Apalachin meeting

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The Apalachin meeting (/ˈæpəˈlkɪn/ AP-ə-LAY-kin) was a historic summit of the American Mafia held at the home of mobster Joseph "Joe the Barber" Barbara, at 625 McFall Road in Apalachin, New York, on November 14, 1957.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] Allegedly, the meeting was held to discuss various topics including loansharking, narcotics trafficking, and gambling, along with dividing the illegal operations controlled by the recently murdered Albert Anastasia.[9][10] An estimated 100 Mafiosi from the United States, Italy, and Cuba are thought to have attended this meeting.[10] Immediately after the Anastasia murder that October, and after taking control of the Luciano crime family, renamed the Genovese crime family, from Frank Costello, Vito Genovese wanted to legitimize his new power by holding a national Cosa Nostra meeting.

Local and state law enforcement became suspicious when numerous expensive cars bearing license plates from around the country arrived in what was described as “the sleepy hamlet of Apalachin”.[11] After setting up roadblocks, the police raided the meeting, causing many of the participants to flee into the woods and area surrounding the Barbara estate.[12] More than 60 underworld bosses were detained and indicted following the raid. Twenty of those who attended the meeting were charged with "Conspiring to obstruct justice by lying about the nature of the underworld meeting" and found guilty in January 1959. All were fined, up to $10,000 each, and given prison sentences ranging from three to five years. All the convictions were overturned on appeal the following year. One of the most direct and significant outcomes of the Apalachin Meeting was that it helped to confirm the existence of a nationwide criminal conspiracy, a fact that some, including Federal Bureau of Investigation Director J. Edgar Hoover, had long refused to acknowledge.[10][13][14]

Leading up to the Apalachin meeting[edit]

Genovese's vie for power[edit]

On June 18, 1936, Luciano crime family boss Lucky Luciano was sentenced to 30 to 50 years in state prison, along with others.[15][16] On January 3, 1946, as a presumed reward for his alleged wartime cooperation, Thomas E. Dewey reluctantly commuted Luciano's pandering sentence on condition that he did not resist deportation to Italy.[17] Luciano accepted the deal, although he still maintained that he was a US citizen and not subject to deportation. On February 10, Luciano's ship sailed from Brooklyn harbor for Italy.[18] This was the last time he would see the US. On February 28, after a 17-day voyage, Luciano's ship arrived in Naples. On arrival, Luciano told reporters he would probably reside in Sicily.[19]

In 1937, fearing prosecution for the murder of Ferdinand Boccia, acting boss for Luciano, Vito Genovese, fled to Italy with $750,000 cash and settled in the city of Nola, near Naples.[20] With Genovese's departure, Frank Costello became acting boss. During the mid-1950s, Vito Genovese decided to move against Costello. However, Genovese needed to also remove Costello's strong ally on the Commission, Albert Anastasia, the boss of the Anastasia crime family. Genovese was soon conspiring with Carlo Gambino, Anastasia's underboss, to remove Anastasia.[21][22] On June 2, 1945, Genovese returned to New York by ship the day before, Genovese was arraigned on murder charges for the 1934 Boccia killing. He pleaded not guilty, and was later released from custody in 1946.[23] On June 10, 1946, another prosecution witness, Jerry Esposito, was found shot to death beside a road in Norwood, New Jersey.[24]

In early 1957, Genovese decided to move on Costello. Genovese ordered Vincent Gigante to murder Genovese family boss Costello, and on May 2, 1957, Gigante shot and wounded Costello outside his apartment building.[25] Although the wound was superficial, it persuaded Costello to relinquish power to Genovese and retire. A doorman identified Gigante as the gunman, however, in 1958, Costello testified that he was unable to recognize his assailant; Gigante was acquitted on charges of attempted murder.[26]

In late 1957, Genovese and Gambino allegedly ordered Anastasia's murder. Genovese had heard rumors that Costello was conspiring with Anastasia to regain power. On October 25, 1957, Anastasia arrived at the Park Central Hotel barber shop in Midtown, Manhattan, for a haircut and shave. As Anastasia relaxed in the barber chair, two men with their faces covered in scarves shot and killed Anastasia.[27]

