From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Apistogramma bitaeniata.jpg
Apistogramma bitaeniata
Apistogramma hongsloi (m).jpg
Apistogramma hongsloi
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Cichlidae
Subfamily: Geophaginae
Genus: Apistogramma
Regan, 1913
Type species
Mesops taeniatus
Günther, 1862

Heterogramma Regan, 1906
Pintoichthys Fowler, 1954

Apistogramma is a genus of fish in the family Cichlidae found in South America. They are relatively small and belong among the dwarf cichlids. Most species are strongly sexually dimorphic, with males generally larger and differently coloured to females. In a few species this pattern is reverse. All species are micropredators. Their main prey items consist of fry of other fish, insect larvae and other invertebrates.[1] Brood care is highly developed, as in most cichlids. Nearly all species spawn in caves, typically under rocks or in holes in sunken logs or branches. In the recently described species A. barlowi both females and males are mouthbrooding. A number of breeding strategies exist. Some species breed in polygamous harems, while other species form monogamous pairs. In most cases, regardless of the breeding strategy, the female is more highly involved with brood care, whilst the male defends a territory from predators. The sex of the fry is affected by the water conditions, with warmer and more acid water favoring more males.


There are currently 92 recognized species in this genus:


  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2016). Species of Apistogramma in FishBase. October 2016 version.
  2. ^ Römer, U. & Hahn, I. (2013): Apistogramma aguarico sp. n.: A new species of geophagine cichlid fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) from the Ecuadorian and Peruvian río Napo system. Vertebrate Zoology, 63 (2): 171-181.
  3. ^ Römer, U., Beninde, J., Duponchelle, F., Vela Díaz, A., Ortega, H., Hahn, I., Soares, D.P., Díaz Cachay, C., García Dávila, C.R., Sirvas Cornejo, S. & Renno, J.-F. (2012): Description of Apistogramma allpahuayo sp. n., a new dwarf cichlid species (Teleostei: Perciformes: Geophaginae) from in and around the Reserva Nacional Allpahuayo Mishana, Loreto, Peru. Vertebrate Zoology, 62 (2): 189–212.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Mesa S., L.M. & Lasso, C.A. (2011). Revisión del género Apistogramma Regan, 1913 (Perciformes, Cichlidae) en la cuenca del río Orinoco. Serie Editorial Recursos Hidrobiológicos y Pesqueros Continentales de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. p. 192. ISBN 978-958-8343-64-8. 
  5. ^ Römer, U., Duponchelle, F., Vela Diaz, A., Garcia Davilla, C., Sirvas, S., Diaz Catchay, C. & Renno, J.-F. (2011): Apistogramma cinilabra sp. n.: Description of a potentially endangered endemic cichlid species (Teleostei: Perciformes: Cichlidae) from the Departamento Loreto, Peru. Vertebrate Zoology, 61 (1): 3-23.
  6. ^ a b Varella, H.R. & Britzke, R. (2016): Apistogramma eleutheria and A. flavipedunculata, two new species of dwarf cichlids from the rio Curuá on Serra do Cachimbo, Brazil (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 27 (1): 81-95.
  7. ^ a b c Römer, U., Soares, D.P., García Dávila, C.R., Duponchelle, F., Renno, J.-F. & Hahn, I. (2015): Re-description of Apistogramma payaminonis Kullander, 1986, with descriptions of two new cichlid species of the genus Apistogramma (Teleostei, Perciformes, Geophaginae) from northern Peru. Vertebrate Zoology, 65 (3): 305–332.
  8. ^ Schindler, I. & Staeck, W. (2013): Description of Apistogramma helkeri sp. n., a new geophagine dwarf cichlid (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the lower río Cuao (Orinoco drainage) in Venezuela. Vertebrate Zoology, 63 (3): 301-306.
  9. ^ Varella, H.R. & Sabaj Pérez, M.H. (2014): A titan among dwarfs: Apistogramma kullanderi, new species (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 25 (3): 243-258.
  10. ^ Mesa Salazar, L.M. & Lasso, C.A. (2011): Apistogramma megaptera (Perciformes: Cichlidae), una nueva especie para la cuenca del Orinoco. Biota Colombiana, 12 (1): 19-30.
  11. ^ Britzke, R., Oliveira, C. & Kullander, S.O. (2014): Apistogramma ortegai (Teleostei: Cichlidae), a new species of cichlid fish from the Ampyiacu River in the Peruvian Amazon basin. Zootaxa, 3869 (4): 409–419.
  12. ^ Römer, U., Beninde, J., Duponchelle, F., García Dávila, C.R., Vela Díaz, A. & Renno, J.-F. (2013): Description of Apistogramma paulmuelleri sp. n., a new geophagine cichlid species (Teleostei: Perciformes) from the Amazon river basin in Loreto, Peru. Vertebrate Zoology, 63 (1): 15-34.
  13. ^ Römer, U., Beninde, J. & Hahn, I. (2011): Apistogramma playayacu sp. n.: Description of a new cichlid species (Teleostei: Perciformes: Geophaginae) from the Rio Napo system, Ecuador. Vertebrate Zoology, 61 (3): 321-333.
  14. ^ Staeck, W. & Schindler, I. (2016): Apistogramma sororcula, a new dwarf cichlid (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the drainage of the rio Guaporé in Bolivia and Brazil. Vertebrate Zoology, 66 (2): 141-150.