Antipodes Islands

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Antipodes Islands
Antipodes Islands.jpg
The Antipodes Islands seen from the north
NZOffshoreIslandsMap.png
Position relative to New Zealand and other outlying islands
Geography
Location860 kilometres (464 nmi) southeast of Stewart Island
Coordinates49°40′S 178°46′E / 49.667°S 178.767°E / -49.667; 178.767Coordinates: 49°40′S 178°46′E / 49.667°S 178.767°E / -49.667; 178.767
ArchipelagoAntipodes Islands
Major islandsAntipodes, Bollons
Area21 km2 (8.1 sq mi)
Highest elevation366 m (1,201 ft)
Highest pointMount Galloway
Administration
Demographics
Population0[1] (2006)
Additional information
Nature reserve

The Antipodes Islands are inhospitable and uninhabited volcanic islands in subantarctic waters to the south of – and territorially part of – New Zealand. The 21 km2 (8.1 sq mi)[2] archipelago lies 860 kilometres (534 mi) to the southeast of Stewart Island/Rakiura, and 730 kilometres (454 mi) to the northeast of Campbell Island. They are very close to being the antipodal point to Normandy in France, meaning that the furthest away city from here is Cherbourg, France.

The island group consists of one main island, Antipodes Island, of 20 km2 (7.7 sq mi) area, Bollons Island to the north, and numerous small islets and stacks.

The islands are listed with the New Zealand Outlying Islands. The islands are an immediate part of New Zealand, but not part of any region or district, but instead Area Outside Territorial Authority, like all the other outlying islands except the Solander Islands.

Ecologically, the islands are part of the Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra ecoregion. The islands are inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, together with other subantarctic New Zealand islands. The island group is a nature reserve and there is no general public access.

Etymology[edit]

The word antipodes derives from the Greek: ἀντίποδες,[3] plural of antipous (ἀντίπους) "with feet opposite (ours)", from anti- "opposed" and pous "foot".[4]

The island group was originally called the "Penantipodes" meaning "next to the antipodes", because it lies near to the antipodes of London (located around 51.5°S, 180°W). Over time the name has been shortened to "Antipodes". The island's actual antipodes are situated on the territory of the French village Gatteville-le-Phare, near Cherbourg.[5]

Geography[edit]

Topographical map

The volcanic Antipodes Islands lie 860 kilometres (530 miles) southeast of Stewart Island/Rakiura. They consist of a main island (Antipodes Island), area 20 km2 (7.7 sq mi), surrounded by a series of small offshore islands and rocks. These islands include Bollons Island, at 2 km2 (0.77 sq mi) the second largest in the group, 1,200 m (3,900 ft) to the northeast of the main island's North Cape, and the nearby smaller Archway Island; Leeward Island, situated just off the centre of the main island's east coast (to which it is connected by a rocky bar at low tide); the two Windward Islands, situated 800 m (2,600 ft) apart, the easternmost of which is 600 m (2,000 ft) to the immediate north of Cave Point, the main island's westernmost point; and the tiny Orde Lees Islet, located close to the main island's northwestern shore. Numerous small islets and stacks further surround the coast of the main island.

The islands are steep, and cliffs and rocky reefs line the majority of the coasts. The highest point is Mount Galloway at 366 m (1,201 ft) in the north of the main island, which also forms part of the group's most recently active volcano.[6] Mount Waterhouse, to Galloway's southwest, also reaches over 360 m (1,180 ft). Several other heights on the main island reach above 200 m (660 ft), as does the highest point of Bollons Island. A ridge of peaks, the Reliance Ridge, runs along the main island's south coast. Several small streams run from the slopes of the main island's peaks, with the largest of these being the Dougall Stream, which runs northeast from the eastern slopes of Mount Waterhouse to reach the east coast not far from its closest point to Leeward Island. The Ringdove Stream runs east along the northern flanks of the Reliance Ridge to reach the large, rocky Ringdove Bay in the southeast of the main island. A further prominent stream runs southwest from the northwestern slopes of Mount Waterhouse to reach Stack Bay to the south of the Cave Point Peninsula, and a fourth runs north from the slopes of Mount Galloway, reaching the sea to the west of North Cape, close to Reef Point.

