Antiochus I Soter ( Greek: Ἀντίοχος ὁ Σωτήρ, Antíochos ho Sōtér; "Antiochus the Saviour"; c. 324/3 – 2 June 261 BC) was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. He succeeded his father Seleucus I Nicator in 281 BC and reigned until his death on 2 June 261 BC. He is the last known ruler to be attributed the ancient Mesopotamian title  King of the Universe.
Biography [ edit ]
Antiochus I was half
Sogdian,  his mother  Apama, daughter of Spitamenes, being one of the eastern princesses whom Alexander the Great had given as wives to his generals in 324 BC.
 The Seleucids fictitiously claimed that Apama was the daughter of Darius III, in order to legitimise themselves as the inheritors of both the Achaemenids and Alexander, and therefore the rightful lords of western and central Asia. 
In 294 BC, prior to the death of his father
Seleucus I, Antiochus married his stepmother, Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. The ancient sources report that his elderly father reportedly instigated the marriage after discovering that his son was in danger of dying of lovesickness. Stratonice bore five children to Antiochus: Seleucus (later executed for rebellion), Laodice,  Apama II, Stratonice of Macedon and Antiochus II Theos, who succeeded his father as king.
Ruin of Esagila Chronicle, dated between 302 and 281 BC, mentions that a crown prince, most likely Antiochus, decided to rebuild the ruined Babylonian temple Esagila, and made a sacrifice in preparation. However, while there, he stumbled on the rubble and fell. He then ordered his troops to destroy the last of the remains.
Gold stater of Antiochus I minted at
Alexandria on the Oxus
, c. 275 BC. Obverse: Diademed head of Antiochus right. Reverse: Nude
left, leaning on bow and holding two arrows. Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (of King Antiochos). Δ monogram of Ai-Khanoum in left field.
On the assassination of his father in 281 BC, the task of holding together the empire was a formidable one. A revolt in
Syria broke out almost immediately. Antiochus was soon compelled to make peace with his father's murderer, Ptolemy Keraunos, apparently abandoning Macedonia and Thrace. In Anatolia he was unable to reduce Bithynia or the Persian dynasties that ruled in Cappadocia.
In 278 BC the
Gauls broke into Anatolia, and a victory that Antiochus won over these Gauls by using Indian war elephants (275 BC) is said to have been the origin of his title of Soter ( Greek for "saviour").
At the end of 275 BC the question of
Coele-Syria, which had been open between the houses of Seleucus and Ptolemy since the partition of 301 BC, led to hostilities (the First Syrian War). It had been continuously in Ptolemaic occupation, but the house of Seleucus maintained its claim. War did not materially change the outlines of the two kingdoms, though frontier cities like Damascus and the coast districts of Asia Minor might change hands.
In 268 BC Antiochus I laid the foundation for the Ezida Temple in
Borsippa. His eldest son Seleucus had ruled in the east as viceroy from c. 275 BC until 268/267 BC; Antiochus put his son to death in the latter year on the charge of rebellion. Around 262 BC Antiochus tried to break the growing power of  Pergamum by force of arms, but suffered defeat near Sardis and died soon afterwards. He was succeeded in 261 BC by his second son  Antiochus II Theos.
Ai-Khanoum [ edit ]
Recent analysis strongly suggests that the city of
Ai-Khanoum, located in Takhar Province, northern Afghanistan, at the confluence of the Panj River and the Kokcha River and at the doorstep of the Indian subcontinent, was founded c. 280 BC by Antiochus I. 
Relations with India [ edit ]
Antiochus I maintained friendly diplomatic relations with
Bindusara, ruler of the Maurya Empire of India. Deimachos of Plateia was the ambassador of Antiochus at the court of Bindusara. The 3rd century Greek writer Athenaeus, in his , mentions an incident that he learned from Deipnosophistae Hegesander's writings: Bindusara requested Antiochus to send him sweet wine, dried figs and a sophist. Antiochus replied that he would send the wine and the figs, but the Greek laws forbade him to sell a sophist.
Antiochus is probably the Greek king mentioned
in the  Edicts of Ashoka, as one of the recipients of the Indian Emperor Ashoka's Buddhist proselytism:
Antiochos I coin.
mint. Macedonian shield with Seleucid anchor in central boss.
