Antireligious campaigns in China
Antireligious campaigns in China refer to the Chinese Communist Party's official promotion of state atheism, coupled with its persecution of people with spiritual or religious beliefs, in the People's Republic of China. Antireligious campaigns began in 1949, after the Chinese Communist Revolution, and continue today in Buddhist, Christian, Muslim, and other religious communities. State campaigns against religion have escalated since Xi Jinping became General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party. For Christians, government decrees have mandated the destruction of houses of worship, such as Christian churches. In Tibet, similar decrees have mandated the destruction of Tibetan Buddhist monastic centers, of sacred Buddhist sites, of monastic residences, the denial of the Tibetan people's right to freely access their cultural heritage, and resulted in the ongoing persecution of high Buddhist lamas and of Buddhist nuns and monks. Reports of forced reeducation camps, arrests, beatings, rape, and destruction of religious sites in Tibet are likewise being made with regard to the Uyghur people, who are also allegedly being subjected to an ongoing cultural genocide.
As a result of anti-religious campaigns carried out between 1950 and 1979, churches, mosques, and temples were closed and reeducation was forced upon clergy. In Tibet, monasteries were demolished and monastics were arrested or killed.
The Cultural Revolution also criminalized the possession of religious texts. Monks were beaten or killed, and many Tibetans escaped with sacred texts and compiled teachings in exile communities in India.
1989-2002: Jiang Zemin administration
The Chinese government and the Communist Party, led by Jiang Zemin from 1989 to 2002, commenced the persecution of Falun Gong; it called for the "education of Marxist materialism and atheism" to counter Falun Gong.
In 1991 while crafting policy towards Tibetan Buddhists, Jiang's preliminary decree stated reincarnated lamas must be approved by China's central government. The decree was later revised and termed State Religious Affairs Bureau Order No. 5 in 2007 during the administration of Hu Jintao.
In 1992, Jiang's government formally accepted the 14th Dalai Lama's official recognition and the enthronement of Orgyen Trinley Dorje as the reincarnated 17th Gyalwang Karmapa, spiritual leader of the Karma Kagyu school. The recognition process was led by the 3rd Jamgon Kongtrul who died in a mysterious car crash earlier in 1992. The Karmapa, along with the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama, are highly respected by Tibetans and considered to be living Buddhas. By 1999, the Karmapa escaped to India, afterwards pointing to interference by the Chinese government in his spiritual leadership and studies as his motive.
Also in 1992, 13 monks from Drepung Monastery were arrested on 12 May for protesting peacefully. Samdup was jailed for 7 years, and in 2020 became the fourth former political prisoner to die from medical complications within the previous six months.
On 17 May 1995, Jiang's government officially reversed its acceptance policy of recognized reincarnated lamas and of Tibetan Buddhist spiritual leaders, and abducted Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, the 11th Panchen Lama, three days after his official recognition by the Dalai Lama. Chadrel Rinpoche and another Khenpo involved in the recognition process were also arrested. Months later in December, Jiang's government installed its proxy Panchen Lama, Gyaltsen Norbu. The recognized 11th Panchen Lama Gedhun Choekyi Nyima continues to be forcibly detained in an unknown location.
In 1996, Jiang's administration officially banned all photographs of Tibet's spiritual leader the 14th Dalai Lama.
2002-2012: Hu Jintao administration
Under the Chinese government and the Communist Party, led by Hu Jintao from 2002 to 2012, land redevelopment was used as a form of religious persecution, while the demolition of spiritually sacred buildings and sites was undertaken.
The persecution of Tibetan Buddhists escalated under Hu Jintao, leading to the 2008 Tibetan unrest. The uprising is described as the biggest challenge to China's invasion since 1959.
Previously in 2006, Tibetans were arrested after responding to calls from the Dalai Lama to burn animal skin clothing. Bon fires spread throughout Tibet as a form of defiance.
In 2008, as unrest over Chinese persecution grew, waves of protests began, including street demonstrations which were met with excessive force. A mass arrest of 280 monks at the Labrang Monastery was reported during this time, as was torture during confinement. A farming boycott began in 2009 in protest for those people detained or "disappeared" into Chinese custody. Civil disobedience became widespread, as all the monks in a Jomda, Chamdo province monastery deserted in June 2009 instead of participating in "patriotic education".
