Apaseo el Grande

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Apaseo el Grande
Palacio de Herrera
Palacio de Herrera
Official seal of Apaseo el Grande
Seal
Motto: Et Campi tui Replebentur Ubetate
Location of Apaseo el Grande
Country  Mexico
State  Guanajuato
Foundation June 24, 1536
Government
 • Mayor Gonzalo Gonzalez Centeno (PAN) 2015-2018
Area
 • Total 415.26 km2 (160.33 sq mi)
Population 85,319
Demonym(s) Apaseense
Código INEGI 005
Website www.apaseoelgrande.gob.mx

Apaseo el Grande is a Mexican city and municipality located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. The municipality is a total of 415.26 square kilometres (1.37% of the surface of the state). It is bordered on the north by Comonfort and San Miguel de Allende, on the east by Querétaro, on the south by Apaseo el Alto, and on the west by Celaya. The municipality had a population of 85,319 inhabitants according to the 2010 census.[1]

In pre-Columbian times, the region was known as Andahe ("Close to the water") and Atlayahualco ("Place of where water flows") by the Otomí and Nahua inhabitants. It was eventually known as Apatzeo ("Yellow flower") by the Purépecha. It received its present name of Apaseo el Grande in 1525 after the Spanish conquered the country. It was the first city to be founded in what is now the state of Guanajuato.

The municipal president of Apaseo el Grande and its many smaller outlying communities is Lorenzo Licea Rojas.[2]

Etymology[edit]

The name of the town and municipality was initially Apatzeo, first used by Hernán Pérez de Bocanegra y Córdoba, who was apparently influenced by the expression in the Purépecha language whose meaning is "Place of Weasels".

Other names of the city of Apaseo el Grande were Andehe (in the Otomi language) which appears in an inscription that is in the choir of the parish church and means "by the water." Another name, used by the viceroy Antonio de Mendoza, is Atlayahualco, from the Nahuatl language, meaning "by the lake".

On February 22, 1957, the Legislature of the State of Guanajuato ordered the publication in the Official Gazette of the State of Guanajuato, Decree Number 64, by which the city and the municipality of Apaseo took the nickname Apaseo el Grande ("greater" or "larger"). This change was intended to resolve conflicts caused by the use of the nickname Apaseo el Bajo ("Lower Apaseo") by residents of the smaller neighboring town of Apaseo el Alto ("Upper Apaseo").

History[edit]

The present city of Apaseo el Grande was inhabited in ancient times, probably along with other towns in the region such as Izcuinapan (San Miguel Viejo, near San Miguel de Allende) and Tlachco (the present city of Querétaro), by various indigenous groups of Nahuatl, Otomi and Guamar as a place of refuge after the occupation of Mexico.[clarification needed]

Conquest and colonization[edit]

The territory was conquered by Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán around 1530, but its formal incorporation into the orbit of the Spanish empire did not occur until 1538, by act of congregation issued by Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza, in the capacity of Indian villages. In 1537, Don Hernán Pérez de Bocanegra started the process of forming a magisterial heritage for his family by buying several properties from Don Fernando P. Motoci, lord of Xuaxo. On 11 October 1564, Bocanegra and his wife Doña Beatriz Pacheco entailed the properties under the Spanish mayorazgo[es] system to assure legal continuity of family ownership of the property via primogeniture. This area became eastern Bajío, the name by which Spaniards, Creoles, Mestizos, Indians, blacks and mulattos called the property belonging to the principal landowner of the region.

By 1571, Apaseo already had 50 Spanish families, 200 blacks, 150 mulattos, and 240 Otomi Indians who also spoke Nahuatl.

Chichimecas nations in 1550

In 1547, silver deposits were discovered in Zacatecas, which induced a steady stream of supplies and greed from the Chichimecas, which started the first attacks against herders and traders on the border. The village of Apaseo, headed by Don Hernán Pérez Bocanegra, defended themselves against the Chichimecas. To combat against Chichimecas, since 1555 they decided to initiate the establishment of Spanish colonies, with the title of villas to increase the population density. [clarification needed] Thus the foundation of the town of Celaya was authorized. The Chichimeca war ended in 1586, ending the policy of enslaving Chichimecan captives and inaugurating the military policy of "peace by purchase" for which grants are awarded to Chichimecans for settling in villages and not attacking the silver traders, indigenous peoples or the Spanish villas.

Viceroyalty in Apaseo[edit]

During the decade of 1640–1650, Apaseo embarked upon a period of economic expansion through ranching in Ixtla, el Peñón and Apaseo el Alto, and fabric manufacturing in Ixtla. In 1640, the parish church existed solely as a baptistery, and would only be built to its current form 50 years later.

Camino Real

Apaseo in the mid-seventeenth century was inhabited mostly by Indians, especially Otomi, who were already in the process of "ladinoization," when natives no longer took on indigenous surnames like Xicani or Endexi. Instead, many Otomi adopted Spanish surnames such as Valencia, Arrieta, Esparragoza, Sánchez, González; alternatively, some Otomi translated names like Águila (Eagle) or Conejo (Rabbit). Blacks and mulattos were employed as servants on farms centered around the village of Ixtla.