And even this conquest [preaching Buddhism] has been won by the Beloved of the Gods here and in all the borderlands, as far as six hundred
yojanas (5,400–9,600 km) away, where Antiochus, king of the Yavanas [Greeks] rules, and beyond this Antiochus four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos, Magas and Alexander rule. 
Ashoka also claims that he encouraged the development of
herbal medicine, for men and animals, in the territories of the Hellenic kings:
Everywhere within Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi's [Ashoka's] domain, and among the people beyond the borders, the
Cholas, the Pandyas, the Satiyaputras, the Keralaputras, as far as Tamraparni and where the Greek king Antiochus rules, and among the kings who are neighbors of Antiochos, everywhere has Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, made provision for two types of medical treatment: medical treatment for humans and medical treatment for animals. Wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or animals are not available, I have had them imported and grown. Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them imported and grown. Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals. 
Alternatively, the Greek king mentioned in the Edict of Ashoka could also be Antiochus's son and successor,
Antiochus II Theos, although the proximity of Antiochus I with the East may makes him a better candidate.
Neoclassical art [ edit ]
The love between Antiochus and his stepmother Stratonice was often depicted in
Neoclassical art, as in a painting by Jacques-Louis David.
References [ edit ]
"Antiochus I Soter". Livius.
^ Magill, Frank N. et al. (1998),
The Ancient World: Dictionary of World Biography, Volume 1, Pasadena, Chicago, London,: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Salem Press, p. 1010, ISBN 0-89356-313-7.
^ Holt, Frank L. (1989),
Alexander the Great and Bactria: the Formation of a Greek Frontier in Central Asia, Leiden, New York, Copenhagen, Cologne: E. J. Brill, pp 64–65 (see footnote #63 for a discussion on Spitamenes and Apama), ISBN 90-04-08612-9.
Arrian, Anabasis 7.4.6
^ a b c d e
One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). " Seleucid Dynasty s.v. Antiochus I. Soter". . Encyclopædia Britannica 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 604.
Shahbazi, A. Sh. "Apama". Encyclopaedia Iranica.
Plutarch, gives the most famous account of this tale. See also Demetrius, 38 Appian, Syr. IX.59
"BCHP 6 (Ruin of Esagila Chronicle)". Livius.
Haubold, Johannes (2013). . Cambridge University Press. p. 135. Greece and Mesopotamia: Dialogues in Literature ISBN . 9781107010765
Andrade, Nathanael J. (2013). . Cambridge University Press. p. 46. Syrian Identity in the Greco-Roman World ISBN . 9781107244566
"Antiochus cylinder". British Museum.
Wallis Budge, Ernest Alfred (1884). . Religious Tract Society. p. Babylonian Life and History 94.
Oelsner, Joachim (2000). "Hellenization of the Babylonian Culture?" (PDF). The Melammu Project . Retrieved . 6 June 2017
Smith, Andrew. "Johannes Malalas - translation". www.attalus.org . Retrieved . 2017-06-06
Lyonnet, Bertille (2012). "Questions on the Date of the Hellenistic Pottery from Central Asia (Ai Khanoum, Marakanda and Koktepe)". Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia. 18: 143–173. doi: 10.1163/157005712X638672.
Martinez-Seve, Laurianne (2014). "The Spatial Organization of Ai Khanoum, a Greek City in Afghanistan". American Journal of Archaeology. 118 (2): 267–283. doi: 10.3764/aja.118.2.0267.
^ a b Jarl Charpentier, "Antiochus, King of the Yavanas"
Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London 6.2 (1931: 303–321) argues that the Antiochus mentioned was unlikely to be Antiochus II, during whose time relations with India were broken by the Parthian intrusion and the independence of Diodotus in Bactria, and suggests instead the half-Iranian Antiochus I, with stronger connections in the East.
^ Translation of Jarl Charpentier 1931:303–321.
Edicts of Ashoka, 2nd Rock Edict.
