Aotearoa

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audio icon Pronunciation at Kōrero Māori, the Māori Language Commission website

Aotearoa (Māori: [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa])[1] is the current Māori-language name for New Zealand. The name was originally used by Māori in reference to only the North Island, with the name of the whole country being Aotearoa me Te Waipounamu ("North Island and South Island").[2] In the pre-European era, Māori did not have one name for the country as a whole.[3][4]

Several meanings for Aotearoa have been proposed for the name; the most popular translation usually given is "long white cloud",[5] or variations thereof. This refers to the cloud formations which helped early Polynesian navigators find the country.

Beginning in the late 20th century, Aotearoa has become widespread in the bilingual names of national organisations and institutions. Since the 1990s, it has been customary for particular parties to sing the New Zealand national anthem, "God Defend New Zealand" (or "Aotearoa"), in both Māori and English,[6] exposing the name to a wider audience.

New Zealand English speakers pronounce the word with various degrees of approximation to the original Māori pronunciation, from /ˌɑːətəˈrɔːə/ [ˌɐːɘtæeɘˈɹoːɘ] at one end of the spectrum (nativist) to /ˌətəˈrə/ [ˌæeɘtiːɘˈɹɐʉɘ] at the other.[1] Pronunciations documented in dictionaries of English include /ˌətəˈrə/,[7] /ˌtəˈrə/,[8] and /ˌɑːtəˈrə/.[9]

Origin[edit]

The original meaning of Aotearoa is not known.[10] The word can be broken up as: ao ('cloud', 'dawn', 'daytime' or 'world'), tea ('white', 'clear' or 'bright') and roa ('long'). It can also be broken up as Aotea, the name of one of the migratory canoes that travelled to New Zealand, and roa ('long'). One literal translation is 'long white cloud',[5] commonly lengthened to 'the land of the long white cloud'.[11] Alternative translations are 'long bright world' or 'land of abiding day', possibly referring to New Zealand having longer summer days in comparison to those further north in the Pacific Ocean.[12]

The first Māori dictionary, published in 1844, had no entry for Aotearoa. The earliest reference in New Zealand's newspapers was in 1855 in the Māori-language newspaper Māori Messenger, which mentions Aotearoa which it equated to "Nui Tireni". By the 1870s "Aotearoa" became synonymous for the region widely known as the King Country. One King Movement flag also has the words Niu Tireni on it. By the 1860s there are examples of the use of the phrase "the island of Aotearoa" meaning the North Island. This usage continued throughout the century. The setting up of King Tawhio's Great Council, or Kauhanganui, in 1892 comprised, it claimed, "the Kingdom of Aotearoa and the Waiponamu", meaning both the North and South Islands. It is likely that King Movement political aspirations may lie behind the claimed increasing geographic size of the region purported to be Aotearoa. While many Maori throughout New Zealand may have been in support of the King Movement's general aims, most were far too independent to kowtow to its mana. At least one acerbic commentator noted Tawhiao's nation-wide "constitution" for "the Maori [sic] Kingdom of Aotearoa" amounted only to "practically what is termed the King country".[13]

Thomas Bracken's New Zealand anthem of 1878 was translated into Māori by T.H. Smith. New Zealand he called Aotearoa. This meaning was further entrenched with W.P. Reeves' 1898 history of New Zealand with the title Aotearoa: The Long White Cloud. James Cowan's 1907 version is entitled New Zealand, or Ao-te-roa (The Long Bright World). Johannes Anderson, in the same year, published Māori Life in Aotea.[13]

New Zealand in the later nineteenth century saw many non-Māori efforts to give it another name that best suited the perceived emerging national character, now that most of the non-Māori population had been born in the country – suggestions included Maoria, Maoriland, Zealandia, Aotearoa.[13]

The suggested Aotearoa, first popularised among Pākehā by Bracken's translated anthem, and Reeves' history, drew similar sorts of conflicting responses to those still heard today. Some newspaper correspondents at the time thought Aotearoa was "euphonious and beautiful, and is not a change, but a reversion to the original Nu Tirene".[13]

Mythology[edit]

In some traditional stories, Aotearoa was the name of the canoe (waka) of the explorer Kupe, and he named the land after it.[14] Kupe's wife Kuramārōtini (in some versions, his daughter) was watching the horizon and called "He ao! He ao!" ('a cloud! a cloud!').[15] Other versions say the canoe was guided by a long white cloud in the course of the day and by a long bright cloud at night. On arrival, the sign of land to Kupe's crew was the long cloud hanging over it. The cloud caught Kupe's attention and he said "Surely is a point of land". Due to the cloud which greeted them, Kupe named the land Aotearoa.[5]