In 1690, Apaseo's main building, the parish church, was built with its existing architectural form with financial assistance from Bachiller Francisco Licea, owner of the Mirror Aguascalientes and San Nicolás Estates.

These were times of economic prosperity and diversification for Apaseo that united traditional grain crops, fruit production, and both cattle and sheep farmers. Sheep produced meat and wool, which was especially valued to create garments woven in Obraje de San Diego de Ixtla and Obrajuelo. Wool supplies fueled wholesale and retail markets in Zacatecas, Guadalajara, Mexico City and the Bajío zone through the Camino Real.

By 1748, Apaseo was the fourth-biggest city within the future state of Guanajuato. The indigenous people of Apaseo started to build a temple on the Calle Real, which was completed around 1824 and was dedicated to the Divina Pastora, better known today as the Pastorcita. In December 1786, the village of Apaseo and its jurisdiction were incorporated into the nascent Municipality of Guanajuato, along with all the rest of the city of Celaya. Two years later, Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was appointed Sacristan Mayor Parish Apaseo. Other problems soon arose in Apaseo, mainly due to the village. Neighbors were forced[citation needed] to request land distribution and legal funds, and Apaseo clashed over the water supply with Mayorazgo.

An independent time in Apaseo[edit]

Both Mr. Cura Hidalgo and Captain Allende were known and esteemed people in the village of Apaseo, since the former had enjoyed a perk [clarification needed] of Apaseo Parish and the second, had his sister Dona Maria Josefa married to Lieutenant Mayor of Apaseo.

When the armed uprising began and was approaching to the city of Celaya, a panic broke out in that city. Starting on September 22, 1810 all Spaniards were sent to Querétaro, with the same action soon taking place with peninsular people living in Apaseo.

Félix María Calleja

The village of Apaseo became engaged in the War of Independence on September 26, 1810 when, perhaps in their first offensive action, colonial troops attacked Apaseo at night, to arrest Deputy Justice Don Domingo Busce, who was accused of complicity with the insurgents. During mid-November, the Camino Real and Plaza Apaseo allowed 7,000 men under the command of Don Felix Maria Calleja to stay overnight in the village of Apaseo. Don Calleja's troops were prepared to engage with Don Ignacio Allende's men. On September 9, 1812 the rebel Colonel Don Antonio Velasco attacked the village of Apaseo, defeating their small colonial garrison with relative ease. To avoid similar situations in the future, Apaseo established at least three colonial garrisons: one in the village, another on El Tunal and a third on Obrajuelo. Don Agustin de Iturbide was promoted to Colonel and began a relentless war against the insurgents, mainly in the Bajio. He partnered with Don Manuel María Rodeles, Parish Priest of Apaseo, and many other families in the village of Apaseo during this time.

In late 1815, the insurgents were active near Apaseo and on December 19, 1815 they killed three soldiers from the El Tunal garrison. Insurgents continued their tactics of damaging the town's economic basis, attacking the Hacienda de Ameche on April 25, 1818.

The insecurity and economic damage of Bajio was so serious that Colonel Don Antonio Linares ordered on July 9, 1818 the organization of safeguards so merchants and artisans, who were mainly from Celaya, could attend to their business in Apaseo with minimal risk.

On December 30, 1819, the insurgent Pablo Esquivel, leader of the Picacho Rebels, was captured by Apaseo garrison, and was beheaded. On January 6, 1820, insurgent José Trinidad Aguado was captured and executed, and it seemed there was victory of the royal arms over the insurgency in Apaseo.

After Iturbide and Vicente Guerrero agreed to end the conflict in 1821, Apaseo saw, [clarification needed] with all official honors, the last Spanish troops - marking the end of the colonial era in the Bajio. In November 1821, all remaining locations of the country, including civil and military authorities, churches and corporations declared independence.

On April 14, 1826, Apaseo was recognized as an integral part of the territory of the State of Guanajuato, and retained its status as a municipality. The Apaseenses elected their first constitutional mayor Don José Pablo Gomez.

The year 1830 was terrible economically for Apaseo because of the failure of the textile mills and the impact of British textiles imports. A similar situation occurred in Querétaro and San Miguel Allende and other textile regions of the country. In that same year, a severe cholera epidemic killed 680 people.

In 1856 Don Octaviano Muñoz Ledo purchased the Mayorazgo Hacienda and the adjoining haciendas of San Jose and San Cristobal, solidifying its long-standing family relationship with Apaseo.

Miguel Miramón

During the Reform War, Apaseo was used as a forward base for attacking the Bajio. The General Don Luis G. Osollo, acting in combination with Casanova and General Mejia, commanded 5,400 men and 40 guns. From Apaseo they attacked General Don Anastasio Parrodi with 7,090 men and 30 guns. Osollo chased Parrodi into Salamanca and defeated him and his forces.