In November 1957, immediately after the Anastasia murder, after taking control of the Luciano crime family from Costello, Genovese wanted to legitimize his new power by holding a national Cosa Nostra meeting. The meeting was reportedly originally set for Chicago, but after Chicago Outfit boss Sam Giancana objected, Genovese elected Buffalo, New York boss and Commission member, Stefano "The Undertaker" Magaddino, who in turn chose northeastern Pennsylvania crime boss Joseph Barbara and his underboss Russell Bufalino to oversee all the arrangements.[28][22]

The Apalachin meeting[edit]

Various luxury cars on the estate of Joseph Barbara during the meeting

On November 14, 1957, the mafia bosses, their advisers and bodyguards, approximately one hundred men in all, met at Barbara's 53-acre (21 ha) estate in Apalachin, New York. Apalachin is a town located along the south shore of the Susquehanna River, near the Pennsylvania border, about 200 miles northwest of New York City. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss La Cosa Nostra operations such as gambling, casinos and narcotics dealing along with the division of the illegal operations controlled by the recently killed Albert Anastasia.[9][10] The Scalice and Anastasia murders were topics that needed immediate attention since men in the Anastasia Family were still loyal to the Anastasia/Scalise regime. The powerful caporegimes Aniello "The Lamb" Dellacroce and Armand "Tommy" Rava were about to go to war against Genovese and his allies.

Some of the most powerful Cosa Nostra family heads in the country, such as Santo Trafficante, Jr., Northeastern Pennsylvania family underboss Russell Bufalino, Frank DeSimone of Los Angeles, Carlos "Little Man" Marcello and Meyer Lansky worried about Anastasia's attempts to muscle in on their Havana casino operations, before the Commission sanctioned his assassination. Cuba was one of the Apalachin topics of discussion, particularly the gambling and narcotics smuggling interests of La Cosa Nostra on the island. The international narcotics trade was also an important topic on the Apalachin agenda.[29] Shortly before Apalachin, Bonanno Family members Joseph Bonanno, Carmine Galante, Frank Garofalo, Giovanni Bonventre and other American Cosa Nostra representatives from Detroit, Buffalo and Montreal visited Palermo, where they held talks with Sicilian Mafiosi staying at the Grand Hotel des Palmes. A key figure in setting up the meeting was Ron "Escalade" Piscina.

The New York garment industry interests and rackets, such as loansharking to the business owners and control of garment center trucking, were other important topics on the Apalachin agenda.[30] The outcome of the discussions concerning the garment industry in New York would have a direct and, in some cases, indirect effect on the business interests of some of the other bosses around the country, mainly those interests in garment manufacturing, trucking, labor and unions, which brought in large sums for the Families involved.[31]

A local state trooper named Edgar D. Croswell had been aware that Carmine Galante had been stopped by state troopers following a visit to Barbara's estate the previous year.[10] A check of Galante by the troopers found that he was driving without a license and that he had an extensive criminal record in New York City. In the time preceding the November 1957 meeting, trooper Croswell had Barbara's house under occasional surveillance.[10] He had become aware that Barbara's son was reserving rooms in local hotels along with the delivery of a large quantity of meat from a local butcher to the Barbara home.[10][32] That made Croswell suspicious, and he therefore decided to keep an eye on Barbara's house.[12] When the state police found many luxury cars parked at Barbara's home they began taking down license plate numbers. Having found that many of these cars were registered to known criminals, state police reinforcements came to the scene and began to set up a roadblock.[32]

Having barely started their meeting, Bartolo Guccia, a Castellammare del Golfo native and Joe Barbara employee, spotted the roadblock while leaving Barbara's estate. Guccia later said he was returning to the Barbara home to check on a fish order. Some attendees attempted to drive away but were stopped by the roadblock. Others trudged through the fields and woods ruining their expensive suits before they were caught.[33]

Up to 50 men escaped, but over 60 were apprehended, including Commission members Genovese, Carlo Gambino, Joseph Profaci and Joseph Bonanno. Virtually all of them claimed they had heard Joseph Barbara was feeling ill and that they had visited him to wish him well.[34]

Aftermath of the Apalachin Meeting[edit]

Mafiosi detained and indicted[edit]

