Apaxco

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Apaxco
Municipality and town
Church of Francis of Assisi in Apaxco
Church of Francis of Assisi in Apaxco
Official seal of Apaxco
Seal
Mexico Estado de Mexico Apaxco location map.svg
Coordinates: String Module Error: String subset index out of range 19°59′N 99°10′W / 19.98°N 99.17°W / 19.98; -99.17Coordinates: String Module Error: String subset index out of range 19°59′N 99°10′W / 19.98°N 99.17°W / 19.98; -99.17
Country  Mexico
State Mexico (state)
Founded October 16, 1870
Area
 • Total 80.34 km2 (31.02 sq mi)
Elevation 2,213 m (7,260 ft)
Population (2010)
 • Total 27,521
 • Density 340/km2 (890/sq mi)
Time zone Central Standard Time (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) Central Daylight Time (UTC-5)
Website Official website

Apaxco is a municipality located in Zumpango Region, the northeastern part of the State of Mexico in Mexico, although both are commonly called Apasco. The municipal territory is located at a southern pass leading out of the Mezquital Valley and about 288 km (179 mi) northeast of the state capital of Toluca. This name comes from Nahuatl and means "place of the water fall".[1]

The municipality was founded on October 16, 1870. It covers an area of 80.34 square kilometres (31.02 sq mi). Apaxco de Ocampo is a municipal seat, and also is a border city with Vito and El Refugio, between the State of Mexico and the State of Hidalgo; inside of Cuenca cementera (Cement basin), an important area for the building industry but with ecological problems.[2]

Geography[edit]

Wiew of Apaxco municipality since Cerro Mesa Ahumada.

The town of Apaxco de Ocampo, a municipal seat, has governing jurisdiction over the following communities: Coyotillos, Santa María, Loma Bonita, Pérez de Galeana and Colonia Juárez. The total municipality extends 84.37 km2 and borders with the municipalities of Tequixquiac, Hueypoxtla and the state of Hidalgo (with Atotonilco de Tula and Ajacuba).

The Gran Canal de Desagüe is an artificial channel that crossing Apaxco, was named Xothé river in Otomi language, this channel connect with Tula river and Endhó dam. Other small river is Treviño, Zarco, El Codo and Teña, connect with Gran Canal.[3] Apaxco has got a thermal waters, there are subterranean rivers with hot springs, named in this place as son as Los Bañitos.[4]

The municipal seat is a small, elongated valley but most of the municipality is on a high mesa which transitions from the Valley of Mexico to the Mezquital Valley.[1] The highest mountains in Apaxco are the Cerro El Estudiante, Cerro Teña, Cerro Coyotillos, Cerro Blanco and Cerro Pelón in Tezontlalpan Sierra, other mountains are Mesa Ahumada or Cerro Colorado[5] in the border between the municipalities of Huehuetoca and Tequixquiac. In Apaxco de Ocampo has a big crater named El Hoyo, the Aztec people named in Nahuatl language as apatztli.[6]

Apaxco municipality is a rural territory of Central Mexican Plateau: here there is a semi-desertic climate, in south of Mezquital Valley.

Flora and fauna[edit]

Sierra de Tetzontlalpan, natural border between State of Mexico and State of Hidalgo.

The flora is diferent, mainly is semi-desert land with calcium stones, the plants are cactus and trees with low water. Apaxco has got chollas, pickly pears, mesquites, huizaches, golden barrels, creosote bush, century plants, others. In high Sierra de Tetzontlalpan has got oaks, piñon pines and cedars, but in Cerro Mesa Ahumada there are other species as ferns, tejocote trees, white zapote tres, kidneywood trees, tepozans and visnagas.

