Antony C. Sutton
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Antony C. Sutton
|Born||Antony Cyril Sutton|
February 14, 1925
London, United Kingdom
|Died||June 17, 2002 (aged 77)|
|Nationality||British and American|
|Alma mater||University of Southampton, England|
|Subject||history, economics, politics|
|Notable works||America’s Secret Establishment: An Introduction to the Order of Skull & Bones (1983)|
Antony Cyril Sutton (February 14, 1925 – June 17, 2002) was a British and American economist, historian, professor, and writer.
Born in London in 1925, Sutton relocated to California in 1957 and became a U.S. citizen in 1962. he studied at the universities of London, Göttingen, and California and received his D.Sc. from the University of Southampton. Sutton then received an economics professorship at California State University, Los Angeles and a research fellowship at Stanford University's Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace from 1968 to 1973. During his time at the Hoover Institution, he wrote the major study Western Technology and Soviet Economic Development (in three volumes), arguing that the West played a major role in developing the Soviet Union from its very beginnings up until the then-present year of 1970. Sutton argued that the Soviet Union's technological and manufacturing base, which was then engaged in supplying the Viet Cong, was built by United States corporations and largely funded by US taxpayers. Steel and iron plants, the GAZ automobile factory, a Ford subsidiary in eastern Russia, and many other Soviet industrial enterprises were built with the help or technical assistance of the United States or US corporations. He argued further that the Soviet Union's acquisition of MIRV technology was made possible by receiving (from US sources) machining equipment for the manufacture of precision ball bearings, necessary to mass-produce MIRV-enabled missiles. He has contributed articles to Human Events, The Review of the News, Triumph, Ordnance, and many other journals.
In 1973, Sutton published a popularized, condensed version of the sections of the forthcoming third volume relevant to military technology called National Suicide: Military Aid to the Soviet Union after which he was forced out of the Hoover Institution. His conclusion from his research on the issue was that the conflicts of the Cold War were "not fought to restrain communism" since the United States, through financing the Soviet Union "directly or indirectly armed both sides in at least Korea and Vietnam" but the wars were organised in order "to generate multibillion-dollar armaments contracts."
The update to the text, The Best Enemy Money Can Buy, looked at the role of military technology transfers up to the 1980s. Appendix B of that text contained the text of his 1972 testimony before Subcommittee VII of the Platform Committee of the Republican Party in which he summarized the essential aspects of his overall research:
In a few words: there is no such thing as Soviet technology. Almost all — perhaps 90–95 percent — came directly or indirectly from the United States and its allies. In effect the United States and the NATO countries have built the Soviet Union. Its industrial and its military capabilities. This massive construction job has taken 50 years. Since the Revolution in 1917. It has been carried out through trade and the sale of plants, equipment and technical assistance.
Sutton's next three major published books (Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, Wall Street and FDR and Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler) detailed Wall Street's involvement in the Bolshevik Revolution to destroy Russia as an economic competitor and turn it into "a captive market and a technical colony to be exploited by a few high-powered American financiers and the corporations under their control" as well as its decisive contributions to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, whose policies he assessed as being essentially the same "corporate socialism," planned by the big corporations. Sutton concluded that it was all part of the economic power elites' "long-range program of nurturing collectivism" and fostering "corporate socialism" in order to ensure "monopoly acquisition of wealth" because it "would fade away if it were exposed to the activity of a free market."
In his view, the only solution to prevent such abuse in the future was that "a majority of individuals declares or acts as if it wants nothing from government, declares it will look after its own welfare and interests" or, specifically, if "a majority finds the moral courage and the internal fortitude to reject the something-for-nothing con game and replace it by voluntary associations, voluntary communes, or local rule and decentralized societies."
In Sutton's own words he was "persecuted but never prosecuted" for his research and subsequent publication of his findings.
In the early 1980s, Sutton used a combination of public-domain information on Skull and Bones (such as Yale yearbooks) and previously unreleased documents sent to him by Charlotte Thomson Iserbyt whose father was a Skull and Bones member to speculate that it had played an important role in coordinating the political and economic relationships underlying the historical events Sutton wrote of in his previous works. He published his speculations as America's Secret Establishment: An Introduction to the Order of Skull and Bones, which, according to Sutton, was his most important work.
In his book Between Two Ages: America's Role in the Technetronic Era (New York: Viking Press;1970), Zbigniew Brzezinski wrote:
For impressive evidence of Western participation in the early phase of Soviet economic growth, see Antony C. Sutton's Western Technology and Soviet Economic Development: 1917–1930, which argues that 'Soviet economic development for 1917–1930 was essentially dependent on Western technological aid' (p.283), and that 'at least 95 per cent of the industrial structure received this assistance.' (p. 348).
In his three-volume detailed account of Soviet Purchases of Western Equipment and Technology ... Sutton comes to conclusions that are uncomfortable for many businessmen and economists. For this reason his work tends to be either dismissed out of hand as 'extreme' or, more often, simply ignored. (p. 290)
The description on the back flap of the dust jacket of Sutton's 1976 book by ‘76 Press, Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler, reveals that Sutton was then working on a forthcoming two-part study of the Federal Reserve System and the War on Gold to be published by ‘76 Press in 1977. When The War on Gold was released the following year in 1977, the dust jacket description announced the follow-up book, The Paper Factory, would be published in 1978, but this book was never released.
Archive footage of Sutton was used in the 2014 documentary, JFK to 9/11: Everything Is a Rich Man's Trick.