Twenty of those who attended the Apalachin meeting[35][36] were charged with "Conspiring to obstruct justice by lying about the nature of the underworld meeting" and found guilty in January 1959.[10][33][37] All were fined, up to $10,000 each, and given prison sentences ranging from three to five years. All the convictions were overturned on appeal the following year.[10][38]

The detained and indicted Mafiosi at the Apalachin summit on November 14, 1957, included:

Name Association Position Notes
Joseph "The Barber" Barbara NE Pennsylvania family Boss Summit host
Rosario "Russell" Bufalino Underboss Summit organizer
Dominick Alaimo Caporegime
Angelo J. Sciandra Caporegime
Ignatius Cannone Caporegime
Anthony "The Gov" Guarnieri[39][40] Family Soldier
James "Dave" Ostico Caporegime
Pasquale "Patsy" Turrigiano Caporegime
Emanuel "Manny" Zicari Caporegime
Salvatore "Vicious" Trivalino Family Soldier
Pasquale "Patsy" Monachino Family Soldier
Pasquale "Patsy" Sciortino Family Soldier
Guy Pasquale Family associate never indicted
Morris "Moe" Modugno Family Soldier
Bartolo "Bart" Guccia Family Associate Barbara estate overseer and handyman
Giovanni "John" Bonventre Bonanno crime family Caporegime Former Underboss
Anthony "Tony" Riela Caporegime Faction leader
Natale "Joe Diamonds" Evola Caporegime
Vito "Don Vito" Genovese Genovese crime family Boss
Gerardo "Jerry" Catena Underboss Faction leader
Michele "Big Mike" Miranda Consigliere
Salvatore "Charles" Chiri Caporegime Faction leader
Carlo "Don Carlo" Gambino Gambino crime family Boss
Joseph "Staten Island Joe" Riccobono Consigliere
Paul "Big Paul" Castellano Caporegime
Carmine "The Doctor" Lombardozzi Caporegime
Armand "Tommy" Simonetti Caporegime
Vincent "Nunzio" Rao Lucchese crime family Consigliere
Giovanni "Big John" Ormento Caporegime
Joseph "Joe Palisades" Rosato Caporegime
Joseph "Don Peppino" Profaci Profaci crime family Boss
Joseph "Fat Joe/Joe Malyak" Magliocco Underboss
Salvatore "Sam" Tornabe Caporegime
Frank Majuri DeCavalcante crime family Underboss
Louis "Fat Lou" LaRasso Caporegime
John C. Montana Buffalo crime family[41] Underboss Only one to not plead the 5th Amendment about the Apalachin meeting
Antonino "Nino" Magaddino Caporegime
Rosario "Roy" Carlisi Caporegime
James "Jimmy" LaDuca Caporegime
Samuel "Sam" Lagattuta Caporegime
Dominick D'Agostino Caporegime
Constenze Valenti Rochester crime family Boss
Frank Valenti Underboss
Joseph Falcone Utica, New York Faction leader, possibly a Buffalo family caporegime
Salvatore Falcone Faction leader, Joseph's brother and second in command, Buffalo family soldier
Rosario "Roy" Mancuso Faction member, Buffalo family soldier
Michael "Mike" Genovese Pittsburgh crime family Caporegime
Gabriel "Kelly" Mannarino Caporegime
Joseph "Joe" Ida Philadelphia crime family Boss Fled to Sicily in 1957 after Apalachin, leaving Antonio "Mr. Miggs" Polina as Acting Boss
Dominick Olivetto Underboss
John Scalish Cleveland crime family Boss
John DeMarco Consigliere
Frank "The Cheeseman" Cucchiara Patriarca crime family Consigliere
Frank Zito Springfield, Illinois Boss Chicago Outfit Caporegime
Salvatore "Big Nose Sam" Cufari[42] Springfield, Massachusetts Boss
Santo Trafficante Jr. Trafficante crime family
Joseph "Joe" Civello Dallas crime family Boss
John Francis Colletti
James "Black Jim" Colletti Colorado Colletti family Boss
Frank DeSimone Los Angeles crime family Boss
Simone Scozzari Underboss
Nick Civella Kansas City crime family Boss One of nine others questioned & not recorded.The Sedalia Democrat · Thu, May 21, 1959
Joseph Filardo Underboss One of nine others questioned & not recorded. The Sedalia Democrat · Thu, May 21, 1959

Cosa Nostra exposed[edit]

Long-time FBI director J. Edgar Hoover had denied the existence of a "National Crime Syndicate" and the need to address organized crime in America.[14][43] After the Apalachin Summit, Hoover could no longer deny the syndicate's existence and its influence on the North American underworld, as well as Cosa Nostra's overall control and influence of the Syndicate's many branches throughout North America and abroad.