Liberals suffered a serious defeat and the persecution continued in Celaya. Meanwhile, Apaseo witnessed an act of chivalry from General Miramon, who knowing that General Don Santiago Tapia was seriously injured, (and that he sought refuge in Apaseo) Miramon promised not to disturb the wounded and also sent his doctor to treat him. Finally The Liberal victory meant full implementation of the 1857 Constitution and the reform laws, mainly the Confiscation Act, which affected the church and community assets. There were expropriated substantial church properties that included several farms, and lands in Apaseo.

When the "Pastry War" started because of unpaid debts that Mexico owed to foreign powers, President Juarez passed through Apaseo during his withdrawal, due to the advance of Franco-Mexican troops, on June 5, 1863. Liberals Apasean citizens received him and invited him to a snack in Don Marcos Corona's house.

The resistance crumbled and in November 29, 1863, neighbors from Apaseo and Celaya signed the accession instrument to the Empire in the presence of General Don Tomás Mejía. French troops appeared in Apaseo and Celaya on December 3, 1863. General Douay led 5,000 men and General Miramon led 2,000 conservatives.

François Achille Bazaine

Maximilian of Habsburg of Belgium, accompanied by his wife Charlotte, went to Mexico to take the throne. The Emperor decided to make a trip to the Bajío in August 23, 1864, with his private secretary Don Nicolás Poliakovits, his ministers and easements, escorted by the cavalry Colonel Don Miguel Lopez. Maximiliano was received warmly in Apaseo.

Some liberals in Apaseo, including Don Canuto Gómez, eager to spoil the party, hid the temple bell clappers. They had to improvise with several hammers to ring the bells when they welcomed him.

Marshal Bazaine, commander in chief of the French Expeditionary Army, was widowed and found a wife among the young girls of the Capitol. Bazaine married Doña María Josefa de la Peña y Azcarate on June 26, 1865. The Emperor Maximilian proved himself on this very splendid occasion by delivering a dowry to the new Mrs. Bazaine two farms in Apaseo. The Emperor had given more than half of the old Party of Apaseo including not only mortmain [clarification needed] particular properties but even some known conservative ones, like Don Octaviano Muñoz Ledo's Mayorazgo Hacienda.

There were many people who rose to defend the Republic and attacked the French garrisons in the old Camino Real, now called the National Road. The attacks occurred in the communities of El Rayo, Castillo and other Coachití. Its central figure is a female captain of Bandidos called "the Carambada" whose main point of assault was called the "cerca pinta" located near Caleras de Ameche. "The Carambada" was apparently originally from Punta de Obrajuelo.

After all this discontent throughout the country, Maximilian decided with Mejia, Miramon and others, to enclose themselves in Querétaro and wait for the concentration of the Republican troops. Due to its proximity to Querétaro, Apaseo became the muster area where both Imperials and Republicans gathered for the final confrontation. On February 22 and 23 1867, three thousand men of the General Mendez's Imperial Brigade stayed in Apaseo on their way to join Maximilian. Behind them, the Republicans, made up of 17,000 men, passed through there on March 4 and 8.

Porfirism in Apaseo[edit]

Under Porfirio Díaz, peace allowed for the creation of much-delayed public works, particularly in the current Plaza Hidalgo, that was the court of the first parish church and Apaseense cemetery.

On June 30, 1870, the town of Apaseo received the title of Villa.

On May 18, 1874, Don Octaviano Muñoz Ledo died at 68 years old, after an eventful life as a Senator, Minister, Governor of Guanajuato and Querétaro, and as the person who introduced the telegraph, At end of his life, he had many difficulties recovering his properties.

In 1897, Don Juan Oliveros donated land to the City for the current Municipal cemetery on the way to El Cerrito. By 1880, Apaseo witnessed the construction of the embankment, culverts and railway station. On March 31, 1882 Apaseo had the first locomotive with a train of passenger cars. The uncomfortable proximity to Querétaro and Celaya prompted Apaseo to become a metropolis of an agricultural area, where activities take place outside the village, in the work fields of the Haciendas and Ranches. The Villa of Apaseo thereby acquired a stunted and simple city life.

The Revolution of 1910—2000[edit]

Vicente A. Ruiz García

Little data exists on these years, but it can be inferred that Don Vicente A. Ruiz won the elections at the triumph of the Revolution Maderista, and continued his post as Political Chief until the battles of Celaya. Don Vicente A. Ruiz managed to take several progressive measures, notably the introducing electricity, drilling for a water supply and organizing civil defenses. Don Vicente A. Ruiz y Garcia, who was the political Chief, was also appointed Chief of the Constitutionalist Army.

General Francisco Villa and Venustiano Carranza disagreed on how to reorganize the country and reached their breaking point on October 10, 1914. Apaseo witnessed fighting between the two sides in the Battle of Celaya. On April 3–4, 1915, infantry, artillery and cavalry under General Maycotte engaged Villa and his troops. The second battle of Celaya was held on April 13–15, 1915. In preparations for combat, General Don Álvaro Obregón concentrated General Cesareo Castro's cavalry and hid them in the forests of the La Labor Hacienda. This cavalry brigade, acting together with the departure of the Álvaro Obregón infantry, played a decisive role in the victory over General Villa's army.

