|Directed by||Francis Coppola|
|Narration by||Michael Herr|
|Produced by||Francis Coppola|
|Distributed by||United Artists|
|147 minutes (70 mm) 153 minutes (35 mm) |
|Box office||$100–150 million|
Apocalypse Now is a 1979 American epic psychological war film directed and produced by Francis Ford Coppola. It stars Marlon Brando, Robert Duvall, Martin Sheen, Frederic Forrest, Albert Hall, Sam Bottoms, Laurence Fishburne, and Dennis Hopper. The screenplay, co-written by Coppola and John Milius with narration written by Michael Herr, is loosely based on the 1899 novella Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad, with the setting changed from late 19th-century Congo to the Vietnam War. The film follows a river journey from South Vietnam into Cambodia undertaken by Captain Benjamin L. Willard (Sheen), who is on a secret mission to assassinate Colonel Kurtz (Brando), a renegade Army Special Forces officer accused of murder and who is presumed insane.
Milius became interested in adapting Heart of Darkness for a Vietnam War setting in the late 1960s, and initially began developing the film with Coppola as producer and George Lucas as director. After Lucas became unavailable, Coppola took over directorial control, and was influenced by Werner Herzog's Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972) in his approach to the material. Initially set to be a five-month shoot, the film became noted for the problems encountered while making it for over a year, as chronicled in the documentary Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse (1991). These problems included expensive sets being destroyed by severe weather, Brando showing up on set overweight and completely unprepared, and Sheen having a breakdown and suffering a near-fatal heart attack while on location. Problems continued after production as the release was postponed several times while Coppola edited over a million feet of film.
Apocalypse Now was honored with the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival, where it premiered unfinished before it was finally released on August 15, 1979, by United Artists. The film performed well at the box office, grossing $40 million domestically and going on to gross over $100 million worldwide. Initial reviews were mixed; while Vittorio Storaro's cinematography was widely acclaimed, several critics found Coppola's handling of the story's major themes to be anticlimactic and intellectually disappointing.
Apocalypse Now is today widely considered one of the greatest films ever made. It was nominated for eight Academy Awards at the 52nd Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director (Coppola), and Best Supporting Actor for Duvall, and went on to win for Best Cinematography and Best Sound. It ranked No. 14 in Sight & Sound's greatest films poll in 2012, and No. 6 in the Director's Poll of greatest films of all time. Roger Ebert also included it in his top 10 list of greatest films ever in 2012.
During the Vietnam War, U.S. Army Special Forces Colonel Walter E. Kurtz has lost his moral compass and is waging a brutal guerrilla war against terrified NVA and PLAF forces without Pentagon authorization, direction or resupply. At an outpost in Cambodia, he commands a militia consisting of American and Montagnard troops who see him as a demigod.
Burnt out MACV-SOG operative Captain Benjamin L. Willard is summoned to I Field Force headquarters in Nha Trang. He is briefed on the situation by two Army commanders and a CIA officer, and ordered to "terminate Kurtz's command... with extreme prejudice".
Willard, initially ambivalent, joins a U.S. Navy river patrol boat (PBR) commanded by Chief Petty Officer "Chief" Phillips, with crewmen Lance, "Chef", and "Mr. Clean" to quietly navigate up the Nùng River to Kurtz's outpost. Before reaching the coastal mouth of the Nùng, they rendezvous with the 1st Squadron, 9th Cavalry Regiment, a helicopter-borne air assault unit commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Bill Kilgore, to discuss safe passage. Kilgore is initially uncooperative as he has not received word about their mission through normal channels, but he becomes more engaged after discovering that Lance is a well-known surfer. The commander is an avid surfer himself and agrees to escort them through the Nùng's Viet Cong-held coastal mouth. The helicopter squadron, playing "Ride of the Valkyries" on loudspeakers, raids at dawn, with Kilgore ordering a napalm strike on the Viet Cong. Before Kilgore can lure Lance out to surf on the newly conquered beach, Willard gathers the sailors to the PBR to continue their mission.
Tension arises as Willard believes himself in command of the PBR while Chief prioritizes routine patrol objectives over Willard's. Slowly making their way upriver, Willard partially reveals his mission to the Chief to assuage his concerns about why his mission should proceed. As Willard studies Kurtz's dossier, he is struck by the mid-career sacrifice Kurtz made by leaving a prestigious Pentagon assignment to join Special Forces, which afforded no prospect of advancing in rank past Colonel. The third-generation West Point graduate could have pursued more conventional command assignments to eventually rise to four-star general.