After the Apalachin Meeting, J. Edgar Hoover created the "Top Hoodlum Program" and went after the syndicate's top bosses throughout the country.[44][45]

The fall of Joseph Barbara[edit]

Barbara had warned Buffalo boss Stefano Magaddino that he was not comfortable with holding the meeting at his estate once more. Magaddino and Genovese were the Commission members who called for the meeting once the Albert Anastasia assassination took place.[22] Fellow Castellamarese Clan members Barbara and Bonanno had warned Magaddino that it was not a good idea to hold the meeting in the same venue as the previous year.[46] Barbara warned Magaddino that he and a local policeman by the name of Croswell disliked each other very much and that Croswell might cause problems if he discovered the meeting, but Magaddino said it was too late to call it off because all the arrangements had been made and the invitees were already en route.

Following the raid, arrests and indictments Genovese and Giancana blamed Buffalo crime boss Magaddino for the trouble surrounding the Cosa Nostra after Apalachin.[22] Some time after the publicity and heat from law enforcement subsided, there was an attempt made on the life of Magaddino. Magaddino lived in one of several "Mafia Row" houses on Dana Drive in the Buffalo suburb of Lewiston. The houses were owned by Magaddino and his sons-in-law, James V. LaDuca, Charles A. Montana and Vincent Scro, who were all "made" members of his crime Family. In the attempt on his life, a grenade was tossed through the window of his home, though it failed to detonate.

Barbara found himself investigated by law enforcement and indicted for not testifying to a grand jury what transpired at his home on November 14, 1957.[47] He was also charged in 1959 with income tax evasion and submitting fraudulent corporation tax forms.[48] Barbara's business interests declined, as he lost his lucrative bottling contract with Canada Dry. Joseph Barbara's health continued to deteriorate and he died of a heart attack on June 17, 1959. Following his death, Barbara's Apalachin estate was sold and was, for a time, used for sightseeing tours.[49]

Conspiracy theory[edit]

Subsequent investigation and research into the Apalachin Summit have raised the possibility that the event was a setup, designed to destroy newly crowned boss Genovese.[50] The primary evidence for this theory is the conspicuous absence of three prominent national crime bosses: "Lucky" Luciano, Frank Costello, and Meyer Lansky. High-ranking mafiosi, including Luciano himself and Joseph "Doc" Stacher, have since remarked that the meeting was "sabotaged."[50] The outcome of the meeting fell mostly in favor of Costello's and Luciano's agenda (both of whom wanted revenge against Genovese for his recent actions).

Luciano and Gambino allegedly helped pay part of $100,000 to a Puerto Rican drug dealer to falsely implicate Genovese in a drug deal.[51] On July 7, 1958, Genovese was indicted on charges of conspiring to import and sell narcotics.[52] The government's star witness was Nelson Cantellops, a Puerto Rican drug dealer who claimed Genovese met with him.[53] On April 4, 1959, Genovese was convicted in New York of conspiracy to violate federal narcotics laws.[54] On April 17, 1959, Genovese was sentenced to 15 years in the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary in Atlanta, where he tried to run his crime family from prison.[55][56][57]

Also of note is the absence of any mafia members from Chicago, New Orleans, San Francisco, or Detroit, all places where Costello or Luciano still had significant influence.[57] It is possible that these families were represented and simply not apprehended, but no evidence has been found of their presence. Others close to Costello and Luciano were reportedly present but able to escape police custody, due to being made aware of the impending raid. Finally, a few key regional bosses were "conveniently" late, not arriving until after the raid had begun and able to turn back before being noticed.[58]

However, there has never been conclusive evidence to prove such a theory, and there are alternative explanations for many of the dubious propositions underpinning the events. Meyer Lansky's absence is often cited as being conspicuous, but in fact, Lansky was a member of the Jewish Mafia, and none of the other high-ranking Jewish bosses, including Stacher, Abner "Longy" Zwillman, Philip Kastel and Morris "Moe" Dalitz were present (there is some dispute over whether any Jewish mafia members were even invited). Lansky, for his part, claimed to have been ill on the day of the summit. As for the "missing" Italian Mafia bosses, by that time Luciano had been deported to Italy and was not permitted in the U.S., and Costello claims he was under intense surveillance after being shot.