During the battles, some young Apaseenses under the command of Mayor Don Vicente A. Ruiz decided to take up arms and fight on the side of General Villa, against General Obregon. Many citizens never returned and their loss was felt deeply by Don Vicente A. Ruiz, who died in the battle of Celaya. The loss of the Mayor and the uprising of bandits called "The Cerro de la Rosa" (probably ex-villistas), created severe security issues in the region of Apaseo. This caused the abandonment of the El Peñón, Ojo Zarco, El Saucillo, and Obraje de Ixtla Haciendas and the village of San Miguel de Ixtla. The reduction of the population in the haciendas and the withdrawal towards other populations compounded the issues of insecurity and lack of supplies.

In 1917, the entrance of the United States in the Great War, caused the price of garlic to rise rapidly, increasing the revenue of Apaseo and bringing residents Don Magdaleno Rodriguez, Don Jaime and Don Gumersindo Francisco Mejia big profits.

Iturbide street in 1930

In 1918 the Spanish influenza epidemic took place, taking 1,500 victims in a month.

On December 13, 1920, through a telegram, they are officially inaugurated the National Telegraph Services in the municipal seat. The works in the current Town Hall were completed in 1924.

On November 26, 1924 the town of Apaseo received the title of City.

During 1925 Apaseo serious incidents occurred because President Don Plutarco Elías Calles caused a severe crisis known as the Cristero War. On July 31, 1926 the Mexican Episcopate declared suspension of Catholic worship.

The priests of the parish decided to hide in Apaseo, and the Apaseenses Cristeros faced federal army troops on January 4, 1927 at the Cerro del Capulin (now in the municipality of Apaseo el Alto). There were about 100 casualties on both sides. Cristero General Don Manuel Frías began to operate north of the town. Meanwhile, the men's section (ACJM) and the female section (JCFM) of Catholic youths organized activities to raise funds for arms and ammunition for the combatants.

On the first of April 1927, in the afternoon, Cristero General Don Manuel Frias unexpectedly entered the County seat, surrounding the Jardín Hidalgo with his troops and arrested Don Ranulfo Molina, city treasurer, and forced him to open the Municipal building to deliver the funds deposited there. Later, Don Manuel Frias raided the railway station and telegraph terminals and stole money from scratches. [clarification needed] They bought food for their troops with the collected money and left the square.

The bishops called for arrangements between the Mexican government and were signed on June 21, 1929, ending the conflict. Public worship resumed in the Parish Church of Apaseo on July 12, 1929.

In 1939, the Pan American Highway was plotted on its Querétaro stretch - Apaseo el Alto - Celaya and completed in 1942. In February 1940, the efforts of Father Martinez Flores succeeded in getting the Sisters of the Verbo Encarnado to take charge of the reorganized Parish School girls "Guanajuato," which still exists.

During the Guadalupe holidays of 1945, Father Martinez Flores carries out the parish's coronation of the image of the venerated virgin in La Villita.

1947 marked the breaking of the old Party and the District into two municipalities: Apaseo el Grande and Apaseo el Alto.

In June 1950, the first agricultural parade was organized, with floats adorned with chariots and decorated with allegories about San Juan Bautista's life, scenes of conquest, evangelization and local characters.

By 1954, Miss Doña María Concepción Manriquez Orchard donated the farm next to her house for a school for children to be built there, which today is the Institute Dr. Carlos Navarro Origel. Mrs. Doña Julia Frias donated the land where the College of Guanajuato would be constructed. Around 1956, construction of the public elementary school, that is now called Mr. Victor Jose Lizardi, on Matamoros Street began.

On October 7, 1955, in Cinema Oliveros, a prank involving exploding gunpowder caused a panic among those attending a cinematic representation, causing a stampede which left four dead and injured several others.

In early 1956, during a visit by the Bishop, Dr. Don Salvador Martínez Silva proposed that the city of Apaseo adopt the adjective "El Grande." Don José Estrella Vazquez sent a memorandum to Congress requesting el grande (Sp. : 'the great') as a nickname for the county. The XLIII State Legislature memorandum responded with Decree No. 64 of February 22, 1957, by which the city and municipality of Apaseo were collectively changed to the title of Apaseo el Grande.

In 1957, an earthquake occurred that closely marked the start of a slow and gradual drying of the spring El Nacimiento, which brought the end of cheap water and the extinction of large density irrigation areas in the municipality. Losses were estimated at 105 caballerías (equivalent to 4,440 surface acres) and this led to Apaseenses's descent into poverty. It would be only partially alleviated many years later, after the installation of factories within the municipal boundaries.

In 1958 the construction of the Superhighway Querétaro-Irapuato began.

In 1961 the National Charro Championship in Querétaro was won by the charros team of Apaseo el Grande. The most notable members of that team were Don Miguel Urquiza and Don José Luis Oliveros Ramirez. On December 11, 1961, Apaseo City improved its services sector with the opening of the Bank of Commerce S. A branch, whose first office was in the North Goal.