History[edit]

Prehistory[edit]

There is no archaeological evidence of human visitation prior to European discovery of the islands. Descriptions[7] of a shard of early Polynesian pottery having been discovered 76 cm (2 ft 6 in) below the surface on the main island in 1886, and housed in the collections of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa are unsubstantiated. The Museum has not been able to locate such a shard in its collection, and the original reference to the object in the Museum's collection documentation indicates no reference to Polynesian influences.[8]

Sealing[edit]

The island group was discovered in 1800 by Captain Henry Waterhouse commanding HMS Reliance. Matthew Flinders was first lieutenant, and his younger brother Samuel, was a midshipman on the vessel: Samuel prepared the chart of the islands.[9] Waterhouse reported the presence of seals. In 1803 Waterhouse's brother-in-law George Bass applied to Governor Philip Gidley King of New South Wales for a fishing monopoly from a line bisecting southern New Zealand from Dusky Sound to the Otago Harbour to cover all the lands and seas to the south, including the Antipodes Islands, probably because he knew the latter were home to large populations of fur seals.[10] Bass sailed from Sydney to the south that year and was never heard of again but his information led to a sealing boom at the islands in 1805 to 1807. In February 1805, the first sealing gangs arrived on the island from the American schooners Favorite and Independence.[11] They killed about 60,000 seals over the course of the year they were stationed on the islands.

Isle Penantipode, discovered by HMS Reliance, H.Waterhouse, commander. 25 March 1800. Chart by Samuel Flinders.

At one time eighty men were present; there was a battle between American and British-led gangs and a single cargo of more than 80,000 skins—one of the greatest ever shipped from Australasia—was on-sold in Canton for one pound sterling a skin, a multimillion-dollar return in modern terms. Prominent Sydney merchants such as Simeon Lord, Henry Kable and James Underwood were engaged in the trade as well as the Americans Daniel Whitney and Owen Folger Smith. William W. Stewart, who claimed to have charted Stewart Island, and probably William Tucker who started the retail trade in preserved Maori heads, were present during the boom. After 1807, sealing was occasional and cargoes small, no doubt because the animals had been all but exterminated.[12]

Shipwrecks[edit]

Spirit of the Dawn's survivors landed at South Bay

A much later attempt to establish cattle on the islands was short-lived (as were the cattle). When the ship Spirit of the Dawn (with a crew of 16) foundered off the main island's coast in 1893, the eleven surviving crew spent nearly three months living as castaways on the island, living on raw muttonbirds, mussels and roots for 87 days before gaining the attention of the government steamer NZGSS Hinemoa by a flag made from their sail.[citation needed]

Castaway hut at Antipodes' northern end

A well-supplied castaway depot[13] was available on the other end of the island, but the survivors' weak condition and the island's mountainous terrain prevented them from searching for depots.

The depot was found and used by the crew of the French barque President Felix Faure, wrecked in Anchorage bay in 1908, who were stranded for sixty days until rescued by HMS Pegasus.[14]

The last wreck at the Antipodes was the yacht Totorore with the loss of two lives, Gerry Clark and Roger Sale, in June 1999.[15]

Nuclear testing proposals[edit]

In 1955 the British Government required a large site remote from population centres to test the new thermonuclear devices it was developing. Various islands in the South Pacific and Southern Oceans were considered, along with Antarctica. The Admiralty suggested the Antipodes Islands.[16]

Flora and fauna[edit]

Penguin colony in Anchorage Bay

The flora of the islands has been recorded in detail, and includes megaherbs. The islands are also home to numerous bird species including the endemic Antipodes snipe, Antipodes parakeet, Reischek's parakeet, as well as several albatrosses, petrels and penguins, including half of the world population of the erect-crested penguin.

