Apache CloudStack

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Apache CloudStack Logo
Original author(s)Cloud.com, Citrix
Developer(s)Apache Software Foundation
Stable release / January 19, 2021; 44 days ago (2021-01-19)[1]
RepositoryCloudStack Repository
Written inJava (primarily), Python
TypeCloud computing
LicenseApache License 2.0

CloudStack is open-source cloud computing software for creating, managing, and deploying infrastructure cloud services. It uses existing hypervisor platforms for virtualization, such as KVM, VMware vSphere, including ESXi and vCenter, and XenServer/XCP. In addition to its own API, CloudStack also supports the Amazon Web Services (AWS) API[2] and the Open Cloud Computing Interface from the Open Grid Forum.[3]


CloudStack was originally developed by Cloud.com, formerly known as VMOps.[4]

VMOps was founded by Sheng Liang, Shannon Williams, Alex Huang, Will Chan, and Chiradeep Vittal in 2008.[5][6] The company raised a total of $17.6M in venture funding[7] from Redpoint Ventures, Nexus Ventures and Index Ventures (Redpoint and Nexus led the initial Series A funding round). The company changed its name from VMOps to Cloud.com on May 4, 2010, when it emerged from stealth mode by announcing its product.[8][4][9] Cloud.com was based in Cupertino, California.

In May 2010, Cloud.com released most of CloudStack as free software under the GNU General Public License, version 3 (GPLv3).[10] They kept about 5% proprietary.[11] Cloud.com and Citrix both supported OpenStack, another Apache-licensed cloud computing program, at its announcement in July 2010.[12][13][14]

In October 2010, Cloud.com announced a partnership with Microsoft to develop the code to provide integration and support of Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V to the OpenStack project.[15]

Citrix Systems purchased Cloud.com on July 12, 2011, for approximately $200 million.[16][17][18] In August 2011, Citrix released the remaining code under the Apache Software License with further development governed by the Apache Foundation.[11] In February 2012, Citrix released CloudStack 3.0. Among other features, this added support for Swift, OpenStack's S3-like object storage solution.[19] In April 2012, Citrix donated CloudStack to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF), where it was accepted into the Apache Incubator; Citrix changed the license to the Apache License version 2. As part of this change, Citrix also ceased their involvement in OpenStack.[20] On November 6, 2012, CloudStack 4.0.0-incubating was announced,[21] the first stable release after joining ASF. On March 20, 2013, CloudStack graduated from Apache Incubator and became a Top-Level Project (TLP) of ASF.[22] The first stable (maintenance) release after graduation is CloudStack 4.0.2.[23]

Key features[edit]

  • Built-in high-availability for hosts and VMs
  • AJAX web GUI for management
  • AWS API compatibility
  • Hypervisor agnostic
  • Snapshot management
  • Usage metering
  • Network management (VLAN's, security groups)
  • Virtual routers, firewalls, load balancers
  • Multi-role support


Supported hypervisors[edit]

  • LXC Host Containers on RHEL 7
  • Windows Server 2012 R2 (with Hyper-V Role enabled)
  • Hyper-V 2012 R2
  • CentOS 7.x with KVM [25]
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.x with KVM
  • Ubuntu 16.04 with KVM
  • XenServer versions 6.1, 6.2 SP1 and 6.5 with latest hot fixes
  • VMware vSphere versions 6.0, 6.5 or 6.7. [26]

BareMetal hosts[edit]

  • RHEL or CentOS, v7.x
  • Ubuntu 16.04

Deployment architecture[edit]

The minimum production installation consists of one machine running the CloudStack Management Server and another machine to act as the cloud infrastructure (in this case, a very simple infrastructure consisting of one host running hypervisor software). In its smallest deployment, a single machine can act as both the Management Server and the hypervisor host (using the KVM hypervisor).[27]

Multiple management servers can be configured for redundancy and load balancing, all pointing to a common MySQL database.


In July 2012 it was reported that Datapipe launched the largest international public cloud to be built on CloudStack, which included 6 data centers in the US, Britain, and Asia.[28]

Apache CloudStack has a number of users:[29][30]


  1. ^ "The Apache Software Foundation Announces Apache® CloudStack® v4.15". Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  2. ^ "Supported AWS API Calls". Archived from the original on June 26, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
  3. ^ "OCCI Interface to CloudStack". Retrieved Feb 26, 2014.
  4. ^ a b Timothy Prickett Morgan (May 4, 2010). "Cloud.com takes on virty infrastructure". The Channel. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  5. ^ John Fontana (January 28, 2009). "Start-up VMOps aims to ease cloud deployments". Network World. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  6. ^ "Company Overview". VMOps web site. Archived from the original on January 22, 2009. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  7. ^ "More Cash for Hot New Cloud Startup, VMOps". Gigaom.com. February 18, 2010. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
  8. ^ "Cloud.com Launches, Extends Leadership Team and Announces New Funding" (Press release). Cloud.com. May 4, 2010. Archived from the original on September 19, 2010.
  9. ^ Dave Rosenberg (May 4, 2010). "Cloud.com software stack goes open source". Software, Interrupted. CNET News. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
  10. ^ "Cloud.com launches, announces funding, open source" (Press release). May 4, 2010. Archived from the original on September 18, 2010.
  11. ^ a b "CloudStack Process Changes: Working the Apache Way". CloudStack. April 17, 2012. Archived from the original on April 29, 2012.
  12. ^ "NASA and Rackspace open source cloud fluffer". The Register. July 19, 2010. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  13. ^ Peder Ulander (July 22, 2010). "You Are Now Free to Move About in the Cloud". OpenStack blog. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  14. ^ Clark, Jack (July 19, 2010). "Nasa, Rackspace launch OpenStack cloud interoperability scheme | Cloud | ZDNet UK". Zdnet.co.uk. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
  15. ^ Harris, Derrick Harris (October 22, 2010). "Microsoft Joins OpenStack to Add Hyper-V Support." Gigaom.com. Retrieved November 2011.
  16. ^ "Citrix & Cloud.com". Citrix.com. July 12, 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
  17. ^ "Citrix Makes a Run at the Cloud". BusinessWeek. July 14, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  18. ^ "Citrix Buys Cloud.com for More Than $200 Million; Redpoint Is on a Roll". TechCrunch. July 12, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  19. ^ "Citrix CloudStack 3 Brings the Power of Amazon-Style Clouds to Customers of All Sizes". Citrix. February 13, 2012. Archived from the original on May 11, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  20. ^ "Citrix Splits With OpenStack, Takes Cloud to Apache". Wired. April 4, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  21. ^ "Apache CloudStack 4.0.0-incubating Released". Apache Software Foundation. November 6, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
  22. ^ "CloudStack Project Incubation Status". Apache Software Foundation. March 20, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
  23. ^ "Apache CloudStack 4.0.2 Released". Apache Software Foundation. April 24, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
  24. ^ "Features". CloudStack. Retrieved 2016-09-02.
  25. ^ "System Requirements for KVM Hypervisor Hosts". Cloudstack. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  26. ^ "System Requirements for vSphere Hosts". Cloudstack. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  27. ^ "Deployment Architecture Overview". CloudStack. Archived from the original on May 4, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
  28. ^ "Datapipe launches largest CloudStack deployment". NetworkWorld. July 17, 2012. Retrieved Jan 31, 2013.
  29. ^ "Are these people really all using CloudStack?".
  30. ^ "CloudStack Users Apache Wiki".

External links[edit]