Antiochus IX Cyzicenus

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Antiochus IX Eusebes
Antiochus IX Eusebes Cyzicenus
Antiochos IX Kyzikenos, Tetradrachm, 110-109 BC, HGC 3-1228i.jpg
Tetradrachm of Antiochos IX, with Athena Nike on the reverse, minted at Antioch circa 110-109 BC.[1]
King of the Seleucid Empire
(King of Syria)
Reign116 BCE–96 BC (with his brother Antiochus VIII Grypus)
PredecessorAntiochus VIII Grypus
SuccessorSeleucus VI Epiphanes
BornUnknown
Died96 BC
Spouse
IssueAntiochus X Eusebes
DynastySeleucid
FatherAntiochus VII Sidetes
MotherCleopatra Thea

Antiochus IX Eusebes Cyzicenus (Greek: Ἀντίοχος Εὐσεβής Κυζικηνός, "Antiochus the Pious, the Cyzicene") was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom. He was the son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea.[2] He left the kingdom in 129 BC and went to the city of Cyzicus, but he returned in 116 BC to challenge his half-brother Antiochus VIII for power.

The siblings fought a twenty-year civil war. In 112 BC Antiochus IX's wife Cleopatra IV was killed by her sister Tryphaena, the wife of Antiochus VIII. Tryphaena herself died shortly afterwards. Antiochus VIII was assassinated in 96 BC; he was succeeded by his sons Seleucus VI and Demetrius III. Antiochus IX then took the capital Antioch and married his deceased wife's sister Cleopatra Selene, who was herself the widow of Antiochus VIII. Seleucus VI continued the war against his uncle, who was killed in battle in 95 BC.

Biography[edit]

Coin of Antiochus IX's mother Cleopatra Thea and half-brother Antiochus VIII

The son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea,[2] upon the death of his father in Parthia and his uncle Demetrius II Nicator's return to power (129 BC), his mother sent him to Cyzicus on the Bosporus, thus giving him his nickname.[citation needed]

After the death of his mother c. 118 BC,[2] Antiochus IX Cyzicenus challenged his half-brother, Antiochus VIII Grypus, for power over Syria.[2]

He returned to Syria in 116 BC to claim the Seleucid throne from his half-brother/cousin Antiochus VIII Grypus, with whom he eventually divided Syria,[citation needed] that same year.[2]

Antiochus IX Cyzicenus was first married to Cleopatra IV, who was then killed in 112 BC[citation needed] by her sister and rival Tryphaena, wife of King Grypus.[3][4][5] After the death of Grypus and Antiochus' capture of the capital, Antiochus married Cleopatra Selene of Syria, the sister of his former wife, Cleopatra IV.[citation needed]

He was killed in battle by the son of Grypus, Seleucus VI Epiphanes, in 96 BC.

Legacy[edit]

Antiochus IX probably created the Iturean tetrarchy as an ally against Antiochus VIII.[6] Beginning his reign in 95 BC, Antiochus X Eusebes' first achievement was to defeat his double half-cousin/second cousin Seleucus VI Epiphanes, thus avenging the recent death of his father, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus. The epithets he took tell much of his story: Eusebes (being a title of his father) and also Philopator (father-loving) both honoured his father. After that, he ruled Antioch and its surroundings, fighting endlessly against the four brothers of Seleucus VI, the Nabataeans and the Parthian Empire.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oliver D. Hoover, Handbook of Syrian Coins: Royal and Civic Issues, Fourth to First Centuries BC [The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series, Volume 9], Lancaster/London, Classical Numismatic Group, 2009, pp. 250-251.
  2. ^ a b c d e Antiochus IX Cyzicenus entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
  3. ^ Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, 2004
  4. ^ Cleopatra Thea by Chris Bennett
  5. ^ Justin 39, 3, 3-11.
  6. ^ Wright 2005, p. 80.

Sources[edit]

  • Wright, Nicholas L. (2005). "Seleucid Royal Cult, Indigenous Religious Traditions and Radiate Crowns: The Numismatic Evidence". Mediterranean Archaeology. Sydney University Press. 18: 81. ISSN 1030-8482.
  • Vermeule, Cornelius (1970). "Near Eastern, Greek, and Roman Gems: A Recent Gift to the Collections". Boston Museum Bulletin. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 68 (353). JSTOR 4171534. OCLC 866801443.

External links[edit]

  • An engraved gem. Property of The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. It probably depicts Antiochus IX.[1]


Antiochus IX Cyzicenus
Born: Unknown Died: 96 BC
Preceded by
Antiochus VIII Grypus
Seleucid King (King of Syria)
114–96 BC
with Antiochus VIII Grypus (125–96 BC)
Succeeded by
Seleucus VI Epiphanes
  1. ^ Vermeule 1970, p. 205.