Diodotos II.jpg
230–200 BCE Euthydemus I EuthydemusMedailles.jpg
200–190 BCE Demetrius I DemetriusCoin.jpg
190-185 BCE Euthydemus II EuthydemusIICoin.jpg
190–180 BCE Agathocles Coin of the Bactrian king Agathokles.jpg Pantaleon Coin of King Pantaleon.jpg
185–170 BCE Antimachus I AntimachusMedaille.jpg
180–160 BCE Apollodotus I Coin of Indo-Greek king Apollodotos I.jpg
175–170 BCE Demetrius II Coin of the Baktrian king Demetrios II.jpg
160–155 BCE Antimachus II Coin of Antimachus II.jpg
170–145 BCE Eucratides Monnaie de Bactriane, Eucratide I, 2 faces.jpg
155–130 BCE Yuezhi occupation,
loss of Ai-Khanoum
Eucratides IICoin of Eukratides II.jpg
Plato Coin of Plato of Bactria.jpg
Heliocles I HelioclesCoin.jpg
Menander I Menander Alexandria-Kapisa.jpg
130–120 BCE Yuezhi occupation Zoilos I ZoilosI-525.jpg Agathokleia Coin of Agathokleia.jpg
120–110 BCE Lysias Lysias-150.jpg Strato I Coin of Agathokleia & Strato.jpg
110–100 BCE Antialcidas Coin of Antialcidas.jpg Heliokles II Coin of Heliocles II.jpg
100 BCE Polyxenos Coin of Indo-Greek king Polyxenos.jpg Demetrius III Demetrius Aniketou.jpg
100–95 BCE Philoxenus Coin of Philoxenos.jpg
95–90 BCE Diomedes Coin of Diomedes Soter.jpg Amyntas Coin of Amyntas Nicator.jpg Epander Coin of Epander.jpg
90 BCE Theophilos Theophilos-634.jpg Peukolaos Peukolaos coin.jpg Thraso Thraso coin simulation.jpg
90–85 BCE Nicias Coin of Indo-Greek king Nikias Soter.jpg Menander II Coin of Menander Dikaiou.jpg Artemidoros Coin of Artimedoros.jpg
90–70 BCE Hermaeus HermaeusCoin.jpg Archebius Coin of Indo-Greek king Archebios.jpg
Yuezhi occupation Maues (Indo-Scythian)
75–70 BCE Telephos Coin of Telephos.jpg Apollodotus II Coin of Appollodotos II.jpg
65–55 BCE Hippostratos Coin of Hippostratos.jpg Dionysios Dyonisos coin.jpg
55–35 BCE Azes I (Indo-Scythian) Zoilos II ZoilosIICoin.JPG
55–35 BCE Apollophanes Coin of Apollophanes.jpg
25 BCE – 10 CE Strato II and III Coin of Strato II.jpg
Rajuvula (Indo-Scythian)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Rea, J. R., Senior, R. C. and Hollis, A. S., “A tax receipt from Hellenistic Bactria”, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 104 (1994)
  2. ^ Boperarachchi (1991) and (1998), respectively.
  3. ^ O. Bopearachchi, "Monnaies gréco-bactriennes et indo-grecques, Catalogue raisonné", Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, 1991, p.453

Sources[edit]

  • Rea, J. R.; Senior, R. C.; Hollis, A. S. (1994). "A Tax Receipt from Hellenistic Bactria" (PDF). Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik. 104: 261–280. Retrieved 2006-12-13. 
  • Tarn, William Woodthorpe (1966). The Greeks in Bactria and India (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • "Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum 9", American Numismatic Society, New York, 1997.
Preceded by
Apollodotus I (possibly)
Greco-bactrian Ruler
(Paropamisadae, Arachosia, Gandhara, Punjab)

172–167 BCE
Succeeded by
Menander I