Construction of the Guanajuato parochial school was completed in 1964. Girls started courses in the new building in February 1964.

On December 11 a branch of Banco Nacional de Mexico (Banamex) was founded on the north side of the parish . This year begins the construction of the Technical Secondary School No. 8; which opened on March 19, 1969, during which the President of the Republic, Mr. Don Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, visited.

On October 12, 1979, the first stone of the municipal market, Antonio Plaza, was placed and the market was inaugurated by the Mayor. On August 3, 198,0 tax incentives were granted to companies who set up businesses in what would become known as the Bajio Industrial Corridor. This tax incentive accelerated the installation of industries in the town. In 1991 work began, culminating with the relocation of a Procter and Gamble factory. With private funds the construction of a "lienzo charro," also called "Guadalupano," was started, and it opened on October 20, 1996. On October 19 of that year a new hospital built by the State Government opened.

On January 1, 1998 Dr. Miguel Macias Olvera took office as Mayor of the National Action Party (PAN), and was the first to hold this position after many years of PRI rule.

Government and politics[edit]

In the last elections for Mayor in 2012 the winner was Mr. Lorenzo Licea Rojas from the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in alliance with the Green Party (PVEM). The H. City Council was formed as follows.

MAYOR Lorenzo Rojas Licea PRI
SYNDIC Moisés Ulises Macías Muñoz PVEM
REGIDOR Jose Juan Cardena Maldonado PRI
REGIDOR Alfonso Cabrera Oliveros PRI
REGIDOR María De Los Angeles Bautista Cervantes PRI
REGIDOR Moisés Guerrero Lara PAN
REGIDOR Román Gómez Bravo PAN
REGIDOR Ana Lilia Rodriguez Molina PAN
REGIDOR Efrain Rubio Rico PRD
REGIDOR Carlos Martínez Ramírez PVEM

The Municipality is organized into 49 delegations to manage the various communities that comprise it, which in turn democratically elect delegates to represent them. The Federal Deputy District XIV is José Luis Oliveros Usabiaga and Local Representative is Martin Lopez Camacho, both representatives of the National Action Party (PAN).

Geography[edit]

Localities in Apaseo el Grande

The city of Apaseo el Grande is the capital of the municipality of the same name in the state of Guanajuato. The municipality is bordered on the north by the municipalities of Comonfort and San Miguel de Allende; to the east by the state of Querétaro; to the south by the municipality of Apaseo el Alto; and to the west by Celaya. The City is located at an altitude of 1,767 meters on the margins of the watercourse of the Querétaro river, a tributary of the Laja which flows into the Lerma River. Apaseo el Grande extends over an area of 415.26 km², or 1.37% of the total area of the state. It ranks 20th of 46 municipalities in Guanajuato according to its 2010 Urbanization Index value of 0.59, much lower than the state level of 25.7.

Streams in Apaseo el Grande

Topography[edit]

The Sierra de los Agustinos range enters the town from the south, and the Sierra Codornices from the west. The highest elevations are found in the hills of Santa Rosa, Pelon, El Picacho, Peña, Ojo de Agua, El Tejocote, El Cohetero, La Huerta, Jalpa, Galvanes, Mayorazgo, and Vicar Estancia de las Vacas. Their average height is 2000 meters above sea level. The highest point of the municipality is 2598 meters, at Cerro de La Rosa, which straddles the northernmost part of the territory and the municipality of Celaya.

Hydrography[edit]

Hervideros in Caleras de Amexhe

The main body of water is the Apaseo River, a tributary of the Laja River. In Querétaro, it forms currents and rivers like Huipal, from the state of Querétaro, that enters streams to the municipality of San Bartolo and Ixtla and the river Apaseo el Alto. There are two springs of sulphurous water, namely the Marroquín and the Mandujano. The town also has three alkaline water springs: El Nacimiento, Agua Tibia and Llanitos. The waters of Cañada Mandujano Cedazo and Ojos de Apaseo el Alto, gathered into streams, produce an annual rainfall of 12 meters, used to irrigate the valley lands.

Climate[edit]

It is mild and pleasant throughout the year, with a maximum temperature of 37.1 °C, and a minimum of 0.9 °C. The annual rainfall total rainfall is 606.1 millimeters. The northern part of the municipality has a dry climate, with an annual average temperature between 12 and 22 °C, and rainfalls of 400–600 mm. In the central part there is a semi-dry climate, the least dry with annual temperatures between 18 and 20 °C, and precipitation of 557–615 mm. To the south is a warm climate with summer rain, the driest in this group, holding less than 5% of the winter rain. The highest annual temperature is 18 °C, with temperatures ranging from 7 to 14 °C. June is the warmest month.

Vegetation[edit]

The flora of the municipality consists of deciduous forest and mesquite. As for forests, there are: hounds tooth, grass pastures, zacatón, Colorado grass, blue glandular grama filiform, bilberry cactus, buffalo, fake grass, foxtail, woolly and wolfhounds, along with forage species and huaraches, several species of cactus and cacahuetes, etc.