Original population of fur seals seems to be regionally extinct or in serious peril where "Upland Seals" once found on Antipodes and Macquarie Island have been claimed as a distinct subspecies with thicker furs by scientists although it is unclear whether these seals were genetically distinct.[17]

Important Bird Area[edit]

The Antipodes group has been identified as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by BirdLife International because of its significance as a breeding site for several species of seabirds. The seabirds are southern rockhopper and erect-crested penguins, Antipodean, black-browed, light-mantled and white-capped albatrosses, and northern giant, grey and white-chinned petrels.[18]

Conservation[edit]

As with many other islands, introduced rodents have caused problems by preying on the indigenous wildlife. A "Million Dollar Mouse" campaign was launched in 2012 to raise funds for an eradication programme as part of the New Zealand government's "Predator Free 2050" project.[19] In the winter of 2016, the Department of Conservation carried out bait drops totalling 65 tonnes from three helicopters, and searched with trained dogs for any remaining rodents, which eliminated the estimated 200,000 mice on Antipodes Island.[20][21]

The island group is surrounded by the 2,173 km2 (839 sq mi) Moutere Mahue / Antipodes Island Marine Reserve.[22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Final counts – census night and census usually resident populations, and occupied dwellings - Area outside territorial authority Archived 25 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine, 2006 Census, Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  2. ^ "Data Table - Protected Areas - LINZ Data Service (recorded area 2100 ha)". Land Information New Zealand. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  3. ^ Antipodes, Liddell and Scott, "A Greek-English Lexicon", on Perseus.
  4. ^ antipodes, Online Etymology Dictionary
  5. ^ "Antipodes Islands". Twelve Mile Circle. Retrieved 6 January 2011. Blog post, not WP:RS
  6. ^ "Antipodes Island". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  7. ^ "NGA-IWI-O-AOTEA". Te Ao Hou. 1967. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  8. ^ "Captain Fairchild to the Secretary, Marine Department, Wellington". Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1886 Session I, H-24. Wellington: Marine Department. p. 6. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  9. ^ Rowley Taylor, Straight through from London: the Antipodes and Bounty Islands, New Zealand, Christchurch, Heritage Expeditions New Zealand, 2006, p.34.
  10. ^ Keith Macrae Bowden, George Bass, 1771-1803: his discoveries, romantic life and tragic disappearance, Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1952, pp.118-119.
  11. ^ The Sydney Gazette, 5 May 1805; 16 March 1806.
  12. ^ Peter Entwisle, Taka: a Vignette life of William Tucker 1784-1817: Convict, Sealer, Trader in Human Heads, Otago Settler, New Zealand's First Art Dealer, Dunedin, Port Daniel Press, 2005, p.40-41.
  13. ^ Items from the 1880s depot recovered in 1947 and now in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
  14. ^ "Castaways rescued". Evening Post. New Zealand. 16 May 1908. p. 6.
  15. ^ Imber, Michael J.; Scofield, R. Paul; Goodwin, Anthea; Tennyson, Alan J.D. (2000). "Obituary – Gerald Stanley (Gerry) Clark (1927–1999)" (PDF). Notornis. 49 (1): 55–58. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2008.
  16. ^ Arnold & Pyne 2001, p. 96.
  17. ^ Richards, Rhys (1994). ""The upland seal" of the Antipodes and Macquarie Islands: A historian's perspective". Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 24 (3): 289–295. doi:10.1080/03014223.1994.9517473.
  18. ^ BirdLife International. (2012). Important Bird Areas factsheet: Antipodes Islands. Downloaded from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 July 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) on 27 January 2012.
  19. ^ "Department of Conservation selling access to rare species". Stuff.co.nz. 10 June 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  20. ^ "Million Dollar Mouse successfully eradicates mice from Antipodes Island". The Beehive. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  21. ^ Shuklin, George (21 March 2018). "NZ hails 'Million Dollar Mouse' success". BBC News. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  22. ^ "Data Table - Protected Areas - LINZ Data Service (recorded area 217286.6633 ha)". Land Information New Zealand. Retrieved 27 August 2019.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]