|Prime Minister of Italy|
21 March 1914 – 18 June 1916
|Monarch||Victor Emmanuel III|
|Preceded by||Giovanni Giolitti|
|Succeeded by||Paolo Boselli|
|Born||August 13, 1853|
Troia, Apulia, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
|Died||December 9, 1931 (aged 78)|
Rome, Kingdom of Italy
|Political party||Historical Right|
Italian Liberal Party
|Alma mater||University of Naples|
|Profession||Journalist, politician, lawyer|
Antonio Salandra (13 August 1853 – 9 December 1931) was a conservative Italian politician who served as the 21st prime minister of Italy between 1914 and 1916. He ensured the entry of Italy in World War I on the side of the Triple Entente (the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire) to fulfil Italy’s irredentist claims.
Early life and political career
Born in Troia (Province of Foggia, Apulia), he graduated from the University of Naples in 1875 and then became instructor and later professor of administrative law at the University of Rome.
He was Minister of Agriculture (1899–1900) in the conservative government of Luigi Pelloux and subsequently Minister of the Treasury (1906) and Italian Minister of Finance (1909–1910) in the governments of Sidney Sonnino.
In March 1914, the conservative Salandra was brought into the national cabinet upon the fall of the government of Giovanni Giolitti, as the choice of Giolitti himself, who still commanded the support of most Italian parliamentarians. Salandra's government was the most conservative one that Italy had seen for a long time. Salandra soon fell out with Giolitti over the question of Italian participation in World War I.
At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, Salandra declared that Italy would not commit its troops, maintaining that the Triple Alliance had only a defensive stance and Austria-Hungary had been the aggressor. In reality, both Salandra and his ministers of Foreign Affairs, Antonino Paternò Castello, who was succeeded by Sidney Sonnino in November 1914, began to probe which side would grant the best reward for Italy's entrance in the war and to fulfil Italy’s irredentist claims.
Entering World War I
Salandra used the term "sacred egoism" (sacro egoismo) to define Italy's outlook on which side Italy would enter the war. Expecting the war would be short – over by the late summer of 1915 – there was some pressure on the decision to make.
Negotiations had been started between Sonnino, the British Foreign Secretary Edward Grey and the French Foreign Minister Jules Cambon.
On February 16, 1915, despite concurrent negotiations with Austria, a courier was dispatched in great secrecy to London with the suggestion that Italy was open to a good offer from the Entente. [ ...] The final choice was aided by the arrival of news in March of Russian victories in the Carpathians. Salandra began to think that victory for the Entente was in sight, and was so anxious not to arrive too late for a share in the profits that he instructed his envoy in London to drop some demands and reach agreement quickly. [...] The Treaty of London was concluded on April 26 binding Italy to fight within one month. [...] Not until May 4 did Salandra denounce the Triple Alliance in a private note to its signatories.
The secret pact, the Treaty of London or London Pact (Italian: Patto di Londra), was signed between the Triple Entente (the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire) and the Kingdom of Italy. According to the pact, Italy was to leave the Triple Alliance and join the Triple Entente. Italy was to declare war against Germany and Austria-Hungary within a month in return for territorial concessions at the end of the war.
While Giolitti supported neutrality, Salandra and Sonnino, supported intervention on the side of the Allies, and secured Italy's entrance into the war despite the opposition of the majority in parliament. On 3 May 1915, Italy officially revoked the Triple Alliance. In the following days Giolitti and the neutralist majority of the Parliament opposed declaring war, while nationalist crowds demonstrated in public areas for entering the war. On 13 May 1915, Salandra offered his resignation, but Giolitti, fearful of nationalist disorder that might break into open rebellion, declined to succeed him as prime minister and Salandra's resignation was not accepted.