The Hoover Institution Archives house four boxes of Sutton’s personal papers from 1920 to 1972. The collection includes writings, clippings, letters, and notes related to the outbreak of wars, civil wars, revolutions and other violent conflicts around the globe from 1820 to 1970. There is a particular emphasis on the life and career of American entrepreneur Armand Hammer, especially as relates to his business investments in the Soviet Union.
- University of Southampton, D.Sc. in Southampton, United Kingdom.
- University of Göttingen in Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany.
- University of California, Los Angeles in Los Angeles, California, United States of America.
- Economics Professor at California State University Los Angeles
- Research Fellow at the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace at Stanford University, 1968 to 1973.
- Sutton, Antony (1979). "Letters to the Editor". Patterns of Prejudice. 13 (4): 37. doi:10.1080/0031322X.1979.9969533. ISSN 0031-322X.
- — (February 1996). "Memoir Concerning Events at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University in the Period 1968-1974 (Relating to Suppression of Information by Washington, D.C.".
- — (June 2002). "The September 11th Attack, the War on Terror, and the Order of Skull & Bones".
- Western Technology and Soviet Economic Development: 1917–1930. Hoover Institution, 1968. ISBN 978-0817917913
- Western Technology and Soviet Economic Development: 1930–1945. Hoover Institution, 1971.
- Western Technology and Soviet Economic Development: 1945–1965. Hoover Institution, 1973.
- National Suicide: Military Aid to the Soviet Union. Arlington House, 1973.
- What Is Libertarianism?. Cayman Press, 1973.
- Wars and Revolutions, Part One: 1820 to 1900 (1973)
- Wars and Revolutions, Part Two: 1900 to 1972 (1973)
- Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution. Arlington House, 1974. ISBN 978-0870002762 Available in Russian translation.
- Wall Street and FDR. Arlington House, 1975. ISBN 9780870003288. Available online.
- Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler (1976)
- The War on Gold (‘76 Press, 1977)
- Energy: The Created Crisis (Books in Focus, 1979) ISBN 9780916728045
- The Diamond Connection: A manual for investors (1979)
- Trilaterals Over Washington, Vol. 1 (1979) Co-authored with Patrick M. Wood.
- Trilaterals Over Washington, Vol. 2 (1980) Co-authored with Patrick M. Wood.
- Gold vs Paper: A Cartoon History of Inflation (1981)
- Investing in Platinum Metals (1982) OCLC 10527784
- Technological Treason: A Catalog of U.S. Firms with Soviet Contracts, 1917–1982. 1982.
- America's Secret Establishment: An Introduction to the Order of Skull & Bones. (PDF) 1983.
- An Introduction to the Order (1983)
- The Secret Cult of the Order (1983)
- How the Order Controls Education (1985)
- How the Order Creates War and Revolution (1985) (Russian Version, Source)
- The Best Enemy Money Can Buy (2000) (Source)
- Two Faces of George Bush (1988) ISBN 9780947117801
- The Federal Reserve Conspiracy (1995) (Internet Archive) (Russian Edition)
- Trilaterals Over America (1995) (Russian Edition)
- Gold For Survival. CPA Book Publishers, 1996. ISBN 978-0967069777
- Cold Fusion: Secret Energy Revolution. 1997. ISBN 9780967069739
- The View from 4-Space. 1998.
Articles by Other Authors
- Stang, Alan. “Antony Sutton: A Giant Departs Not A Real Human Being”. Ether Zone, 2002. Archived link.
- Baron, Alexander. “Op-Ed: The Life and Work of Antony C. Sutton” Digital Journal, June 17, 2012. Archived link.
- Millegan, Kris. “'W', S&B—and the truth... shall set us free! An interview with Antony C. Sutton, Researcher Emeritus”. Little Red Hen, July 3, 1999. Archive link.
- Arms industry
- Federal Reserve
- Military funding of science
- Military–industrial–media complex
- Military Keynesianism
- Permanent war economy
- Politico-media complex
- Power elite
- Prison–industrial complex
- The Power Elite by C. Wright Mills
- "National Suicide" (video). Interview with Prof. Antony C. Sutton. 1973. Retrieved 2019-02-19.
- Millegan (ed.), Kris (2004). Fleshing Out Skull and Bones. Walterville, OR: Trine Day. p. 89. ISBN 0-9752906-0-6.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler, Chapter 12
- "The Best Enemies Money Can Buy" (video). Interview with Prof. Antony C. Sutton. 1980. Retrieved 2016-08-05.
- Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, Chapter XI
- Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler, Chapter 8
- Wall Street and FDR, Chapter 12.
- Sutton, Anthony C. (1983). America's Secret Establishment:An Introduction to the Order of Skull & Bones. TrineDay. p. Author's Preface. ISBN 0972020748. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
- "Full Cast & Crew". IMDb. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
- Sutton, Antony. "Papers, 1920-1972". WorldCat. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
- Sutton, Antony (1976). Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler (1st ed.). Seal Beach, CA: ‘76 Press. pp. Jacket. ISBN 0892450045.
Antony C. Sutton was educated at the universities of London, Göttingen, and California.
- Sutton, Antony (1976). The War on Gold. Seal Beach, CA: ‘76 Press. ISBN 0892450088.
- Antony C. Sutton tribute
- 1999 e-mail interview with Sutton
- Overview of the Antony C. Sutton papers
- Antony C. Sutton in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Antony C. Sutton at IMDb.
- Antony C. Sutton at Find a Grave