In 2011, China's foreign ministry announced only Beijing could appoint the 15th Dalai Lama. A monk at Nyitso monastery, Tsewang Norbu, self immolated after chanting "Long live the Dalai Lama" and "Tibetan people want freedom". The non-profit organization Free Tibet said telephone and internet services were subsequently cut to keep the news from spreading, and the monastery's utilities had been repeatedly cut. Activist Tsering Woeser said Chinese security forces surrounded the monastery the same night of Tsewang Norbu's death.
2012-Present: Xi Jinping administration
The Chinese government and Communist party led by Xi Jinping from 2012–present has intensified the most recent antireligious campaigns. Xi reemphasized that members of the Chinese Communist Party must be "unyielding Marxist atheists" and specifically "instituted a broad campaign to suppress all forms of dissent."
In September 2019, the UN Human Rights Council was informed that the Government of China "is harvesting and selling organs from persecuted religious and ethnic minorities on an industrial scale". The tribunal concluded that some Uyghurs, Falun Gong, Tibetan Buddhists and Christians are being “killed to order... cut open while still alive for their kidneys, livers, hearts, lungs, cornea and skin to be removed and turned into commodities for sale”.
According to The Christian Post, fingerprinting and facial recognition technology is being installed in churches, temples, and other religious meeting places throughout rural areas of China, with a completion date of 2020.
Under Xi Jinping, the widespread targeting of Tibetans and of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries, together with the persecution of ordained Khenpos, nuns and monks escalated. The settlement of Han Chinese in Tibet also continues, creating a majority population of Han Chinese settlers that benefit from forced land redistribution in Tibet.
Massive redevelopment projects including railways, mines, roadways, dams and shopping centers forcibly displace Tibetans and erode the environment. From 2015 to present, farmlands and ancestral nomadic grazing lands are also being confiscated from Tibetans.
Reports state that administrators of monasteries have been replaced by police or by people considered government infiltrators, while military surveillance units have been installed at Kirti Monastery, Yarchen Gar, Shak Rongpo Gaden Dargyeling Monastery, and at other monasteries, along with CCTV cameras. Drongna Monastery was forcibly closed in 2013, and its chant master Thardhod Gyaltsen received an 18-year prison sentence in 2014 for possession of a picture and recording of the 14th Dalai Lama. Since Xi gained office in 2012, "China has forced many Tibetan monks and nuns studying in Tibetans areas of Amdo and Kham to return to their respective hometowns in TAR as part of the intensified policy to control and manage Tibetan monastic population."
By 2013, Xi continued using tourism and redevelopment plans as methods to separate Tibetans from their Buddhist culture, to forcibly dislocate Tibetans, and to destroy heritage sites intrinsically important to Buddhists. Plans in 2012 included demolishing the spiritually sacred Barkhor central district of Lhasa's historic circumambulation path around the Norbulingka and the Jokhang, to build a shopping center, which appears to be also causing structural damage to these adjacent UNESCO world heritage sites. The shopping center is designed for Chinese tourists, of which over 10 million toured Tibet in 2011.
By 2020, after Chinese state-sponsored tourist agencies funneled people from inner China to Lhasa, reports state the tourists disrupt ceremonies, are disrespectful to Tibetan customs, and throw trash around sacred sites. Police support the tourists confronted by complaints. While continuing to experience state-sponsored discrimination, Tibetans are barred by Chinese authorities from entering sacred sites into which Chinese tourists are allowed. Unnamed Tibetan sources add that their "culture is becoming a showpiece for Chinese tourists". The historic residential community at the base of the Dalai Lama's Potala Palace was previously demolished after residents were forcibly displaced, and a large square glorifying China's invasion was built.
Reports also indicate tourism is used to disrupt monastic life within Buddhist monasteries. Monastic residences of nuns and monks were demolished before mass evictions began in 2016 at Larung Gar, in 2019 at Yarchen Gar, in 2013 at Jhada Gon Palden Khachoe Nunnery, and elsewhere. Reports indicate that nuns and nunneries are targeted for demolition more often than those of monks. Tourist accommodations and roads replaced the residences, or are planned for the sites where residences were demolished. Other monasteries are partially renovated for tourist accommodations whose proximity disrupts daily life.
After the mass evictions, nuns and monks were bused away, and reportedly detained in reeducation centers. Among others, an identified reeducation center is named Ningtri. Reports include beatings and the torture of monastics and of laypeople at reeducation centers, and in jails after arrests.