Apaxco has got many native animals, the birds are owl, eagle, falcon, turkey, colibri, turkey vulture, northern mockingbird, rufous-crowned sparrow, lesser roadrunner, roadrunner, the reptils and anphibians are rattlesnake, pine snake, xincoyote, red warbler, axolotl, frog, toad, the insects are red ant, bee, others. Apaxco has got a two mountain ranges, here there is more diversity in mammals, the south is Cerro Mesa Ahumada with cacomistle, skunk, gopher, Virginia opossum, rabbit, Mexican gray squirrel and to north with the Sierra de Tetzontlalpan, where there are bobcat, coyote and hare.[7]

History[edit]

The first settlers in the region date back to 5000 BC, evidence of which is the expression carved on the stones around of the mountains. This region was inhabited by megafauna as cuvieronius,[8] two valleys divided but a mountain range (Sierra de Tetzontlalpan), was a habitat for many big animals as mammoth, glyptodonts and others.

The first inhabitants were Otomian group ancestors. The civilizations that inhabited what is now Apaxco had a direct relationship with the Teotihuacan civilization, until they declined to between 650 and 900, after that were dominated by the Toltecs.

Page Xl, Codex Boturuni.

The most important source about Apaxco in pre-Columbian history, was in 1215, during the pilgrimage to the mythical promised city of the Aztecs, was the site Apaxco,[9][10] In page XI of Boturini Codex is registered places of Atotonilco and Apaxco during the pilgrimage.[11]

With the rise of the Aztec Empire, Apaxco region and all the neighbors were under the government of Tlacopan, one of the members of the Triple Alliance. Tenochcas subjugated the Otomi people and founded the Teotlalpan, a desert region with abundant mountains. Apaxco, Tula and Ajoloapan were places rich in lime which was a very coveted mineral for building, so the lime was a tax payment for the Aztec empire.[12]

Apaxco remained in this position until the fall of Tenochtitlan before the army of Hernán Cortés. In colonial times Apaxco Commit entered the system imposed by the Spanish conquerors, and came under the command of Cristóbal Hernandez Mosquera in 1530.

Holcim cement factory in Apaxco (2007).

Apaxco was erected as a township in 1870 after the end of the French intervention, the first school was founded in 1880. But during the Porfirio Díaz government, the municipality entered into a phase of strong economic recession and the town disappeared in 1899 for failing to keep administrative or economically, from that date until 1923 Apaxco was a part from Texquiquiac municipality.

In 1900 the engineer Luis Espinosa built a first calcium oxide factory in Apaxco, was inaugurated by president Porfirio Díaz. This factory was named in 1911 as Calera de Apasco Company.[13] After in 1934 was built Cementos Apasco by shares of engineer Federico Garcia Cuéllar, was bad production and labor exploitation with the workers, in 1964 this cement factory was sold to Swiss company named Holderbank (now Holcim).[14]

Communication and transport[edit]

The Arco Norte, is a principal highway that cross by Apaxco, this municipality has got three state roads, Zumpango-Apaxco number 9 a way that connect to Mexico City with Atitalaquia, State of Hidalgo, has got other road at west, Huehuetoca-Apaxco number 6 cross Santa María with junction to Conejos in Atotonilco de Tula, a road with connection to Tula-Jorobas highway. Other municipal road connect with Pérez de Galeana and Coyotillos.

Demography[edit]

Town Population
Total 27,521
Apaxco de Ocampo 13,836
Santa María Apaxco 3,747
Coyotillos 3,084
Pérez de Galeana 1,844

At the census of 2010, there were 27,521 people, The population density was 343/km2 (890/sq mi). The median age was twenty-four years.[15]

Religion[edit]

The predominant religion is Catholic Christianity have an 98% of the total population of the municipality in 15 796 as in 1990, there is a parish belonging to the Diocese of Cuautitlan.[16]

Religion Population (1990)
Total 16,099[17]
Roman Catholic 15,796
Protestantism 287
Atheism 114
Others 208
No specific 47

Health[edit]

IMSS Hospital in Apaxco.