Wildlife[edit]

Coyote

The reported species in the area ones that have endured the heavy pressure on them, such as small mammals among which are the opossum, coyote, hare, rabbit and birds like the thrush.

Population[edit]

Based on the 2010 Census of Population and Housing conducted by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI), the city of Apaseo el Grande has 85,319 inhabitants of whom 41,038 are men and 44,281 are women, and 28.3% of the population is under 30. An increase in population in the coming years is expected due to the construction of housing projects in the outskirts of the metropolitan area of Querétaro, within the municipality of Apaseo el Grande.

Education[edit]

The Township of Apaseo el Grande offered 13 degree programs in 2010. 6.5% of the population 25 years and older have higher education (technical or commercial studies, completed high school, undergraduate, masters and/or PhD).

Religion[edit]

The population is mostly Catholic, with 94.4% of the population identifying with Catholicism. Since 1980, Christian groups like evangelicals and Pentecostals entered into the various communities and the county seat, so that their number has reached 2.5% of the population.

Migration[edit]

Apaseenses' emigration to the United States is primarily to cities in Texas, especially Dallas, possibly because of family ties[citation needed](which give more job prospects). North Carolina is also a common destination. The municipality ranks 26th in Edo. Guanajuato in migration levels.

Economy[edit]

Photovoltaic Plant in Industrial Park La Amistad

The Municipality of Apaseo el Grande was traditionally an agricultural and livestock center. Agriculture benefited from the construction of the irrigation district of the Upper Lerma. Mainly alfalfa, beans, corn, grasses and sorghum are grown. Its residents also raise cattle, pigs and goats, standing out among other for their breeding of fowls. These activities have been reduced as a percentage of the municipal contribution to GDP in recent years due to the development of several industrial zones in the township. Though industry thrives in Apaseo el Grande, its Production Services Gross Total (PBT) is 8.1%, still below the 25.1% statewide total.

Apaseo el Grande occupies a prominent place in the state of Guanajuato for exporting. In 2011, it ranked third in the state, behind only Silao and Irapuato. The vast majority of these exports are produced by Procter & Gamble, and are shipped to the United States and Latin America.

Apaseo el Grande ranks 6 out of 46 municipalities in per capita PBT, which is 123697.3, which is above the state value of 80315.2. But this wealth is poorly distributed among the population, since 56% of the population are considered to be living in poverty. Source: Ministry of Economic Development Sustentable.Guanajuato

Points of interest[edit]

Casa de los Perros

Palacio de Herrera[edit]

The Palace of Herrera (commonly called "Casa de los Perros" or the House of Dogs) is an eighteenth-century colonial building which stands out among tourist attractions of the area. Constructed in a sober baroque style, this palace was commissioned by Don Francisco Fernández de Herrera and Antonio Merino Areávalo, landowner and merchant. It is private, with no public access.

Hacienda El Tunal[edit]

El Tunal

Francisco Antonio Fernández de Herrera owned several farms and ranches, some of which remained in the family for generations, as was the case for the Hacienda El Tunal. The hacienda was renovated in the second half of the nineteenth century, so that what one sees now no longer represents the prevailing style of the eighteenth century in the Bajío lowlands of north-central Mexico. Access is restricted.[3]

Temple and Franciscan Convent[edit]

This old set of buildings dates back to the sixteenth century. The exterior of the church and its convent are in a military monastic style and the interior of the temple is neoclassical. It has several chapels attached to the temple, with an open chapel and atrium.

Hacienda El Vicario[edit]

Hacienda El Vicario

The Vicar is a big solid construction, stunning, well-balanced, and with good aesthetics. It is a single piece, or at least it appears so from the outside. It is rumored that in 1814, the royalist army stationed soldiers on the estates of Apaseo, including El Vicario.

Railway Station[edit]

Railway Station

It was one of the main stations of Guanajuato state for which a quarter of the products were exported, including food. The train was also used as a means of transportation, until the late twentieth century by the inhabitants of Apaseo el Grande, to border cities. It is now in disrepair and no public access is permitted.

Hacienda La Labor[edit]

Ex Hacienda La Labor

Erected in the late eighteenth century by José Ignacio Villaseñor Cervantes, the Hacienda La Labor retains the outlines of its façade altered only by a neoclassical kick. Its outward appearance reminds one of the famous Renaissance villas upstairs open a loggia of arches on columns, a tradition in the country that goes back to the time of conquest.[clarification needed]

Hacienda de Obrajuelo[edit]

Hacienda de Obrajuelo

One of the other existing haciendas in the municipality that still has elements from its splendid past is the Hacienda de Obrajuelo, that was Captain Fausto Merino's from the mid- 18th century, who donated it to the congregation of clerics of Our Lady of Guadalupe de Querétaro. In the mid-nineteenth century the Habsburg emperor Maximilian presented it, with the Buenavista Palace of Mexico city, to Marshal Achille Bazaine after marrying Pepita de la Peña.