The ethnic cleansing policies in Tibet were managed by hardliner Chen Quanguo, before his 2016 transfer to govern Xinjiang. As the leaked Xinjiang papers state, "[n]ew security controls and a drastic expansion of the indoctrination camps followed" behind Chen Quanguo. In Tibet, nuns have been photographed while forced to wear military clothing and sing, forced to disavow Buddhism and the Dalai Lama, and reports state that beatings for disobedience are also common occurrences. Reports document incidents of sexual abuse, rape, and gender-based violence at the Chinese detention centers.
In April 2019, the Chinese police-enforced ban against photographs of the Dalai Lama spread to remote areas of Tibet.
The persecution of members of other spiritual organizations is also continuing under Xi Jinping. Journalist Ian Johnson noted that officials have targeted Christianity, and Islam, with particular intensity because of their perceived foreign ties. In the Chinese province of Zhejiang alone, over 1200 Christian crosses have been removed from their steeples since 2013.
In August 2017, a number of Catholic Christian priests, as well as laypeople, were injured while they were trying to prevent a government-owned bulldozer from demolishing their historic church in the Shanxi province. In February 2018, government authorities in Kashgar, "launched an anti-religion propaganda drive through local police stations", which included policemen erecting a banner proclaiming “We Must Solemnly Reject Religion, Must Not Believe in Religion”.
In December 2018, Chinese officials raided Christian house churches just prior to Christmas and coerced their owners to close them down; Christmas trees and Santa Clauses were also forcibly removed. In 2018, the United Front Work Department initiated a crackdown on large outdoor religious statues.
The government of China continued to persecute Christians during the 2019 COVID-19 pandemic, demolishing the Xiangbaishu Church in Yixing and removing a Christian Cross from the steeple of a church in Guiyang County. In the Shandong Province, "officials issued guidance forbidding online preaching, a vital way for churches to reach congregants amid both persecution and the spread of the virus".
In 2020, the Chinese government put additional regulations in place to restrict religious education and proselytizing.
By November 2018, the Chinese government had detained over one million Uyghurs in what it refers to as "training centers" as part of a thought reform campaign, "where Uyghur Muslims are remade into atheist Chinese subjects". For children forcibly taken away from their parents, the Chinese government has established "kindergartens" with the aim of combating 'three evil forces' ("separatism, extremism and terrorism"), and "converting future generations of Uyghur Muslim children into loyal subjects who embrace atheism". Under Xi Jinping, destruction of mosques and Muslim religious sites is widespread. Government campaigns against Islam have extended to the Hui people and Utsul community in Hainan.
Chinese officials did not acknowledge the existence of any sort of detention camps, but in November 2019 the detention centers were confirmed by the leaked Xinjiang papers, and are contributing to the genocide of Uyghurs. The Chinese government claims that Uyghurs are being sent to vocational training centers in order to prevent the spread of extremism and to increase their employability. In 1991, the U.S. government estimated that about one million people were being held in the re-education camps, mainly Uyghurs.
- Human rights in China
- Ethnic issues in China
- Freedom of religion in China
- Xinjiang re-education camps
- Organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners in China
- Persecution of Falun Gong
- Asiaweek, Volume 10. 1984. Archived from the original on 2016-04-27. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
- Jeni Hung (April 5, 2003). "Children of confucius". The Spectator. Archived from the original on March 21, 2006. Retrieved 2007-03-04.
- Blondeau, Anne-Marie; Buffetrille, Katia (8 April 2008). Authenticating Tibet. University of California Press. p. 165. ISBN 9780520249288.
This virulent anti-religion campaign seems to be officially linked to the development plan for western Tibet, for which social stability is necessary (see Part VIII, "Economic Development," below). But the hardening of this policy in Tibet is probably also a consequence to spread atheism launched in China, in response to the religious problems mentioned above, including problems inside the Party.
- Dark, K. R. (2000), "Large-Scale Religious Change and World Politics", Religion and International Relations, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 50–82, doi:10.1057/9781403916594_3, ISBN 978-1-349-27846-6,
Interestingly, atheist campaigns were most effective against traditional Chinese religions and Buddhism, whereas Christian, Jewish and Muslim communities not only survived these campaigns, but were among the most vocal of the political opposition to the governments as a consequence of them.
