Anyin language

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Native toCôte d'Ivoire, Ghana
Native speakers
1.5 million (2017)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
any – Anyin
mtb – Anyin Morofo

Anyin, also known as Agni, Agny, and Anyi, is a Niger-Congo language spoken mainly in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana. It is a Kwa language of the Central Tano branch, forming a dialect continuum with Baoulé, and is closely related to Nzema and Sehwi.[2] Its dialects, divided into Northern and Central dialect areas, include Sannvin, Abé, Ano, Bona, Bini, and Barabo in the Northern area and Ndenye and Juablin in the Central area. In Côte d'Ivoire, there are approximately 1.45 million native speakers of Anyin, along with 10,000 second-language users; in Ghana, there are approximately 66,400 speakers.[3]

Morofo, spoken by 300,000 in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire, is sometimes classified as a dialect of Anyin, but may also be classified as a separate language.[4]



Labial Labial-velar Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ


voiceless p kp t c k ʔ
voiced b gb d ɟ g
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ h
Approximant j w
Trill r


Front Back
Close i ɪ ʊ u
Mid e ɛ ɔ o
Open a

Of these vowels, five may be nasalized: /ĩ/, /ɪ̃/, /ã/, /ũ/, and /ʊ̃/.[5][6]


Anyin has two level tones, high and mid; two contour tones, high-low and low-high; and one neutral tone.[2][5] Tones are distinguished orthographically only to distinguish minimal pairs and grammatical constructions, or when two otherwise identical vowels with differing tones co-occur: cf. ⟨baá⟩ ([bàá], "child") vs. ⟨ba⟩ ([bá], "to arrive", "to come").[2]



Anyin uses the following pronouns:[7]

Person Singular Plural
1st subject
non-subject mĩ́
2nd subject ɛ émɔ́
non-subject wɔ́
3rd subject ɔ bɛ́
non-subject bɛ́

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Anyin at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019)
    Anyin Morofo at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019)
  2. ^ a b c Koffi, Ettien N'da (1990). The interface between phonology and morpho(phono)logy in the standardization of Anyi orthography (PDF) (PhD thesis). Indiana University.
  3. ^ "Anyin". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  4. ^ "Anyin Morofo". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  5. ^ a b Ahua, Mouchi Blaise (2004). Conditions linguistiques pour une orthographe de l´agni: une analyse contrastive des dialectes sanvi et djuablin [Linguistic conditions for an orthography of Agni: a contrastive analysis of the Sanvi and Djuablin dialects] (PhD thesis) (in French). Osnabrück University. urn:nbn:de:gbv:700-2005041316.
  6. ^ "Inventory Anyi (GM 1298)". PHOIBLE 2.0 -. Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  7. ^ Burmeister, Jonathan (1988). "Personal pronouns in Anyi and related languages". Journal of West African Languages. 18 (2): 83–104. Retrieved 2020-01-04.

External links[edit]