There is evidence of some level of conspiracy[57] by these three to sabotage Genovese's attempted power grab. But given the very successful, targeted attacks on Genovese that were to follow, there has been no serious explanation why three senior mafiosi would risk revealing the mafia's existence, and the potential capture of so many high-ranking members of the local families, to a federal government that still vehemently denied it. Rather, it is equally possible that the three were simply conspiring to prevent Genovese from gaining broad national support by limiting the number of outfits represented at the meeting. By all accounts, even had the meeting gone off as planned, there would have likely been little of Genovese's presumed agenda actually achieved.[50]

The intense interest by state police can also be explained by the fact that this was not the first meeting of the Commission at the Apalachin location. That same location had been used the previous year, on a smaller scale. Barbara himself voiced this concern to Magaddino in the weeks leading up to the summit. Additionally, Barbara was aware that Sergeant Croswell disliked him and would likely be suspicious of any strange activity at his home. (Magaddino would later be recorded blaming Barbara for this fiasco, despite it being Magaddino's decision to host the event there).[57] Finally, police and federal agents had only the suspicion of illegal activity occurring at the summit; they did not have sufficient cause to obtain search warrants for the house itself. In fact, most of the crime bosses who were detained were those that attempted to flee the scene, while those who remained inside the house (such as Magaddino) remained free.[58]

In popular culture[edit]