- "China announces "civilizing" atheism drive in Tibet". BBC Online. 12 January 1999. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
The Chinese Communist Party has launched a three-year drive to promote atheism in the Buddhist region of Tibet, saying it is the key to economic progress and a weapon against separatism as typified by the exiled Tibetan leader, the Dalai Lama. The move comes amid fresh foreign reports of religious persecution in the region, which was invaded by China in 1950.
- Johnson, Ian (April 23, 2017). "In China, Unregistered Churches Are Driving a Religious Revolution". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on September 4, 2017. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
It’s hardly celebrated here at all,” he said. “We had this break in our history—you know, the missionaries being expelled in 1949 and then the anti-religious campaigns—so a lot has been lost. A lot of people don’t really know too much about Lent. We had a service trying to reintroduce the idea and explain it.
- "China's war on religion". The Week. August 23, 2020. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
- "China's anti-Christian crusade". The Washington Post. 5 September 2015. Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
The profusion of churches seems to have unnerved some Chinese authorities, who have undertaken a campaign to tear down hundreds of crosses, and in some instances entire churches, in Zhejiang, a coastal province where a prosperous Christian community and large numbers of churches have taken root.
- Buang, Sa'eda; Chew, Phyllis Ghim-Lian (9 May 2014). Muslim Education in the 21st Century: Asian Perspectives. Routledge. p. 75. ISBN 9781317815006. OCLC 880235482.
Subsequently, a new China was found on the basis of Communist ideology, i.e. atheism. Within the framework of this ideology, religion was treated as a 'contorted' world-view and people believed that religion would necessarily disappear at the end, along with the development of human society. A series of anti-religious campaigns was implemented by the Chinese Communist Party from the early 1950s to the late 1970s. As a result, in nearly 30 years between the beginning of the 1950s and the end of the 1970s, mosques (as well as churches and Chinese temples) were shut down and Imams involved in forced 're-education'.
- Grim, Brian J.; Finke, Roger (2010). The Price of Freedom Denied: Religious Persecution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511762345. ISBN 9781139492416. OCLC 1104455711.
Seeking a complete annihilation of religion, places of worship were shut down; temples, churches, and mosques were destroyed; artifacts were smashed; sacred texts were burnt; and it was a criminal offence even to possess a religious artifact or sacred text. Atheism had long been the official doctrine of the Chinese Communist Party, but this new form of militant atheism made every effort to eradicate religion completely.
- Pittman, Don Alvin (2001). Toward a Modern Chinese Buddhism: Taixu's Reforms. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824822316. JSTOR j.ctt6wqt85.
Yet in the first years after Liberation there were places in China where monasteries were destroyed, monks were beaten or killed, copies of the Buddhist canon were burned, and sacred images were melted down for their metal.
- Xiao, Ming (2012). The Cultural Economy of Falun Gong in China: A Rhetorical Perspective. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 9781611172072. JSTOR j.ctv6wgmf9. OCLC 826659831.
- "中共中央、国务院关于进一步做好宗教工作若干问题的通知-宗教政策-兴国禅寺". xgcs.org (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2020-09-12. Retrieved 2020-09-09.
- Harding, Luke (2001-04-28). "Daring escape of the Karmapa". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 2018-06-24. Retrieved 2020-09-12.
- The Karmapa: A short biography of the early years of the 17th Karmapa, Ogyen Trinley Dorje, and the lineage of Karmapas that came before him., Kagyu Office, https://kagyuoffice.org/karmapa/ Archived 2020-08-15 at the Wayback Machine
- Finney, Richard (July 17, 2020). "Tibetan Former Political Prisoner Dies After Years of Ill Health Following Release". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on 11 September 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
- The Tibet issue: Tibetan view, BBC, (27 January 2012), https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-16759913 Archived 2018-03-14 at the Wayback Machine
- Neuman, Scott (May 17, 2015). "20 Years After China Seized Boy Monk, Tibetans Call For His Release". NPR. Archived from the original on April 24, 2020. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
- "Tibet's missing spiritual guide". BBC News. 2005-05-16. Archived from the original on 2011-09-23. Retrieved 2020-09-18.
Gedhun Choekyi Nyima was nominated as the reincarnation of the Panchen Lama the second most important figure in Tibetan religion, culture and politics after the Dalai Lama himself. But China disagreed with the choice and arrested the boy a few days later. Mystery surrounds his fate and outside China he is known as one of the world's youngest political prisoners.
