A dark-sky preserve (DSP) is an area, usually surrounding a park or observatory, that restricts artificial light pollution. The purpose of a dark sky preserve is generally to promote astronomy. Because different national organizations have worked independently to create their programs, different terms have been used to describe the areas. This has led to confusion between the terms reserve, preserve, and park. The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) chooses reserve to avoid confusion with park, when using the initialisms "IDSR" (International Dark Sky Reserve) and "IDSP" (International Dark Sky Park).
In 1999, the first permanent preserve was established at Torrance Barrens in the Muskoka region of southern Ontario. Nevertheless, protection zones around observatories existed well before the creation of that preserve.
The IDA recognizes protected areas worldwide. The Mont Mégantic Observatory in Quebec is the first such site to be recognized (in 2007) as International Dark Sky Reserve. IDA has also recognized Natural Bridges National Monument in Utah as the world's first International Dark Sky Park.
Canada has established an extensive standard for dark sky preserves that addresses lighting within the DSP and influences from skyglow from urban areas in the region. This was based on the work of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. There are no other established standards for dark sky preserves. Outside Canada, such designations are generally through self-proclamation. As a result, the validity of such a designation may be dubious. In some cases, dark sky preserves are neither dark nor protected.
It is generally understood that a Dark Sky Preserve, or Dark Sky Reserve, should be sufficiently dark to promote astronomy. However this is not always the case. The lighting protocol for a Dark Sky Preserve is based on the sensitivity of wildlife to artificial light at night (ALAN).
Dark Sky Places
The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) Dark Sky Places program offers five types of designations:
- International Dark Sky Communities – Communities are legally organised cities and towns that adopt quality outdoor lighting ordinances and undertake efforts to educate residents about the importance of dark skies.
- International Dark Sky Parks – Parks are publicly or privately owned spaces protected for natural conservation that implement good outdoor lighting and provide dark sky programs for visitors.
- International Dark Sky Reserves – Reserves consist of a dark "core" zone surrounded by a populated periphery where policy controls are enacted to protect the darkness of the core.
- International Dark Sky Sanctuaries – Sanctuaries are the most remote (and often darkest) places in the world whose conservation state is most fragile.
- Dark Sky Developments of Distinction – Developments of Distinction recognize subdivisions, master planned communities, and unincorporated neighborhoods and townships whose planning actively promotes a more natural night sky but does not qualify them for the International Dark Sky Community designation.
Further designations include Dark Sky Nation, given to the Kaibab Indian Reservation, and Parashant International Night Sky Province-Window to the Cosmos, given to Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument.
Dark sky preserves, reserves and parks
|Country||Name||Location||Area (in ha)||Bortle scale||Status||Notes|
|Australia||Warrumbungle National Park||New South Wales||23,312||Dark Sky Park||Designated on Jul. 4, 2016|
|Canada||Beaver Hills||Alberta||29,300||4.5||Designated on Sep. 3, 2006|
|Canada||Jasper National Park||Alberta||1,122,800||1–2||Designated on Mar. 11, 2011|
|Canada||Wood Buffalo National Park||Alberta/NWT||4,480,700||1–2||UNESCO World Heritage||Designated on June 28, 2013|
|Canada||Cattle Point||Oak Bay, British Columbia||5||Urban Star Park||Designated March 29, 2013|
|Canada||McDonald Park||British Columbia||5||2–3||Designated in 2003|
|Canada||Fundy National Park||New Brunswick||20,700||2||Designated on Oct. 31, 2011|
|Canada||Irving Nature Park Urban Star Park||Saint John, New Brunswick||243||?||Urban Star Park||Designated on Jul. 1, 2011; First RASC-designated Urban Star Park|
|Canada||Kouchibouguac National Park||New Brunswick||23,920||2||Designated on Jun. 6, 2009|
|Canada||Mount Carleton Provincial Park||New Brunswick||17,427||2||Designated on Jul. 18, 2009|
|Canada||Kejimkujik National Park||Nova Scotia||40,400||2||Designated on Aug. 7, 2010|