Usage[edit]

It is not known when Māori began incorporating the name into their oral lore. Beginning in 1845, George Grey, Governor of New Zealand, spent some years amassing information from Māori regarding their legends and histories. He translated it into English, and in 1855 published a book called Polynesian Mythology and Ancient Traditional History of the New Zealand Race. In a reference to Māui, the culture hero, Grey's translation from the Māori reads as follows:

Thus died this Maui we have spoken of; but before he died he had children, and sons were born to him; some of his descendants yet live in Hawaiki, some in Aotearoa (or in these islands); the greater part of his descendants remained in Hawaiki, but a few of them came here to Aotearoa.[16]

Elsdon Best and Stephenson Percy Smith of the Polynesian Society, who did much to popularise the use of Aotearoa in Edwardian school books, pictured in 1908

The use of Aotearoa to refer to the whole country is a post-colonial custom.[17] Before the period of contact with Europeans, Māori did not have a commonly-used name for the entire New Zealand archipelago. As late as the 1890s the name was used in reference to the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui) only; an example of this usage appeared in the first issue of Huia Tangata Kotahi, a Māori-language newspaper published on February 8, 1893. It contained the dedication on the front page, "He perehi tenei mo nga iwi Maori, katoa, o Aotearoa, mete Waipounamu",[18] meaning "This is a publication for the Māori tribes of the North Island and the South Island".

After the adoption of the name New Zealand (anglicised from Nova Zeelandia[19]) by Europeans, one name used by Māori to denote the country as a whole was Niu Tireni,[20][note 1] a respelling of New Zealand derived from an approximate pronunciation.

The expanded meaning of Aotearoa among Pākehā became commonplace in the late 19th century. Aotearoa was used for the name of New Zealand in the 1878 translation of "God Defend New Zealand", by Judge Thomas Henry Smith of the Native Land Court[21]—this translation is widely used today when the anthem is sung in Māori.[6] Additionally, William Pember Reeves used Aotearoa to mean New Zealand in his history of the country published in 1898, The Long White Cloud Ao-tea-roa.[note 2]

A bilingual sign outside the National Library of New Zealand uses Aotearoa alongside New Zealand.

Since the late 20th century Aotearoa is becoming widespread also in the bilingual names of national organisations, such as the National Library of New Zealand / Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa.[22]

The New Zealand province of the Anglican Church is divided into three cultural streams or tikanga (Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia), with the Aotearoa tikanga covering Māori-speaking congregations within New Zealand.[23]

In 2015, to celebrate Te Wiki o te Reo Māori (Māori Language Week), the Black Caps (the New Zealand national cricket team) played under the name Aotearoa for their first match against Zimbabwe.[24]

Music[edit]

Petitions[edit]

A petition initiated by David Chester was presented to the parliament on 13 April 2018, requesting legislation to change the name of New Zealand to Aotearoa – New Zealand.[28]

A further petition initiated by Danny Tahau Jobe for a referendum on whether the official name of New Zealand should change to include Aotearoa,[29] received 6,310 signatures.[30] The petition was presented to Parliament by the Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand co-leader Marama Davidson on 1 May 2019.[30]

The petitions were considered together by Parliament's Governance and Administration Select Committee which responded that it acknowledged the significance of the name "Aotearoa" and that it is increasingly being used to refer to New Zealand. The committee also noted that there are references throughout legislation to both "Aotearoa" and "New Zealand" and that while not legislated, the use of bilingual titles throughout Parliament and government agencies is common. The final report stated, "at present we do not consider that a legal name change, or a referendum on the same change, is needed".[28]

In September 2021 the Māori Party started a petition to change the name of New Zealand to Aotearoa.[31] The petition reached 50,000 signatures in two days.[32]

In September 2021, Hobson's Pledge, a lobby group that opposes specific rights for Māori (led by former leader of the New Zealand National Party Don Brash), initiated a petition to eradicate "Aotearoa" from official use. Hobson's Pledge spokespersons Casey Costello and Don Brash called on Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern to publicly affirm that the official name of the country is New Zealand, not Aotearoa New Zealand or Aotearoa. The petition also called on the prime minister to instruct all government departments to use the current official name only. Costello claimed that the name Aotearoa was not "culturally or historically recognised by Māori as the name of our country" while Brash claimed that the name New Zealand was an identity and brand that had been built over the past 180 years.[33] The petition gained over 59,000 signatures by August 2022.[34]