- Sharma, Yojana (April 30, 1996). "CHINA-TIBET: Dalai Lama Photos Banned From Monasteries, Hotels". Inter Press Service. Archived from the original on October 22, 2019. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
- Eckholm, Erik (2001-06-22). "Monitors Say China Pushes Tibet Monks From Study Site". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2020-05-07. Retrieved 2020-09-18.
Chinese authorities are skittish about any organization or movement outside party control. In recent years, they have repeatedly tried, without success up to now, to scale back the Serthar settlement and limit study there to nearby residents. This time, according to the International Campaign for Tibet, officials from Beijing as well as the provincial capital, Chengdu, have gone to the site to expel most of the students. The officials have burned down abandoned cabins to limit visitors and declared that the total number of residents should be held to 1,400, according to accounts received by the international campaign.
- Ramzy, Austin; Buckley, Chris (2019-11-16). "'Absolutely No Mercy': Leaked Files Expose How China Organized Mass Detentions of Muslims". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-12-22. Retrieved 2020-09-06.
There must be effective educational remolding and transformation of criminals,” [Xi] told officials in southern Xinjiang on the second day of his trip. “And even after these people are released, their education and transformation must continue.”' 'Within months, indoctrination sites began opening across Xinjiang — mostly small facilities at first, which held dozens or hundreds of Uighurs at a time for sessions intended to pressure them into disavowing devotion to Islam and professing gratitude for the party.' 'Then in August 2016, a hard-liner named Chen Quanguo was transferred from Tibet to govern Xinjiang. Within weeks, he called on local officials to “remobilize” around Mr. Xi’s goals and declared that Mr. Xi’s speeches “set the direction for making a success of Xinjiang.
- Topgyal, Tsering (March 2011). "Insecurity Dilemma and the Tibetan Uprising in 2008". Journal of Contemporary China. 20 (69): 183–203. doi:10.1080/10670564.2011.541627. ISSN 1067-0564. S2CID 154763368.
- Yeh, Emily T. (September 2012). "Transnational environmentalism and entanglements of sovereignty: The tiger campaign across the Himalayas". Political Geography. 31 (7): 408–418. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2012.06.003.
- "China accused of excessive force over Tibet unrest". BBC News. 2010-07-22. Archived from the original on 2019-12-21. Retrieved 2020-09-09.
- "2008-2009 Protest Logs". International Campaign for Tibet. Archived from the original on September 12, 2020. Retrieved 2020-09-20.
- Sehgal, Parul (2020-07-15). "'Eat the Buddha' Reports From the 'World Capital of Self-Immolations'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2020-09-10. Retrieved 2020-09-11.
- "Tibet's "Intolerable" Monasteries: The role of monasteries in Tibetan resistance since 1950" (PDF). Free Tibet. April 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
- Jiang, Steven (August 17, 2011). "Tibetan monk dies after setting himself on fire". CNN. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
- Brooke Schedneck, (03 July 2019 How the Dalai Lama is chosen and why China wants to appoint its own, The Conversation, https://theconversation.com/how-the-dalai-lama-is-chosen-and-why-china-wants-to-appoint-its-own-114351 Archived 2020-06-22 at the Wayback Machine
- Wiser, Daniel (27 April 2015). "Chinese Persecution of Christians Reaches Highest Level in a Decade". The Washington Free Beacon. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
- Campbell, Charlie (25 April 2016). "China's Leader Xi Jinping Reminds Party Members to Be 'Unyielding Marxist Atheists'". Time. Archived from the original on 21 August 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
- Withnall, Adam (24 September 2019). "China is killing religious and ethnic minorities and harvesting their organs, UN Human Rights Council told". The Independent. Archived from the original on 24 September 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
- Showalter, Brandon (November 15, 2019). "Face and fingerprint scanning installed in churches as China increases surveillance". Christian Post. Archived from the original on 16 November 2019. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
- "China Expands Its Clampdown in Tibet: Report". Radio Free Asia. June 16, 2020. Archived from the original on September 1, 2020. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
- Shaw, Steve (August 3, 2017). "China Tears Down the Tibetan City in the Sky: China is demolishing homes and evicting thousands from Larung Gar, the world's largest Tibetan Buddhist institution". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on July 28, 2020. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
- Khadka, Navin Singh (2013-12-13). "Tibetans displaced within region 'amid rampant mining'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2019-02-27. Retrieved 2020-09-10.