Ixtla[edit]

Capilla de Los Ángeles (Ixtla)

Located in a Township Community of Apaseo el Grande, Ixtla is the first settlement founded by Spaniards from Querétaro in the state of Guanajuato. Its peculiarity is that it has about 34 chapels, some preserved better than others, belonging to different families that were part of the ancient population. Some of the most emblematic chapels are currently being restored. San Miguel Ixtla was recognized as a town between 1550 and January 1551, a request coming from the town of Apatzeo for a reservation for its Indians, because their original population was mainly Otomi Indians. The family chapels were erected as part of the campaigns and Christianizing "Propaganda Fide" was undertaken by Franciscans in the Otomi region (Peña, 2010).

Charrería[edit]

Escaramuzas
Further information: Charreria

Charreria is the traditional sport in the town's history and this has promoted the formation of churros through family heritage. In 1996, The "Lienzo Charro La Guadalupana" opened, which seats about 4,000 people, where there have been two national championships. Besides its usual function, the venue is also used to display other types of shows.[4]

Festivities[edit]

Traditional Altar in Apaseo
  • Regional Fair of San Juan Bautista. It is held every year on June 24 as part of the celebration of the anniversary of the founding of the city with San Juan Bautista as patron. Beginning in 2008 further investment was made for the title of Regional Fair.
  • Circumcision of the Lord.. On January 1 highlights the festivals that take place in the municipal seat and in San Pedro Tenango.
  • Day of the Three Kings. On January 6 a symbolic parade with the Magi where toys are given to children.
  • Semana Santa (Easter). It is known because of its processions in different villages of the town, with a final destination in the town of Ixtla, where they worship the Lord of Ojo Zarco.
  • Virgen del Rosario. Held on October 30.
  • Día de Muertos. Held on November 2. People create traditional altars to honor their dead relatives in a festive atmosphere.
  • Immaculate Conception. Held on December 8.
  • Virgin of Guadalupe. La Villita has a stone with an image of the virgin where parishioners come to worship.

Gastronomy[edit]

"Vacas" (Cows) is a food consisting of a stew, which may typically be crackling with potato hash and even tuna. The dish is wrapped in a thin layer of bread. There is also a sweet bread stuffed with melted cheese, known by the name "Gallo" (Rooster). Sweets are also made with jamoncillo milk, cheeses and sausages. In recent years "gorditas" have enjoyed considerable fame among visitors who come to town to taste them.

Notable residents[edit]

Antonio Plaza Llamas (1830-1882) Poet, soldier and journalist.

Fernando de Córdoba and Bocanegra (1565-1589) Third mayorazgo of Apaseo, Castilian and Latin poet, musician, painter and horseman. In 1586 he resigned as primogeniture and lived a life of poverty, charity to the sick Indians, penance and contemplation.

Andres Quiles Galindo (1673-1719) A Franciscan friar and lawyer. Regent of Studies, consultant and assessor of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, provincial minister of the Franciscan Province of San Pedro and San Pablo de Michoacan. Attorney General of the Franciscan Provinces of India. Presented by King Felipe V of Spain on February 9, 1718 as Bishop of the Diocese of León (Nicaragua) currently Archdiocese of Managua, without taking possession, died in Seville on July 2, 1719.

Priest Fr. Efren Flores Rico (1889-1986) Benefactor of the city. He supported the boys and girls Parochial Schools as the congregation of Verbo Encarnado and the Marianist Brothers. He also created the first high school in 1956 with his Vicar Fr. D. Sereno and Dr. Abel Navarrol. He made possible the renovation and improvement of access across the street and the square in La Villita, a temple dedicated to the Virgin of Guadalupe.

Francisco Fernández de Herrera and Antonio Merino Arevalo (1755-1824) Landowner and merchant, Mayor of Celaya in 1805 and second Mayor in the same city in 1810. After abandoning the Celaya royal authorities Celaya about the whereabouts of the Hidalgo insurgents, he remained at his post, managing to avoid killings and robberies in the houses of the Spaniards through his influence with Hidalgo, Allende and other insurgent commanders.

José María Fernández de Herrera and Gomez (born 1788) Advocate graduated in the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico. Deputy Mayor of his hometown in 1810, Governor of Querétaro by order of the viceroy, deputy to the Second General Conference, signed the Guanajuato Constitutive Act of the Mexican nation, repeatedly member of the municipalities of the cities of Querétaro and Celaya.

Marciano Tinajero and Estrada (1871-1957) Priest, sixth Bishop of the Diocese of Querétaro. He was born on the farm of La Nopalera then Apaseo Party, now in the Municipality of Apaseo el Alto, on November 2, 1871. He studied in various educational institutions in Querétaro. He was consecrated as a priest on December 27, 1896, was a conciliar seminary teacher for thirteen years, pastor of the parish of San Sebastian and Santa Ana, Chancellor of the Diocesan Curia of Querétaro, Canon of the Cathedral Chapter of Querétaro. Appointed on January 8, 1932 Vicar General of the Diocese of Querétaro. He advised the Bishop of Querétaro starting on June 2, 1933, a responsibility he held until his death on October 27, 1957.