Apaxco there is a regional IMSS hospital. This municipality has got with 3 public clinics of health of ISEM in Apaxco de Ocampo, Santa María Apaxco, and Coyotillos town. The principal cases of death are respiratory problems by cancer and pneumonia.[18]

Politics[edit]

Municipality House in Apaxco de Ocampo.
Mayor Time
Guadalupe Hernández Méndez 2003–2006
Daniel Parra Ángeles 2006-2009
Ignacio Cruz García 2009-2012
Daniel Parra Ángeles 2012–2015
Jesús Cruz Parra 2016–

Culture[edit]

Archeological Museum of Apaxco.
Inside Saint Francis parish in Apaxco.

The Archeological Museum of Apaxco is important site at main plaza where have got interesting archeological pieces from Toltec, Aztec and Teotihuacan cultures over this place.

Monuments[edit]

Saint Francis parish is a monument in Apaxco de Ocampo town. This temple was constructed in various phases, was started by Franciscan priests. The atrium was a large space encased in stone with a cross on top of it but with Christian and indigenous symbols, inside is boveda (arched ceiling) with a chorus to the baroque altar. The facade contains two doorways that are elaborately decorated in stonework which contain indigenous symbolism as well. The temple and the town are dedicated to the Saint Francis of Assisi.

La Misión chapel is a monument in Apaxco de Ocampo town. This chapel, constructed in the Spanish period, is a small Christian Catholic church occupied by monastery priests for the purpose of evangelizing the indigenous people.

Railroad station Apaxco, this building was constructed in the 19th century to connect a Tula railway to Querétaro City.

Sports and entertainment[edit]

The Hoyo, a deportive place in Apaxco de Ocampo.

The first sport practiced in Apaxco has been the football soccer. When arrived the factory workers for the Cementos Apaxco, racquetball is a sport practised in this township. Today is played racquetball at Deportivo Apaxco in Loma Bonita, site at south of town (Santa María road cross) and other sports as soon as baseball and basquetball.

The hills of Apaxco had used by cows and sheep; the Spanish had very large haciendas and found it necessary to employ indigenous people as vaqueros or herdsman, who soon became excellent horsemen. This situation, is practiced the charrería here.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Apaxco". Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México. Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal. Archived from the original on May 27, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2009. 
  2. ^ [1] Expertos internacionales declaran región de sacrificio el corredor Apaxco-Atotonilco-Tula.
  3. ^ "Prontuario de información geográfica municipal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos INEGI, 2009" (PDF). Retrieved 18 June 2016. 
  4. ^ "Apaxco Municipality ( INADEF)". Retrieved 18 June 2016. 
  5. ^ Los habitantes de Apaxco en defensa del Cerro Colorado y del bien común
  6. ^ Apaxco, Zumpangolandia, May 26, 2016.
  7. ^ [2] Dorantes Nava, Óscar; Monomgrafía Municipal de Apaxco, Institute Mexiquense de Cultura, 1999. pp. 25-26.
  8. ^ [3] pp.358.
  9. ^ [4] Dorantes Nava, Óscar; Monomgrafía Municipal de Apaxco, Institute Mexiquense de Cultura, 1999. pp. 63-64.
  10. ^ El camino migratorio de los mexicas UNAM. pp. 207-209.
  11. ^ INAH Codex Boturini.
  12. ^ "Historia de la producción de cal en el norte de la cuenca de México" (PDF). Retrieved 18 June 2016. 
  13. ^ Calidra Company History.
  14. ^ Dorantes Nava, Óscar; Monomgrafía Municipal de Apaxco, Institute Mexiquense de Cultura, 1999. pp. 72-73.
  15. ^ Municipality of Apaxco SEDESOL, catálogo de localidades. Archived from the original on May 18, 2016. (Spanish)
  16. ^ Diosesis de Cuautitlán pp. 3.
  17. ^ [5] Dorantes Nava, Óscar; Monomgrafía Municipal de Apaxco, Institute Mexiquense de Cultura, 1999. pp. 39.
  18. ^ Dorantes Nava, Óscar; Monomgrafía Municipal de Apaxco, Institute Mexiquense de Cultura, 1999. pp. 31.