- Kyi, Tsering (January 29, 2015). "Tibetans Arrested After Land Grab Protest in China". Voice of America. Archived from the original on September 12, 2020. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
- "China's Undercover War on Religious Life". Christian Science Monitor. 1993-11-04. ISSN 0882-7729. Archived from the original on 2015-09-22. Retrieved 2020-09-11.
- "China: New Controls on Tibetan Monastery". Human Rights Watch. 2018-01-24. Archived from the original on 2020-06-01. Retrieved 2020-09-11.
- "Hidden but not forgotten: Int'l Day of the Disappeared shines light on Tibet's dark prison secrets". Hong Kong Free Press. August 30, 2018. Archived from the original on July 2, 2020. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
- Shaw, Steve (January 13, 2020). "China's Ambition to Control Tibet is Leaving Hundreds Incarcerated, Abused and Forgotten". Byline Times. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
- Lobsang Tenchoe, Tibetan monk’s account declares sexual abuse and torture rampant in China’s ‘political re-education centres’ , (30 May 2018), https://tibetexpress.net/8411/tibetan-monks-account-declares-sexual-abuse-and-torture-rampant-in-chinas-political-re-education-centres/ Archived 2020-01-24 at the Wayback Machine
- Malterre, Ségolène (May 21, 2013). "Lhasa's Tibetans will soon be nothing but decorations for tourists". France 24. Archived from the original on June 10, 2020. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
- Finney, Richard (July 24, 2020). "Chinese Tourists Crowd Lhasa Holy Sites, Tibetans Barred From Entry". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on August 17, 2020. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
- "China: Major Tibetan Buddhist Institution Faces Further Demolitions". Human Rights Watch. 2017-03-29. Archived from the original on 2020-05-24. Retrieved 2020-09-10.
- Finney, Richard (August 18, 2020). "Tibetan Woman Jailed in Protest Over Panchen Lama is Released in Failing Health". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on September 1, 2020. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
- Dotson, John (April 9, 2019). "Propaganda Themes at the CPPCC Stress the "Sinicization" of Religion". Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 2020-07-16. Retrieved 2020-09-11.
- Gan, Nectar (March 6, 2019). "Beijing plans to continue tightening grip on Christianity and Islam as China pushes ahead with the 'Sinicisation of religion'". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
- "Dalai Lama: 'Cultural genocide' behind self-immolations". BBC News. 2011-11-07. Archived from the original on 2019-11-03. Retrieved 2020-09-10.
- Zenz, Adrian; Leibold, James (September 21, 2017). "Chen Quanguo: The Strongman Behind Beijing's Securitization Strategy in Tibet and Xinjiang". Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 2019-12-01. Retrieved 2020-09-18.
- "2019 Report on International Religious Freedom". United States Department of State. 2019. Archived from the original on 2020-09-04. Retrieved 2020-09-10.
- Finney, Richard (May 29, 2019). "China Launches New Drive Against Dalai Lama Photos in Kardze". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on September 2, 2020. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
- Johnson, Ian (2019-12-21). "China's New Civil Religion". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-12-22. Retrieved 2019-12-22.
- Wong, Edward (2016-02-26). "Pastor in China Who Resisted Cross Removal Gets 14 Years in Prison". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-05-18. Retrieved 2020-09-06.
- Luxmoore, Jonathan (4 December 2015). "China's Catholics fear new anti-Christian campaign". National Catholic Reporter. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
Police began tearing down crosses in the coastal city of Wenzhou in late 2013, citing building regulations, and have since removed more than 1,200 crosses throughout Zhejiang. The campaign was protested by China's state-approved Catholic and Protestant associations, as well as by Cardinal John Tong Hon of Hong Kong, who appealed to Communist Party chiefs in August to "return to the right path." However, Catholic sources say up to 4,000 crosses may have been targeted for removal from spires and towers, while churches have also been bulldozed and numerous Christians arrested for protesting.