Bibliography [ edit ]
Kosmin, Paul J. (2014), , The Land of the Elephant Kings: Space, Territory, and Ideology in Seleucid Empire Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-72882-0
Mookerji, Radha Kumud (1988) [first published in 1966], (4th ed.), Chandragupta Maurya and his times Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0433-3 Traver, Andrew G. (2002). . Greenwood Publishing Group. From Polis to Empire, the Ancient World, c. 800 B.C.-A.D. 500: A Biographical Dictionary ISBN 9780313309427 . Retrieved . 7 September 2013
External links [ edit ]
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circa 2000 BCE
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First Babylonian dynasty ("Old Babylonian Period") ( Amorites) Sumu-abum Sumu-la-El Sin-muballit Sabium Apil-Sin Sin-muballit Hammurabi Samsu-iluna Abi-eshuh Ammi-ditana Ammi-saduqa Samsu-Ditana Early Kassite rulers
Second Babylonian dynasty (" Sealand Dynasty") Ilum-ma-ili Itti-ili-nibi Damqi-ilishu Ishkibal Shushushi Gulkishar mDIŠ+U-EN Peshgaldaramesh Ayadaragalama Akurduana Melamkurkurra Ea-gamil
Second Intermediate Period Sixteenth Dynasty
Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt (" Hyksos") Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi
Mitanni (1600–1260 BCE) Kirta Shuttarna I Parshatatar
New Kingdom of Egypt Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Ahmose I Amenhotep I
Third Babylonian dynasty ( Kassites) Agum-Kakrime Burnaburiash I Kashtiliash III Ulamburiash Agum III Karaindash Kadashman-harbe I Kurigalzu I Kadashman-Enlil I Burnaburiash II Kara-hardash Nazi-Bugash Kurigalzu II Nazi-Maruttash Kadashman-Turgu Kadashman-Enlil II Kudur-Enlil Shagarakti-Shuriash Kashtiliashu IV Enlil-nadin-shumi Kadashman-Harbe II Adad-shuma-iddina Adad-shuma-usur Meli-Shipak II Marduk-apla-iddina I Zababa-shuma-iddin Enlil-nadin-ahi
Middle Elamite period
Kidinuid dynasty Igehalkid dynasty Untash-Napirisha
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Hittite Empire Ugarit
Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret ♀
Elamite Empire Shutrukid dynasty Shutruk-Nakhunte
Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI Third Intermediate Period
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Phoenicia Kings of Byblos Kings of Tyre Kings of Sidon Kingdom of Israel Saul Ish-bosheth David Solomon
Middle Assyrian Empire Eriba-Adad I Ashur-uballit I Enlil-nirari Arik-den-ili Adad-nirari I Shalmaneser I Tukulti-Ninurta I Ashur-nadin-apli Ashur-nirari III Enlil-kudurri-usur Ninurta-apal-Ekur Ashur-dan I Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur Mutakkil-Nusku Ashur-resh-ishi I Tiglath-Pileser I Asharid-apal-Ekur Ashur-bel-kala Eriba-Adad II Shamshi-Adad IV Ashurnasirpal I Shalmaneser II Ashur-nirari IV Ashur-rabi II Ashur-resh-ishi II Tiglath-Pileser II Ashur-dan II
Fourth Babylonian dynasty (" Second Dynasty of Isin") Marduk-kabit-ahheshu Itti-Marduk-balatu Ninurta-nadin-shumi Nebuchadnezzar I Enlil-nadin-apli Marduk-nadin-ahhe Marduk-shapik-zeri Adad-apla-iddina Marduk-ahhe-eriba Marduk-zer-X Nabu-shum-libur
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Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth Babylonian dynasties ("Period of Chaos") Simbar-shipak Ea-mukin-zeri Kashshu-nadin-ahi Eulmash-shakin-shumi Ninurta-kudurri-usur I Shirikti-shuqamuna Mar-biti-apla-usur Nabû-mukin-apli
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Ninth Babylonian Dynasty Ninurta-kudurri-usur II Mar-biti-ahhe-iddina Shamash-mudammiq Nabu-shuma-ukin I Nabu-apla-iddina Marduk-zakir-shumi I Marduk-balassu-iqbi Baba-aha-iddina (five kings) Ninurta-apla-X Marduk-bel-zeri Marduk-apla-usur Eriba-Marduk Nabu-shuma-ishkun Nabonassar Nabu-nadin-zeri Nabu-shuma-ukin II Nabu-mukin-zeri
Humban-Tahrid dynasty Urtak Teumman Ummanigash Tammaritu I Indabibi Humban-haltash III
Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt (" Black Pharaohs") Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun
( Sargonid dynasty) Tiglath-Pileser † Shalmaneser † Marduk-apla-iddina II Sargon † Sennacherib † Marduk-zakir-shumi II Marduk-apla-iddina II Bel-ibni Ashur-nadin-shumi † Nergal-ushezib Mushezib-Marduk Esarhaddon † Ashurbanipal Ashur-etil-ilani Sinsharishkun Sin-shumu-lishir Ashur-uballit II
Assyrian conquest of Egypt
Late Period Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III
Neo-Babylonian Empire Nabopolassar Nebuchadnezzar II Amel-Marduk Neriglissar Labashi-Marduk Nabonidus
Median Empire Deioces Phraortes Madius Cyaxares Astyages
Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt ( Achaemenid conquest of Egypt)
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Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt
Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt
Ptolemaic dynasty Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy Keraunos Ptolemy II Philadelphus Arsinoe II ♀ Ptolemy III Euergetes Berenice II Euergetis ♀ Ptolemy IV Philopator Arsinoe III Philopator ♀ Ptolemy V Epiphanes Cleopatra I Syra ♀ Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Cleopatra II Philometor Soter ♀ Ptolemy VIII Physcon Cleopatra III ♀ Ptolemy IX Lathyros Cleopatra IV ♀ Ptolemy X Alexander Berenice III ♀ Ptolemy XI Alexander Ptolemy XII Auletes Cleopatra V ♀ Cleopatra VI Tryphaena ♀ Berenice IV Epiphanea ♀ Ptolemy XIII Ptolemy XIV Cleopatra VII Philopator ♀ Ptolemy XV Caesarion Arsinoe IV ♀
Hellenistic Period : Argead dynasty Alexander I Philip Alexander II Antigonus
: Seleucid Empire Seleucus I Antiochus I Antiochus II Seleucus II Seleucus III Antiochus III Seleucus IV Antiochus IV Antiochus V Demetrius I Alexander III Demetrius II Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes
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Alexander II Zabinas Seleucus V Philometor Antiochus VIII Grypus Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Seleucus VI Epiphanes Antiochus X Eusebes Antiochus XI Epiphanes Demetrius III Eucaerus Philip I Philadelphus Antiochus XII Dionysus Antiochus XIII Asiaticus Philip II Philoromaeus
Parthian Empire Mithridates I Phraates Hyspaosines Artabanus Mithridates II Gotarzes Mithridates III Orodes I Sinatruces Phraates III Mithridates IV Orodes II Phraates IV Tiridates II Musa Phraates V Orodes III Vonones I Artabanus II Tiridates III Artabanus II Vardanes I Gotarzes II Meherdates Vonones II Vologases I Vardanes II Pacorus II Vologases II Artabanus III Osroes I
30 BCE–116 CE
Roman conquest of Egypt) Province of Egypt
Province of Mesopotamia under Trajan
Parthamaspates of Parthia
Province of Mesopotamia
Sinatruces II Mithridates V Vologases IV Osroes II Vologases V Vologases VI Artabanus IV
Sasanian Empire Province of Asoristan Ardashir I Shapur I Hormizd I Bahram I Bahram II Bahram III Narseh Hormizd II Adur Narseh Shapur II Ardashir II Shapur III Bahram IV Yazdegerd I Shapur IV Khosrow Bahram V Yazdegerd II Hormizd III Peroz I Balash Kavad I Jamasp Kavad I Khosrow I Hormizd IV Khosrow II Bahram VI Chobin Vistahm
Palmyrene Empire Vaballathus Zenobia Antiochus
Province of Egypt
Province of Mesopotamia
Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda
Sasanian conquest of Egypt) Province of Egypt Shahrbaraz Sahralanyozan Shahrbaraz
Sasanian Empire Province of Asoristan Khosrow II Kavad II
Byzantine Empire Ardashir III Shahrbaraz Khosrow III Boran Shapur-i Shahrvaraz Azarmidokht Farrukh Hormizd Hormizd VI Khosrow IV Boran Yazdegerd III Peroz III Narsieh
Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda
Muslim conquest of Egypt
Muslim conquest of the Levant
Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia and Persia
Rulers of Ancient Central Asia