In September 2021, Winston Peters, leader of the New Zealand First Party launched a petition "Keep It New Zealand". Peters called Aotearoa a "name with no historical credibility". As of August 2022 the petition gained over 21,000 signatures.[35]

By early June 2022, the Māori Party's petition to rename New Zealand "Aotearoa" had received over 70,000 signatures. On 2 June, the petition was submitted before Parliament's committee. Party co-leader Rawiri Waititi argued that the proposed name change would recognise New Zealand's indigenous heritage and strengthen its identity as a Pacific country. Waititi objected to the idea of a referendum, claiming it would entrench the "tyranny of the majority." National Party Christopher Luxon stated that renaming New Zealand was a constitutional issue that would require a referendum. Māori Development Minister Willie Jackson expressed concerns that a potential name change would create branding issues for the country's tourism industry.[36]

Opinion polling[edit]

A 1 News–Colmar Brunton poll in September 2021 found that 58% of respondents wanted to keep the name "New Zealand", 9% wanted to change the name to "Aotearoa", and 31% wanted the joint name of "Aotearoa New Zealand".[37]

See also[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ The spelling varies, for example, the variant Nu Tirani appears in the Māori version of the Declaration of Independence of New Zealand and the Treaty of Waitangi. Whatever the spelling, this name is now rarely used as Māori no longer favour the use of transliterations from English.
  2. ^ The long White Cloud Ao-tea-roa can be viewed online at Project Gutenberg.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul (2004). "New Zealand English: phonology". In Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.). A Handbook of Varieties of English. Vol. 1: Phonology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 580–602. doi:10.1515/9783110197181-038. ISBN 978-3-11-017532-5. S2CID 242118647.
  2. ^ "Ngāi Tahu leader: Let's not rush name change". RNZ. 2 October 2021. Archived from the original on 12 November 2021. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  3. ^ King, Michael (13 October 2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin Random House New Zealand. p. 23. ISBN 9781742288260. OCLC 1100850063. Archived from the original on 29 August 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2022. In fact in the pre-European era, Maori had no name for the country as a whole. Polynesian ancestors came from motu or islands and it was to islands that they gave names.
  4. ^ Williams, Peter (15 September 2020). "Should NZ change it's [sic] name to Aotearoa... Officially?". Music Magic Talk. Archived from the original on 14 November 2021. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  5. ^ a b c McLintock, A. H., ed. (1966). "Aotearoa". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 3 May 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020 – via Te Ara.
  6. ^ a b "God Defend New Zealand/Aotearoa | Ministry for Culture and Heritage". mch.govt.nz. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Archived from the original on 7 May 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  7. ^ "Aotearoa". ABC Pronounce. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2007-12-21. Archived from the original on 2019-02-19. Retrieved 2021-10-07. pron. as per Macq. Dict.
  8. ^ "Aotearoa". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2021-10-07.
  9. ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
  10. ^ Orsman, Harry (1998). "Aotearoa". In Robinson, Roger; Nelson, Wattie (eds.). The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Literature. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195583489.001.0001. ISBN 9780195583489.
  11. ^ "Swirling cloud captured above New Zealand — 'The Land of the Long White Cloud'". The Daily Telegraph. 22 January 2009. Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  12. ^ Jock Philips (ed.). "Light -Experiencing New Zealand light". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 2012-10-26. Retrieved 2012-05-19.
  13. ^ a b c d "Aotearoa: What's in a name?". newsroom. 20 September 2020. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  14. ^ Percy Smith, Stephenson (1910). History and traditions of the Maoris of the West Coast, North Island of New Zealand, prior to 1840 (First ed.). Polynesian Society, New Plymouth. p. 77. Archived from the original on 10 December 2021. Retrieved 14 March 2021. The first we hear of this Uenuku in Maori story is, that he was living at a place named Aotea-roa (the same name as New Zealand—a point worth noting) which, from what follows was Tahiti, where indeed his grandfather and great-grandfather held lands, until the former was expelled by Tu-tapu at the point of the spear; but even then the great-grandfather, Kau-ngaki (Kahu-ngaki in Maori), remained there and no doubt kept "the fire burning" on their ancestral lands.
