Apaliunas (Hittite: 𒀀𒀊𒉺𒇷𒌋𒈾𒀸 Āppaliunāš) is the name of a god, attested in a Hittite language treaty as a protective deity of Wilusa. Apaliunas is considered to be the Hittite reflex of *Apeljōn, an early form of the name Apollo, which may also be surmised from comparison of Cypriot Ἀπείλων (Apeílōn) with Doric Ἀπέλλων (Apéllōn).
Apaliunas is among the gods who guarantee a treaty drawn up about 1280 BCE between Alaksandu of Wilusa, interpreted as "Alexander of Ilios" and the great Hittite king, Muwatalli II. He is one of the three deities named on the side of the city. In Homer, Apollo is the builder of the walls of Ilium, a god on the Trojan side. A Luwian etymology suggested for Apaliunas makes Apollo "The One of Entrapment", perhaps in the sense of "Hunter".
Further east of the Luwian language area, a Hurrian god Aplu was a deity of the plague – bringing it, or, if propitiated, protecting from it – and resembles Apollo Smintheus, "mouse-Apollo" worshiped at Troy and Tenedos, who brought plague upon the Achaeans in answer to a Trojan prayer at the opening of Iliad. Aplu, it is suggested, comes from the Akkadian Aplu Enlil, meaning "the son of Enlil", a title that was given to the god Nergal, who was linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the Sun,[failed verification] and with the plague.
- John L. Angel; Machteld Johanna Mellink (1986). Troy and the Trojan War: A Symposium Held at Bryn Mawr College, October 1984. Bryn Mawr Commentaries. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-929524-59-7.
- Latacz 2001:138.
- Sara Anderson Immerwahr; Anne Proctor. Chapin (2004). Charis: Essays in Honor of Sara A. Immerwahr. Amer School of Classical. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-87661-533-1.
- "smintheus" (Perseus.tufts) σμινθεύς
- "You Apollo Smintheus, let my tears become your arrows against the Danaans, for revenge". Homer, Iliad, i. 33-39
- de Grummond, Nancy Thomson (2006) Etruscan Myth, Sacred History, and Legend. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology); Mackenzie, Donald A. (2005) Myths of Babylonia and Assyria (Gutenberg)
- Latacz, Joachim, 2001. Troia und Homer: Der Weg zur Lösung eines alten Rätsels. (Munich)
- Korfmann, Manfred, "Stelen auf den Toren Toias: Apaliunas – Apollon in Truisa – Wilusa?,” in Güven Arsebük, M. Mellink, and W. Schirmer (eds.), Light on Top of the Black Hill. Festschrift für Halet Cambel (Istanbul) 1998:471-78. Stel outside the supposed gates of Troy.