|Freyer's purple emperor|
Freyer's purple emperor has dark wings with reddish and yellow bands. The wings of the male are bluish purple if seen from the right angle.
- Apatura metis metis (Freyer, 1829) (south-eastern Europe)
- Apatura metis bunea (Herrich-Schäffer, 1845) (south-European Russia, Caucasus)
- Apatura metis substituta (Butler, 1873) (Japan)
- Apatura metis irtyshika (Korshunov, 1982) (south-western Siberia, Kazakhstan)
- Apatura metis separata (Tuzov, 2000) (Transbaikalia)
- Apatura metis heijona (Matsumura, 1928) (Korea, Amur and Ussuri regions)
- Apatura metis doii (Matsumura, 1928) (Kurile islands)
Habitat and ecology
Freyer's purple emperor usually inhabits forests and is often found nearby rivers and streams. The female spends the majority of her life in the foliage. The largest habitat of the animal is the Gemenc forest in southern Hungary. Although it is one of the rarest animals in Europe, it can be seen in large quantities there. In Europe, Freyer's purple emperor usually has one, sometimes two generations, the first in May and June, the second in July and August. The caterpillars feed on willow species.
Apatura metis substituta on Mount Kirigamine, Japan
- "Apatura metis Freyer, 1829" at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms