Apertium

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Apertium
Apertium logo.svg
Apertium-tolk.png
Stable release 3.2[1] / September 21, 2010; 3 years ago (2010-09-21)
Written in C++
Operating system POSIX compatible
Available in Multi-lingual
Type Machine translation
License GNU General Public License
Website www.apertium.org

Apertium is a rule-based machine translation platform. It is free software and released under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

History[edit]

Apertium originated as one of the machine translation engines in the project OpenTrad, which was funded by the Spanish government. It was originally designed to translate between closely related languages, although it has recently been expanded to treat more divergent language pairs. To create a new machine translation system, one just has to develop linguistic data (dictionaries, rules) in well-specified XML formats.

Language data developed for it (in collaboration with the Universidade de Vigo, the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya and the Universitat Pompeu Fabra) currently support (in stable version) the Aragonese, Asturian, Basque, Breton, Bulgarian, Catalan, Danish, English, Esperanto, French, Galician, Icelandic, Italian, Macedonian, Norwegian (Bokmål and Nynorsk), Occitan, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, Swedish and Welsh languages. A full list is available below. Several companies are also involved in the development of Apertium, including Prompsit Language Engineering, Imaxin Software and Eleka Ingeniaritza Linguistikoa.

Apertium is a shallow-transfer machine translation system, which uses finite state transducers for all of its lexical transformations, and hidden Markov models for part-of-speech tagging or word category disambiguation. Constraint Grammar taggers are also used for some language pairs (e.g. Breton-French).

The project has taken part in the 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 editions of Google Summer of Code and the 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013 editions of Google Code-In.[2]

Language pairs[edit]

List of currently stable language pairs, hover over the language codes to see the languages that they represent.

ar an ast eu br bg ca da en eo fr gl is id it mk ms mt sme nb nn oc pt ro es sv cy
Arabic No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (←) No No No No No No No No No
Aragonese No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (⇄) No No
Asturian No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (⇄) No No
Basque No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (→) No No
Bretonă No No No No No No No No No Yes (→) No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Bulgarian No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (⇄) No No No No No No No No No No No
Catalan No No No No No No No Yes (⇄) Yes (→) Yes (⇄) No No No Yes (←) No No No No No No Yes (⇄) Yes (⇄) No Yes (⇄) No No
Danish No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (←) No
English No No No No No No Yes (⇄) No Yes (⇄) No Yes (⇄) Yes (←) No No Yes (←) No No No No No No No No Yes (⇄) No Yes (←)
Esperanto No No No No No No Yes (←) No Yes (⇄) Yes (←) No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (←) No No
French No No No No Yes (←) No Yes (⇄) No No Yes (→) No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (⇄) No No
Galician No No No No No No No No Yes (⇄) No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (⇄) No Yes (⇄) No No
Icelandic No No No No No No No No Yes (→) No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Indonesian No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (→) No No No No No No No No No No
Italian No No No No No No Yes (→) No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Macedonian No No No No No Yes (⇄) No No Yes (→) No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Malaysian No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (←) No No No No No No No No No No No No
Maltese Yes (→) No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
North Sami No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (→) No No No No No No No
Norwegian (Bokmål) No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (←) Yes (⇄) No No No No No No
Norwegian (Nynorsk) No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (⇄) No No No No No No
Occitan No No No No No No Yes (⇄) No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (⇄) No No
Portuguese No No No No No No Yes (⇄) No No No No Yes (⇄) No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (⇄) No No
Romanian No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes (←) No No
Spanish No Yes (⇄) Yes (⇄) Yes (←) No No Yes (⇄) No Yes (⇄) Yes (→) Yes (⇄) No No No No No No No No No No Yes (⇄) Yes (⇄) Yes (←) No No
Swedish No No No No No No No Yes (→) No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Welsh No No No No No No No No Yes (→) No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Corbí-Bellot, M. et al. (2005) "An open-source shallow-transfer machine translation engine for the romance languages of Spain" in Proceedings of the European Association for Machine Translation, 10th Annual Conference, Budapest 2005, pp. 79–86
  • Armentano-Oller, C. et al. (2006) "Open-source Portuguese-Spanish machine translation" in Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3960 [Computational Processing of the Portuguese Language, Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Computational Processing of Written and Spoken Portuguese, PROPOR 2006], p 50-59.

External links[edit]