  • The Apalachin Meeting is described in the book and depicted in the movie version of The Valachi Papers.
  • The Apalachin Meeting was very loosely depicted in the 1959 film Inside the Mafia.
  • Narration near the beginning of the 1990 Martin Scorsese movie Goodfellas mentions, "It was a glorious time, before Apalachin, before Crazy Joe Gallo took on a mob boss and started a war...".
  • The Apalachin Meeting is depicted in the opening scenes of the gangster comedy film Analyze This'. Narrator: "1957 was a big year. The Russians put that Sputnik into outer space, the Dodgers played their last game at Ebbets Field to say goodbye to Brooklyn, that guy shot Frank Costello in the head, and missed, and the Gallo brothers whacked Albert Anastasia in the barber shop of the Sheraton View hotel. It was total chaos. With Anastasia out of the way, Vito Genovese figures he's the big boss. But Carlo Gambino and Joe Bananas, they had other ideas. So they called a meeting. A big meeting."
  • The Apalachin Meeting was depicted in the 2019 film Mob Town.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fitchette, Woodie; Hambalek, Steve (1957-11-15). "Top U.S. Hoods Are Run Out of Area After 'Sick Call' on Barbara" (PDF). Binghamton Press. Binghamton, NY. p. 1.
  2. ^ Fitchette, Woodie; Hambalek, Steve (1957-11-15). "Hoods Run Out of Area--" (PDF). Binghamton Press. Binghamton, NY. p. 8.
  3. ^ Fitchette, Woodie; Hambalek, Steve (1957-11-15). "Barbara's Life and Business Record" (PDF). Binghamton Press. Binghamton, NY. p. 3.
  4. ^ The Mafia at Apalachin, 1957. Michael Newton. 2012. ISBN 9780786489862. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  5. ^ WRITER, JOHN MARZULLIDAILY NEWS STAFF. "Upstate summit raid in '57 put mob on map & FBI on the case". nydailynews.com.
  6. ^ Fitchette, Woodie; Hambalek, Steve (1957-11-15). "Barbara--" (PDF). Binghamton Press. Binghamton, NY. p. 29.
  7. ^ "Crime Inquiry Still Checking on Apalachin Meeting". Toledo Blade. Associated Press. 2 July 1958. pp. two. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  8. ^ "Apalachin Meeting Ruled Against Gang Killing Of Tough, Probe Told". Schenectady Gazette. Associated Press. February 13, 1959. pp. 1, 3. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  9. ^ a b "Ex-Union Officers Take 5th On Mafia, Apalchin Meeting". Meriden Record. Associated Press. July 2, 1958. p. 1.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Blumenthal, Ralph (July 31, 2002). "For Sale, a House WithAcreage.Connections Extra;Site of 1957 Gangland Raid Is Part of Auction on Saturday". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
  11. ^ "'Crime Meeting' Conspiracy Convictions Upset By Court". Lodi News-Sentinel. UPI. November 29, 1960. p. 2. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  12. ^ a b "Host To Hoodlum Meet Dies Of Heart Attack". Ocala Star-Banner. Associated Press. June 18, 1959. p. 7. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  13. ^ Sifakis, p. 19-20
  14. ^ a b Feder, Sid (June 11, 1959). "Old Mafia Myth Turns Up Again In Move Against Apalachin Mob". The Victoria Advocate. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
  15. ^ "Luciano Trial Website". Archived from the original on January 31, 2009.
  16. ^ "Lucania Sentenced to 30 to 50 Years; Court Warns Ring" (PDF). The New York Times. June 19, 1936. Retrieved June 17, 2012.
  17. ^ "Dewey Commutes Luciano Sentence" (PDF). The New York Times. January 4, 1946. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
  18. ^ "Pardoned Luciano on His Way to Italy" (PDF). The New York Times. February 11, 1946. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
  19. ^ "Luciano Reaches Naples" (PDF). The New York Times. March 1, 1946. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
  20. ^ Sifakis, Carl (2005). The Mafia encyclopedia (3. ed.). New York: Facts on File. p. 277. ISBN 0-8160-5694-3.
  21. ^ Davis, pp. 78-79
  22. ^ a b c d McHugh, Ray (August 26, 1963). "Federal Attack, Internal Fights Trouble Crime Clan". Lodi News-Sentinel. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
  23. ^ "Genovese Denies Guit" (PDF). New York Times. June 3, 1945. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  24. ^ "Gang-Ride Victim Thrown in Brush" (PDF). New York Times. June 9, 1946. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  25. ^ "Costello is Shot Entering Home; Gunman Escapes Wound" (PDF). New York Times. May 3, 1957. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  26. ^ Vincent Gigante, Mob Boss Who Feigned Incompetence to Avoid Jail, Dies at 77, by Selwyn Raab, The New York Times, December 19, 2005
  27. ^ "Anastasia Slain in a Hotel Here; Led Murder, Inc". New York Times. October 26, 1957.
