Apimostinel

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Apimostinel
NRX-1074.svg
Clinical data
Other namesNRX-1074; AGN-241660; Threonyl-prolyl-2R-(2-benzyl)-prolyl-threonine amide
Routes of
administration
By mouth
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
  • (2R)-1-[(2S)-1-[(2S,3R)-2-Amino-3-hydroxybutanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carbonyl]-N-[(2S,3R)-1-amino-3-hydroxy-1-oxobutan-2-yl]-2-benzylpyrrolidine-2-carboxamide
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC25H37N5O6
Molar mass503.600 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • C[C@@H](O)[C@H](N)C(=O)N1CCC[C@H]1C(=O)N2CCC[C@@]2(Cc3ccccc3)C(=O)N[C@@H]([C@@H](C)O)C(N)=O
  • InChI=1S/C25H37N5O6/c1-15(31)19(26)23(35)29-12-6-10-18(29)22(34)30-13-7-11-25(30,14-17-8-4-3-5-9-17)24(36)28-20(16(2)32)21(27)33/h3-5,8-9,15-16,18-20,31-32H,6-7,10-14,26H2,1-2H3,(H2,27,33)(H,28,36)/t15-,16-,18+,19+,20+,25-/m1/s1
  • Key:DVBUEXCIEIAXPM-PJUQSVSOSA-N

Apimostinel (GATE-202, formerly NRX-1074) is an investigational antidepressant, acting as a novel and selective modulator of the NMDA receptor.[1][2][3][4] It is currently under development for the acute treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) by Gate Neurosciences, and previously by Naurex and Allergan.[5][6][7] As of February 2015, an intravenous formulation of apimostinel has completed a phase IIa clinical trial for MDD.[5][8]

Similar to rapastinel (GLYX-13), its mechanism of action acts through a unique binding site on the NMDA receptor, independent of the glycine site, to modulate receptor activity and enhance NMDAR-mediated synaptic plasticity.[9] However, apimostinel is 1000-fold more potent in vitro and is intended as an improved, follow-up drug to rapastinel.[2][5] Similar to rapastinel, apimostinel is an amidated tetrapeptide, but has been structurally modified, via the addition of a benzyl group, to enhance its metabolic stability and pharmacokinetic profile. The drug has shown rapid and potent antidepressant effects in pre-clinical models of depression.[5] In addition, similarly to rapastinel, it is well tolerated and lacks the schizophrenia-like psychotomimetic effects of NMDA receptor antagonists such as ketamine.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ PR Newswire (2010). "Naurex's Novel Antidepressant GLYX-13 Recognized as One of Windhover's Top 10 Neuroscience Projects to Watch".
  2. ^ a b Henter ID, Park LT, Zarate CA (May 2021). "Novel Glutamatergic Modulators for the Treatment of Mood Disorders: Current Status". CNS Drugs. 35 (5): 527–543. doi:10.1007/s40263-021-00816-x. PMC 8201267. PMID 33904154.
  3. ^ Donello JE, Banerjee P, Li YX, Guo YX, Yoshitake T, Zhang XL, et al. (March 2019). "Positive N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Modulation by Rapastinel Promotes Rapid and Sustained Antidepressant-Like Effects". The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. 22 (3): 247–259. doi:10.1093/ijnp/pyy101. PMC 6403082. PMID 30544218.
  4. ^ Hayley S, Litteljohn D (November 2013). "Neuroplasticity and the next wave of antidepressant strategies". Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 7: 218. doi:10.3389/fncel.2013.00218. PMC 3834236. PMID 24312008.
  5. ^ a b c d e PR Newswire (2014). "Naurex Reports Positive Top-Line Phase 2b Results for Novel Antidepressant GLYX-13 and Advances NRX-1074 into Phase 2 Depression Study".
  6. ^ plc, Allergan. "Allergan Successfully Completes Naurex Acquisition". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
  7. ^ "Home - Gate Neurosciences". Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  8. ^ "Study of Intravenous NRX-1074 in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder". Clinicaltrials.gov. US National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  9. ^ Donello, John E.; Banerjee, Pradeep; Li, Yong-Xin; Guo, Yuan-Xing; Yoshitake, Takashi; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Miry, Omid; Kehr, Jan; Stanton, Patric K.; Gross, Amanda L.; Burgdorf, Jeffery S. (2019-03-01). "Positive N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Modulation by Rapastinel Promotes Rapid and Sustained Antidepressant-Like Effects". The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. 22 (3): 247–259. doi:10.1093/ijnp/pyy101. ISSN 1469-5111. PMC 6403082. PMID 30544218.

External links[edit]