- Zaimov, Stoyan (31 August 2017). "'Jesus Save Me!' Chinese Christians Shout as They Try to Save Church From Bulldozers". The Christian Post. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- "Chinese Catholics try to stop the demolition of their church in Changzhi, Shanxi (VIDEO)". AsiaNews. 29 August 2017. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Shohret Hoshur (12 February 2018). "Xinjiang Authorities Launch Anti-Religion Campaign Through Local Police Stations". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- "Alarm over China's Church crackdown". BBC. 18 December 2018. Archived from the original on 5 January 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
Among those arrested are a prominent pastor and his wife, of the Early Rain Covenant Church in Sichuan. Both have been charged with state subversion. And on Saturday morning, dozens of police raided a children's Bible class at Rongguili Church in Guangzhou. One Christian in Chengdu told the BBC: "I'm lucky they haven't found me yet." China is officially atheist, though says it allows religious freedom.
- "Santa Claus won't be coming to this town, as Chinese officials ban Christmas". South China Morning Post. 18 December 2018. Archived from the original on 12 January 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
Christmas is not a recognised holiday in mainland China – where the ruling party is officially atheist – and for many years authorities have taken a tough stance on anyone who celebrates it in public. ... The statement by Langfang officials said that anyone who was caught selling Christmas trees, wreaths, stockings or Santa Claus figures in the city would be punished. ... While the ban on the sale of Christmas goods might appear to be directed at retailers, it also comes amid a crackdown on Christians who are practising their religion across the country. On Saturday morning, more than 60 police officers and officials stormed a children’s Bible class in Guangzhou, the capital of southern China’s Guangdong province. The incident came after authorities shut down the 1,500-member Zion Church in Beijing in September and Chengdu’s 500-member Early Rain Covenant Church last week. In the case of the latter, about 100 worshippers were snatched from their homes or from the streets in coordinated raids.
- "China orders crackdown on large outdoor religious statues". Associated Press. 2018-05-26. Archived from the original on 2019-09-24. Retrieved 2019-09-24.
- "China orders crackdown on outdoor religious statues". The Week. May 26, 2018. Archived from the original on September 24, 2019. Retrieved 2019-09-24.
- Parke, Caleb (23 March 2020). "In coronavirus fight, China hasn't stopped persecuting Christians: watchdog". Fox News. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- Klett, Leah MarieAnn (21 March 2020). "China demolishes church, removes crosses as Christians worship at home". The Christian Post. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- Lau, Mimi (September 6, 2020). "China doubles down against foreign teachers spreading Christianity". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
- Rob, Schmitz (May 3, 2019). "China Detains Hundreds Of Thousands Of Muslims In 'Training Centers'". NPR. Archived from the original on July 10, 2019. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
- Ramzy, Austin; Buckley, Chris (2019-11-16). "'Absolutely No Mercy': Leaked Files Expose How China Organized Mass Detentions of Muslims". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-12-22. Retrieved 2019-11-16.
- Beydoun, Khaled A. "For China, Islam is a 'mental illness' that needs to be 'cured'". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 10 December 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Xinjiang to crack down on 'three evil forces'". China Daily. March 6, 2012. Archived from the original on 2019-07-22. Retrieved 2019-07-10.
- Sudworth, John (2019-07-04). "China separating Muslim children from families". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2019-07-05. Retrieved 2020-09-09.
- Feng, Emily (September 26, 2019). "'Afraid We Will Become The Next Xinjiang': China's Hui Muslims Face Crackdown". NPR. Archived from the original on October 8, 2019. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- Buckley, Chris; Ramzy, Austin (2020-09-25). "China Is Erasing Mosques and Precious Shrines in Xinjiang". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
- Myers, Steven Lee (2019-09-22). "A Crackdown on Islam Is Spreading Across China". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-09-20.
- Emily, Feng (September 26, 2019). "'Afraid We Will Become The Next Xinjiang': China's Hui Muslims Face Crackdown". NPR. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
- "Tiny Muslim community becomes latest target for China's religious crackdown". South China Morning Post. 2020-09-28. Retrieved 2020-10-16.
- Soliev, Nodirbek (2019). "Uyghur Violence and Jihadism in China and Beyond". Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses. 11 (1): 71–75. ISSN 2382-6444. JSTOR 26568580.
- "U.S.-Japan: A Looming Crisis? Hearing and Markup before the Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 16, 1991". 2 April 1992. doi:10.1163/2468-1733_shafr_sim200020022. hdl:2027/uc1.31210014951741. Cite journal requires