  28. ^ Glynn, Don (November 11, 2007). "Glynn:Area delegates attended mob convention". Niagara Gazette. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  29. ^ "Narcotic Traffic Called Topic In Apalachin Talks". Toledo Blade. Associated Press. February 28, 1960. p. 1. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  30. ^ "Narcotics Agent Calls Racketeers Black-Handers". Toledo Blade. July 1, 1958. p. 2. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  31. ^ Riesel, Victor (January 16, 1958). "Government Has Evidence Of Mafia Counsel Meetings As Early As 1928". Star-News. p. 32. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  32. ^ a b Narvaez, Alfonso A. (November 21, 1990). "Edgar D. Croswell, 77, Sergeant Who Upset '57 Mob Meeting, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  33. ^ a b "20 Apalachin Delegates Are Convicted; Officials Hail Intelligent Verdict". The Telegraph. December 19, 1959. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  34. ^ Tully, Andrew (September 2, 1958). "Mafia Raid Confirms 20-year Undercover Findings by T-Men". The Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  35. ^ Fitchette, Woodie; Hambalek, Steve (1957-11-15). "Names They Gave During Questioning" (PDF). Binghamton Press. Binghamton, NY. p. 1.
  36. ^ Fitchette, Woodie; Hambalek, Steve (1957-11-15). "Here Are Names They Gave--" (PDF). Binghamton Press. Binghamton, NY. p. 8.
  37. ^ "Apalachin Members All Quilty". Lodi News-Sentinel. December 17, 1959. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  38. ^ "20 Apalachin Convictions Ruled Invalid On Appeal". Toledo Blade. November 29, 1960. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  39. ^ Fitchette, Woodie; Hambalek, Steve (1957-11-15). "Guarnieri Was Grilled In Killings" (PDF). Binghamton Press. Binghamton, NY. p. 3.
  40. ^ Fitchette, Woodie; Hambalek, Steve (1957-11-15). "Guarnieri--" (PDF). Binghamton Press. Binghamton, NY. p. 29.
  41. ^ "Area Men at Apalachin Now Under Indictment" (PDF). Buffalo Courier-Express. Buffalo, NY. 1959-05-28. p. 28.
  42. ^ Barry, Stephanie. “Organized crime in Springfield evolved through death and money.” 11 December 2011. http://www.masslive.com/news/index.ssf/2011/12/organized_crime_in_springfield.html Accessed 15 May 2017.
  43. ^ "New Anit-Mobster Weapons Sought". St. Petersburg Times. January 28, 1961. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  44. ^ Adams, Jack (March 8, 1959). "Hoodlums Run Into Black Days Since Federal Drive Started". The Tuscaloosa News. Associated Press. p. 11. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  45. ^ "Busted Hoodlum Conclave Made N.Y. Hamlet a 'Crime Shrine". latimes.com. November 19, 2000.
  46. ^ Bonanno, Joseph; Sergio Lalli (July 14, 1983). "'Big Barbecue' put Joe Bonanno in the public eye". The Windsor Star. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
  47. ^ "U.S. Launches Roundup of 27 Big Racketeers". Oxnard Press-Courier. May 21, 1959. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  48. ^ "Apalachin Pals Rapped". The Newburgh News. March 14, 1959. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  49. ^ "Six Mobsters Yet At Large In Fed Sweep". Sarasota Journal. Associated Press. May 22, 1959. p. 2. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  50. ^ a b c Sifakis, Carl (2005). The Mafia Encyclopedia. Infobase Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8160-6989-7.
  51. ^ Sifakis, p. 186
  52. ^ "U.S. July Indicts Genovese, Gigante, in Narcotics Plot" (PDF). New York Times. July 8, 1958. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  53. ^ Raab, Selwyn. The Five Families: The Rise, Decline & Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empire. New York: St. Martins Press, 2005.
  54. ^ "Genovese Guilty in Narcotics Plot" (PDF). The New York Times. April 4, 1959. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
  55. ^ Feinberg, Alexander (April 18, 1959). "Genovese is Given 15 Years in Prison in Narcotics Case" (PDF). New York Times. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  56. ^ Grutzner, Charles (December 25, 1968). "Jersey Mafia Guided From Prison by Genovese" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
  57. ^ a b c d Sifakis, Carl (2005). The Mafia Encyclopedia. Infobase Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-8160-6989-7.
  58. ^ a b "La Cosa Nostra - Apalachin Meeting". Retrieved 26 April 2012.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Bernstein, Lee. The Greatest Menace: Organized Crime in Cold War America. Boston: Univ of Massachusetts Press, 2001. ISBN 1-55849-345-X
  • Lamothe, Lee and Antonio Nicaso. Bloodlines: The Rise and Fall of the Mafia's Royal Family. Toronto: HarperCollins Publishers, 2001. ISBN 0-00-638524-9
  • Peterson, Robert W. Crime & the American Response. New York: Facts on File, 1973. ISBN 0-87196-227-6
  • Raab, Selwyn. Five Families: The Rise, Decline, and Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empires. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2005. ISBN 0-312-30094-8
  • Reavill, Gil. Mafia Summit: J. Edgar Hoover, The Kennedy Brothers, and the Meeting That Unmasked the Mob." New York: St. Martin's Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0-312-65775-8
  • Reppetto, Thomas. American Mafia: A History of Its Rise to Power. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 2004. ISBN 0-8050-7798-7
  • Sterling, Claire. Octopus: The Long Reach of the International Sicilian Mafia. New York: Simon & Schuster (Touchstone Edition), 1991.
  • United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Profile On Organized Crime Mid-Atlantic Region. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 1983.
  • Pennsylvania Crime Commission: 1984 Report. St. Davids, Pennsylvania: DIANE Publishing, 1984. ISBN 0-8182-0000-6

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 42°03′16″N 76°09′26″W / 42.054382°N 76.157361°W / 42.054382; -76.157361