  15. ^ Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, Te Ahukaramū Charles. "First peoples in Māori tradition - Kupe". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  16. ^ Grey, Sir George. "Polynesian Mythology and Ancient Traditional History of the New Zealand Race". New Zealand Texts Collection, Victoria University of Wellington. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  17. ^ Holmes, Paul (10 October 2003). "Michael King talks moa, flightless geese and the name Aotearoa - 1ZB Interview with Michael King - co-recipient of the inaugural Prime Minister's Awards for literary achievement". The Big Idea. Archived from the original on 13 March 2021. Retrieved 14 March 2021. The other thing you talk about in your book is the word, the name "Aotearoa" and you say that in fact pre European, Maori did not actually call this place Aotearoa? King: There were some Maori tribes that had a tradition that the North Island had been called Aotea and Aotearoa but the two writers who popularised the Aotearoa name and the story of Kupe associated with it, were a man called Stephenson Percy-Smith and William Pember-Reeves and in a school journal in particular, it went into every school in the country in the early 20th century, they used Percy-Smith's material and the story about Kupe and Aotearoa said this is a wonderful name and its a wonderful story, wouldn't it be great if everybody called New Zealand, Aotearoa. And the result was that Maori children went to school.. We had a pretty extensive education system both in general schools and in the native school system.. And they learnt at school that the Maori name of New Zealand was Aotearoa and that's how it became the Maori name.
  18. ^ "Huia Tangata Kotahi". New Zealand Digital Library, University of Waikato. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  19. ^ McKinnon, Malcolm (November 2009). "Place names – Naming the country and the main islands". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  20. ^ Robinson, Roger; Nelson, Wattie, eds. (1998). "Niu Tirani". The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Literature. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195583489.001.0001. ISBN 9780195583489.
  21. ^ "History of God Defend New Zealand". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 27 October 2011. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
  22. ^ "National Library of New Zealand (Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa) Act 2003". legislation.govt.n. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 5 May 2003. Archived from the original on 5 December 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  23. ^ "Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand, and Polynesia". World Council of Churches. Archived from the original on 20 August 2022. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  24. ^ "New Zealand to play as Aotearoa". ESPNCricinfo. Archived from the original on 30 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  25. ^ "Overture: Aotearoa". SOUNZ. Archived from the original on 28 April 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  26. ^ "Land of the Long White Cloud". C. Alan Publications. Archived from the original on 20 July 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  27. ^ Swarbrick, Nancy (June 2012). "National anthems – New Zealand's anthems". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  28. ^ a b Hudson, Brett (May 2019). Petition of David Chester: Change the name of the country to Aotearoa – New Zealand and Petition of Danny Tahau Jobe: Referendum to include Aotearoa in the official name of New Zealand. www.parliament.nz (Report). New Zealand Parliament. pp. 2–3. Archived from the original on 1 August 2021. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  29. ^ "Petition for referendum to include Aotearoa in official name of New Zealand". Stuff. 1 February 2019. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  30. ^ a b "Petition of Danny Tahau Jobe - Referendum to include Aotearoa in the official name of New Zealand". New Zealand Parliament. 23 May 2018. Archived from the original on 19 April 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  31. ^ "New Zealand Māori party launches petition to change country's name to Aotearoa". The Guardian. 14 Sep 2021. Archived from the original on 15 September 2021. Retrieved 15 Sep 2021.
  32. ^ "Numbers top 50,000 for petition on name change to Aotearoa". Radio New Zealand. 17 September 2021. Archived from the original on 17 September 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  33. ^ "Petition to eradicate 'Aotearoa' from official use". Hobson's Pledge. 19 September 2021. Archived from the original on 16 October 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  34. ^ "New Zealand, NOT Aotearoa". Hobson's Pledge. September 2021. Archived from the original on 17 September 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  35. ^ "Keep it New Zealand". New Zealand First. 17 September 2021. Archived from the original on 14 November 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  36. ^ McConnell, Glenn (2 June 2022). "Māori Party petition to officially call the country Aotearoa gets 70,000 supporters". Stuff. Archived from the original on 4 June 2022. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  37. ^ "1News poll reveals what Kiwis think about changing NZ's name to Aotearoa". TVNZ. Archived from the original on 2021-09-28. Retrieved 2021-09-28.

External links[edit]

  • The dictionary definition of Aotearoa at Wiktionary