Mexico City, Mexico
|Years of service||1807-1848|
Battle of San Juan de Ulúa
Antonio Gaona was born in Cuba in 1793. He joined the Regiment Nuevo España in the early 1800s and was promoted to general in 1832.
During the Texas Revolution, General Antonio Gaona joined Santa Anna on the 1836 invasion of Texas, which first journeyed to San Antonio de Bexar, and besieged the meager Texan forces garrisoned at the Alamo fort.
Gaona arrived in San Antonio on March 8th 1836, too late for the Battle of the Alamo. Gaona and the bulk of his troops were traveling in the rear of the Mexican convoy, along with General Vicente Filisola, who were transporting the provisions and heavy armaments.
On March 24, 1836, he was ordered by Santa Anna to take 800 men and sweep around from the north towards Mina, now called Bastrop and then follow to Nacogdoches by way of the Old San Antonio Road. Gaona would close the trap on Sam Houston's army, catching him on his eastward retreat. Gaona desperately searched for the Texas army, following the right bank of the Brazos River on its southernly course. However, the Texans would remain elusive and Gaona would see no major fighting.
In early April, his orders were urgently changed and Gaona was ordered to abandon his occupation of Bastrop and to promptly join up with Santa Anna's forces in San Felipe. However in his haste to reinforce Santa Anna, he lost his way somewhere between Bastrop and San Felipe. Gaona reached Old Fort on April 19, thus his men would not arrive in time to participate in the battle of San Jacinto. Gaona was ordered by Filisola to return to San Antonio and then to cross back into Mexico.
In Mexico, Gaona was appointed as the commander of the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa. He was forced to surrender the fort to the French fleet on November 28, 1838, during the Pastry War. He later served in the Mexican American War where he was captured at the Battle of (sic) Napoluca (Nopalucan) on January 6, 1848. He later died in 1848.
- Lord (1961), pp. 118, 148.
- Edmondson (2000), p. 378.
- Hardin (1994), pg. 182
- Robert Bruce Blake, "GAONA, ANTONIO," Handbook of Texas Online , accessed March 15, 2012. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
- Elisha Kent Kane Historical Society "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-01. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
- Joe Musso, Kane Knife  October 28, 2004
- Edmondson, J.R. (2000), The Alamo Story-From History to Current Conflicts, Plano, TX: Republic of Texas Press, ISBN 1-55622-678-0
- Hardin, Stephen L. (1994), Texian Iliad – A Military History of the Texas Revolution, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, ISBN 0292730861, OCLC 29704011
- Lindley, Thomas Ricks (2003), Alamo Traces: New Evidence and New Conclusions, Lanham, MD: Republic of Texas Press, ISBN 1556229836
- Lord, Walter (1961), A Time to Stand, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0803279027
- Todish, Timothy J.; Todish, Terry; Spring, Ted (1998), Alamo Sourcebook, 1836: A Comprehensive Guide to the Battle of the Alamo and the Texas Revolution, Austin, TX: Eakin Press, ISBN 9781571681522
- Hardin, Stephen L.; Texian Iliad-A Military History of the Texas Revolution; University of Texas Press; ISBN 0-292-730-86-1
- Roberts, R. & Olson, James S.; A Line in the Sand-The Alamo in Blood and Memory; Simon & Schuster; ISBN 0-7432-1233-9