José Rebolledo Borja (1886-1969) Lawyer. On July 10, 1917 he joined the Attorney General's Office, where he served as the Federal Public Ministry, attached first to the Attorney General and subsequently assigned to the District Court in the State of Veracruz and shortly after, the District Court in the State of Michoacán. On March 24, 1924, the Supreme Court appointed him Acting District Judge in the State of Jalisco, with residence in the city of Guadalajara and later tenured judge. On January 29, 1925 the High Court ascribed him to the State of Guanajuato. From 1926 to 1935, hr exercised the judicial function of District Judge in the State of Jalisco, Mexico City, Puebla and Veracruz. On September 11, 1939, the Supreme Court conferred to him the appointment of Circuit Judge, where he served in the Fifth Circuit Court, resident of the city of Puebla. On January 1941, he was appointed Minister of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation by the President of the Republic, Manuel Avila Camacho, and became part of the First Chamber, of which he was elected President in 1949. In 1942, he worked temporarily in the Third Chamber. For a time he was a member of the former Commission on Rank. He voluntary retired in 1952.

Jesus Cabrera Muñoz Ledo (1928-2000) Diplomat and politician. He studied international relations in France, Switzerland and the United States, with grants from the French government and the United Nations. He joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on March 1, 1953. He served as Mexico's ambassador to several countries, which promoted the creation of several cultural institutions, and as the Head of UN specialized agencies, UNESCO was one of them. He sponsored culture and arts in Mexico, and was a university faculty member at the Mexican Academy of History and Geography. He was a senator for the State of Guanajuato in the L and LI Legislatures of Congress.

Hector Mendoza Franco (1932-2010) Playwright and theater director. He studied at the Faculty of Political and Social Sciences and Humanities of the UNAM, and with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation, he studied theater at Yale University (1957-1959). He was a fellow of the Mexican Center of Writers (1953-1954 and 1962-1963), professor at the UNAM (1969-), at the National Theatre School Institute of Fine Arts (1960–82) and the Center for Experimental Theatre. In 1973 he became the Head of the Theatre Department at UNAM. He was a collaborator of the Journal of the University, and the Diorama Dialogues of Culture supplement of the newspaper Excelsior. In movies, he directed the short film The Shunammite. He was a member of the group "Love, Love, Love" (1965), which was the winner of the first Fourth of Experimental Film Competition. He was the author of the plays Drowning, Salpícame of Love (1964) (Manuel Eduardo de Gorostiza Prize, 1952), The Simple Things (Juan Ruiz de Alarcón Prize, 1953), La Camelia (1959), a Boeotia (1965), Los asesinos (1969), Night decisive in the life of Eva Iriarte (1984), From the day that Mr. Bernal died leaving us helpless (1981), Sudden Death (1988), and Phaedra (1988). He received the National Arts Award in 1994. He died on December 29, 2010 in Mexico City.

Roberto Tapia Conyer (born 1954) Prominent physician epidemiologist specializing in health policy. He has degrees in Public Health and Master of Science from Harvard University and a PhD in Health Sciences of the National Autonomous University of México. He was the General Director of the Instituto Carlos Slim Health from 2007 to 2013. He is currently Director of the Carlos Slim Foundation and serves as Chairman of the Board of Juvenile Integration Centers.

David Rabago Oliveros Farm Business and lender. Great benefactor of the city. Constructor of the chapel of the Virgin of Guadalupe, Ex- Health Center (now nursery DIF), the first and only cinema in town, expansion of the City Hall offices, among others.

Luis Oliveros Rabago Re-founder of Charreria in Apaseo El Grande, through him and with the financial support of his brother, David Oliveros, the first Lienzo Charro of the municipality was built, which was recently demolished to build a self-service store. His teaching gave continuity to the art of Charrería in this town.

Francisco Licea y Borja Priest and benefactor. Constructor of the temples of the Preciosa Sangre and La Villita, Portals at Jardín Hidalgo and the Column of Hidalgo, Father of the Nation.

Caraveo Refugio Aguilar (1893 - 1974) Poet and cousin of Gen. Marcelo Caraveo who fought with Gen. Pascual Orozco and Emiliano Zapata. The poet José Tlatelpas wrote a book on lines of high art on this character Lunita Caraveo, entitled The Child Jesus with a foreword by the Spanish poet Juan Cervera Sanchis.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mexican Municipality Encyclopedia". Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México. Archived from the original on 2014-10-31. Retrieved 2007-03-22. 
  2. ^ Presidencia Municipal de Apaseo el Grande, Gto. - Salvador Oliveros Ramírez
  3. '^ Buenrostro, José G. Apaseo el Grande, la primera frontera.Colección de Monografías Municipales. Gobierno del Estado de Guanajuato. Guanajuato, 2010.
  4. ^ Devlin, Wendy. "Charreada in Guadalajara". Mexconnect. Archived from the original on 2014-09-03. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 

External links[edit]