|Canada||Bluewater Outdoor Education Centre||Ontario||129||2||Designated on Nov. 3, 2012 by the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada|
|Canada||Bruce Peninsula Fathom Five National Marine Park||Ontario||16,700||2–3||Designated on Mar. 29, 2009|
|Canada||Gordon's Park||Ontario||43.7||2–3||Designated on Aug. 15, 2009; designation is only for the Park though Manitoulin Island (276,611 ha) follows dark-sky practices|
|Canada||North Frontenac Township||Ontario||116,000||1–2||Designated on June 28, 2013|
|Canada||Point Pelee National Park||Ontario||2,000||3–4||Designated in 2006|
|Canada||Torrance Barrens||Ontario||1906||3||Designated in 1999; first Canadian dark sky preserve|
|Canada||Mont Mégantic Observatory||Quebec||527,500||2–3||Reserve||Designated Sept. 2007; first IDA International Dark-Sky Reserve|
|Canada||Cypress Hills||Saskatchewan/Alberta||39,600||2||Designated on Sep. 28, 2004|
|Canada||Grasslands National Park||Saskatchewan||92,100||1–2||Designated on Oct. 2, 2009|
|Czech Republic, Slovakia||Beskydy Dark-Sky Park||Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic
Čadca District, Slovakia
|30,800||3–4||Designated on Mar. 4, 2013; The second world's bilateral dark-sky park|
|Czech Republic||Manětín Dark-Sky Park||Plzeň Region||34,600||3–5||Designated on Sep. 15, 2014|
|Germany||Westhavelland Nature Park||Brandenburg||Designated an IDA International Dark Sky Reserve on Feb. 12, 2014|
|France||Pic du Midi de Bigorre||Hautes-Pyrénées||311,200||2–4||International Dark Sky Reserve||Designated an IDA International Dark Sky Reserve in December 2013; First IDA International Dark Sky Reserve in France (still now) and in Europe.|
|Hungary||Hortobágy Starry Sky Park||10,000||?||Designated on Jan. 31, 2011; IDA's third international dark-sky park (Silver tier)|
|Hungary||Zselic National Landscape Protection Area||9,042||3–4||Designated on Nov. 16, 2009|
|Ireland||Kerry International Dark-Sky Reserve||Iveragh Peninsula, County Kerry||70,000||1–3||Reserve||Designated an IDA International Dark Sky Reserve on Jan. 27, 2014|
|Israel||Ramon Crater (Makhtesh Ramon)||113.2||2–3||Dark Sky Park||Designated September 14, 2017|
|Korea||Yeongyang Firefly Eco Park||North Gyeongsang Province, Yeongyang County, Subimyeon||390||Designated on Nov. 1, 2015|
|Namibia||NamibRand Nature Reserve||Reserve||Designated ???|
|New Zealand||Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park||Tekapo||430,000||2||Reserve||Designated on 9 June 2012|
|Poland||Bieszczady Starry-Sky Park||Subcarpathia||113,846.5||2–3||Designated on Mar. 8, 2013|
|Poland, Czech Republic||Izera Dark-Sky Park||Lower Silesia, Poland
Liberec Region, Czech Republic
|7,500||3–4||Designated on Nov. 4, 2009; the first European dark-sky park and the first world's bilateral dark-sky park|
|Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine||East Carpathian Dark-Sky Tripark||Poloniny Dark-Sky Park (Slovakia); Bieszczady Starry-Sky Park (Poland); Transcarpathian Dark-Sky Park (Ukraine)||208,667||2–3||Designated on Sep. 9, 2016; first world's trilateral dark-sky park|
|Slovakia||Poloniny Dark-Sky Park||Poloniny National Park||48,519||2–3||Designated on Dec. 3, 2010|
|Slovakia||Veľká Fatra Dark-Sky Park||Veľká Fatra National Park (part of)||325||3–4||Designated on Jun. 12, 2015|
|Ukraine||Transcarpathian Dark-Sky Park||Uzhansky National Nature Park||46,302||2||Designated on Jun. 10, 2016|
|United Kingdom||Exmoor National Park||Devon & Somerset, England||Reserve||Designated 10 October 2011|
|United Kingdom||Galloway Forest Park||Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland||75,000||3||Designated on Nov. 16, 2009|
|United Kingdom||Sark||British Crown Dependency of Guernsey||545||3||Designated on Jan. 31, 2011; IDA's first international dark-sky island (Silver tier)|
|United Kingdom||Isle of Coll||Inner Hebrides, Scotland||Designated on Dec. 9, 2013|
|United Kingdom||Northumberland National Park||Northumberland, England||103,000||Dark Sky Park||Designated on Dec. 9, 2013|
|United Kingdom||Brecon Beacons||Wales||Reserve||Designated 19 February 2013|
|United States||Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument||Arizona||4,242 km2||Dark Sky Park||Designated 2014|
|United States||Death Valley National Park||California||13,743 km2||Dark Sky Park||Designated 2013|
|United States||Joshua Tree National Park||California||3,199.59 km2||Dark Sky Park||Designated July 26, 2017|
|United States||Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park||Colorado||124.4 km2||Dark Sky Park||Designated 2015|