On 23 May 1915, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary. Salandra had expected that Italy's entrance on the allied side would bring the war to a quick solution. However the stalemated bloody war lasted dragged far longer than anticipated. This weakened Salandra's ministry, especially when he refused to appoint neutralists to important positions. Five unsuccessful Italian offensives on the Isonzo and the Austro-Hungarian Trentino Offensive in May to July 1916 contributed to a military crisis that led to the collapse of Salandra's government on June 10, 1916, due to a combination of neutralist deputies and those who believed that Salandra had not been effective enough in the war effort. He played no further role in the war but was a member of the Italian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.
After World War I, Salandra moved further to the right, and supported Mussolini's accession to power in 1922. Nine years later he died in Rome.
He was awarded Order of Karađorđe's Star.
He is the author of a considerable number of works on economics, finance, history, law, and politics (New International Encyclopedia). These include:
- Tratto della giustizia amministrativo (1904)
- La politica nazionale e il partito liberale (1912)
- Lezioni di diritto amministrativo (two volumes, 1912)
- Politica e legislazione : saggi, raccolti da Giustino Fortunato (1915)
- Il discorso contro la malafede tedesca (1915)
- Italy and the Great War: From Neutrality to Intervention (London: Edward Arnold, 1932),
- ^ (in Italian) Salandra, Antonio, Enciclopedia Treccani
- ^ Clark, Modern Italy: 1871 to the present, p. 217
- ^ a b Baker, Ray Stannard (1923). Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement, Volume I, Doubleday, Page and Company, pp. 52–55
- ^ Clark, Modern Italy: 1871 to the present, p. 219
- ^ Mack Smith, Modern Italy: A Political History, p. 262
- ^ Clark, Modern Italy: 1871 to the present, p. 221-22
- ^ Francesco Soddu, "The Role of the Italian Parliament during the First World War." Studia Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series Historica XII (2015): 11-20.
- ^ Acović, Dragomir (2012). Slava i čast: Odlikovanja među Srbima, Srbi među odlikovanjima. Belgrade: Službeni Glasnik. p. 369.
- Bosworth, Richard J.B. Italy the Least of the Great Powers: Italian Foreign Policy Before the First World War (2005).
- Clark, Martin. Modern Italy: 1871 to the present (2008).
- Lowe, Cedric J. "Britain and Italian Intervention, 1914–1915." Historical Journal 12.3 (1969): 533-548.
- Mack Smith, Denis (1997). Modern Italy: A Political History, (Univ. of Michigan Press, 1997).
- Renzi, William A. In the Shadow of the Sword: Italy's Neutrality and Entrance into the Great War, 1914-1915 (1987).
- Salandra, Antonio. Italy and the Great War: From Neutrality to Intervention (London: Edward Arnold, 1932), a primary source.
- Sarti, Roland (2004). Italy: a reference guide from the Renaissance to the present, New York: Facts on File Inc., ISBN 0-81607-474-7
- Media related to Antonio Salandra at Wikimedia Commons
- Newspaper clippings about Antonio Salandra in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
- 1853 births
- 1931 deaths
- People from Troia, Apulia
- Kingdom of the Two Sicilies people
- Historical Right politicians
- Italian Liberal Party politicians
- Prime Ministers of Italy
- Italian Ministers of the Interior
- Finance ministers of Italy
- Deputies of Legislature XVI of the Kingdom of Italy
- Deputies of Legislature XVII of the Kingdom of Italy
- Deputies of Legislature XVIII of the Kingdom of Italy
- Deputies of Legislature XIX of the Kingdom of Italy
- Deputies of Legislature XX of the Kingdom of Italy
- Deputies of Legislature XXI of the Kingdom of Italy
- Deputies of Legislature XXII of the Kingdom of Italy
- Deputies of Legislature XXIII of the Kingdom of Italy
- Deputies of Legislature XXIV of the Kingdom of Italy
- Deputies of Legislature XXV of the Kingdom of Italy
- Deputies of Legislature XXVI of the Kingdom of Italy
- Deputies of Legislature XXVII of the Kingdom of Italy
- Politicians of Apulia
- Italian male writers
- 19th-century Italian lawyers
- Academic staff of the Sapienza University of Rome
- Italian people of World War I