|United States||Hovenweep National Monument||Colorado, Utah||3.1 km2||Dark Sky Park||Designated 2014|
|United States||Big Cypress National Preserve||Florida||2,916 km2||Dark Sky Park ||Designated 2017|
|United States||Kissimmee Prairie Preserve State Park||Florida||?? km2||Dark Sky Park||Designated 2016|
|United States||Stephen C. Foster State Park||Georgia||32||Dark Sky Park||Designated November 2016|
|United States||Central Idaho Dark Sky Reserve||Idaho||Dark Sky Reserve||Designated December 2017|
|United States||Potawatomi Wildlife Park||Indiana||116||4.5||Designated in 2003|
|United States||Lake Hudson State Recreation Area||Michigan||890||3||Dark Sky Preserve||Designated in 1993|
|United States||Negwegon State Park||Michigan||1,513||Dark Sky Preserve||Designated in 2016|
|United States||Port Crescent State Park||Michigan||2.4 km2||Dark Sky Preserve||Designated in 2012|
|United States||Rockport State Recreation Area||Michigan||17.15 km2||Dark Sky Preserve||Designated in 2016|
|United States||Thompson's Harbor State Park||Michigan||20.68 km2||Dark Sky Preserve||Designated in 2016|
|United States||Wilderness State Park||Michigan||4,254||Dark Sky Preserve||Designated in 2012|
|United States||The Headlands||Michigan||220||3–5||Dark Sky Park||Designated in 2011|
|United States||Chaco Culture National Historical Park||New Mexico||13759 km2||2–3||Dark Sky Park||Designated on Aug. 28, 2013|
|United States||Clayton Lake||New Mexico||69||Designated June 29, 2010|
|United States||Observatory Park||Ohio||418.5||?||Designated on Aug. 20, 2011|
|United States||Cherry Springs State Park||Pennsylvania||20||2||Dark Sky Park||Designated as a State DSP in 2000 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR) and as the second International DSP by the IDA on June 11, 2007.|
|United States||Big Bend National Park||Texas||324,219 ac||Dark Sky Park||Designated February 11, 2012|
|United States||Copper Breaks State Park||Texas||770||Dark Sky Park||Designated Aug. 6, 2014|
|United States||Dripping Springs||Texas||Dark-sky Community||Designated February 11, 2014|
|United States||Enchanted Rock||Texas||665||Dark Sky Park||Designated Aug. 6, 2014|
|United States||Canyonlands National Park||Utah||1365 km2||Dark Sky Park||Designated 2015|
|United States||Capitol Reef National Park||Utah||980 km2||Dark Sky Park||Designated 2015|
|United States||Natural Bridges National Monument||Utah||3090||2||Dark Sky Park||Designated in 2007; first international dark-sky park|
|United States||Goldendale Observatory||Washington||2||Designated June 29, 2010|
|United States||Newport State Park||Wisconsin||960||Designated in 2017|
|Name||Country||Radius (in km)|
|Mount John University Observatory||New Zealand||37|
|Mont Mégantic Observatory||Canada||50|
|Monte Ekar Observatory||Italy||30|
|Asiago Astrophysical Observatory||Italy||30|
|Observatoire de Haute-Provence||France||15|
|Ondřejov Observatory||Czech Republic||10|
|Dominion Astrophysical Observatory||Canada||5|
Some regions, like the following, are protected without any reference to an observatory or a park.
- Regions of Coquimbo, Atacama, and Antofagasta in northern Chile
- The island of La Palma of the Canary Islands
- The Big Island of Hawaii
- Florida beach communities restrict lighting on beaches, to preserve hatchling Sea Turtles.
In the Canadian program, lighting within the area must be strictly controlled to minimize the impact of artificial lighting on wildlife. These guidelines are more stringent than in other countries that lack the extensive wilderness areas that still exist in Canada. The management of a Canadian DSP extends their outreach programs from the public that visit the site to include the promotion of better lighting policies in surrounding urban areas. Currently, dark-sky preserves have more control over internal and external lighting than other programs.
With the increase in regional light pollution, some observatories have actively worked with cities in their region to establish protection zones where there is controlled light pollution. These areas may not yet have been declared dark-sky preserves.
Although dark-sky preserve designations are generally sought by astronomers, it is clear that preserving natural darkness has positive effects on the health of nocturnal wildlife within the parks. For example, the nocturnal black-footed ferret was reintroduced to the Grasslands National Park dark-sky preserve and the success of the reintroduction is enhanced by the pristine natural darkness maintained within the park by the DSP agreement.
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