Weeks later, the PBR reaches the remote U.S. Army outpost by the Do Lung Bridge. Willard and Lance enter the outpost after nightfall, seeking information on what is upriver and receive a dispatch bag containing official and personal mail. Unable to find any commanding officer at Do Lung, Willard orders the Chief to continue as an unseen enemy assaults the bridge. Willard learns via the dispatch that another MACV-SOG operative, Special Forces Captain Richard Colby, was sent on an earlier mission identical to Willard's and has since joined Kurtz.[a]
As the crew read letters from home, Lance activates a smoke grenade while under the influence of LSD, attracting enemy attention from the tree line of the river, and Mr. Clean is killed. Further upriver, Chief is impaled by a spear thrown by Montagnards and attempts to kill Willard by impaling him on the spear point protruding from his own chest. Willard suffocates Chief and Lance buries him in the river. Willard reveals his mission to Chef, who is now in charge of the PBR. Chef is angered by the mission, but he insists that they complete it together.
The PBR arrives at Kurtz's outpost, located on the site of a long abandoned Angkor Empire temple compound, teeming with Montagnards and strewn with corpses and severed heads. Willard, Chef, and Lance are greeted by an American freelance photojournalist, who manically praises Kurtz's genius. As they wander through, they come across a near-catatonic Colby, along with other U.S. servicemen now in Kurtz's renegade army. Willard returns to the moored PBR to leave Chef with the boat, ordering him to call in a pre-arranged airstrike on the outpost if Willard and Lance do not return.
In the camp, Willard is subdued, bound, and brought before Kurtz in a darkened temple. Willard is detained for several days, during which time Kurtz kills Chef, preventing the airstrike. Willard is soon released and allowed to roam the compound. Kurtz lectures him on his theories of war, the human condition, and civilization, while praising the ruthlessness and dedication of his adversaries, the Viet Cong. Kurtz discusses his family and asks that Willard tell his son about him after his death.
That night, as the Montagnards ceremonially slaughter a water buffalo, Willard silently enters Kurtz's chamber as he is making a voice recording and attacks him with a tribal machete. Mortally wounded, Kurtz utters "... The horror ... the horror ..." and dies. All in the compound see Willard departing, carrying a collection of Kurtz's writings, and bow down to him. Willard then leads Lance to the boat and they sail away.
- Marlon Brando as Colonel Walter Kurtz, a highly decorated U.S. Army Special Forces officer with the 5th Special Forces Group who goes rogue. He runs his own military unit based in Cambodia and is feared as much by the U.S. military as by the North Vietnamese, Viet Cong and Khmer Rouge.
- Robert Duvall as Lieutenant Colonel William "Bill" Kilgore, 1st Squadron, 9th Cavalry Regiment commander and surfing fanatic. His character is a composite of several characters including Colonel John Stockton, General James F. Hollingsworth and George Patton IV, also a West Point officer whom Robert Duvall knew. Duvall reports that he was upset that a scene where Kilgore saves the life of a Vietnamese baby during the beach assault was cut by Coppola, as he felt that it added to the complexity of his character.
- Martin Sheen as U.S. Army Captain Benjamin Willard, a veteran assassin who has been serving in Vietnam for three years. The soldier who escorts him at the start of the film recites that Willard is from the 505th Battalion, of the elite 173rd Airborne Brigade, assigned to MACV-SOG. The opening scene—which features Willard staggering around his hotel room, culminating in him punching a mirror—was filmed on Sheen's 36th birthday when he was heavily intoxicated. The mirror that he broke was not a prop and caused his hand to bleed profusely, but he insisted on continuing the scene, despite Coppola's concerns. Sheen has said this performance where he writhes and smears himself in blood was spontaneous and was an exorcism of his longstanding alcoholism. Sheen's brother Joe Estevez stood in for Willard in some scenes and performed the character's voiceover narrations while his son Charlie appears in the film as an extra. Both went uncredited.
- Frederic Forrest as Engineman 3rd Class Jay "Chef" Hicks, a tightly wound former chef from New Orleans who is horrified by his surroundings.
- Albert Hall as Chief Petty Officer George Phillips. The Chief runs a tight ship and frequently clashes with Willard over authority.
- Sam Bottoms as Gunner's mate 3rd Class Lance B. Johnson, a former professional surfer from Orange County, California. In the bridge scene, he mentions having taken LSD. He becomes entranced by the Montagnard tribe and participates in the sacrifice ritual.
- Laurence Fishburne as Gunner's Mate 3rd Class Tyrone "Mr. Clean" Miller, the cocky seventeen-year-old South Bronx-born crewmember. Fishburne was only fourteen years old when shooting began in March 1976, as he had lied about his age in order to get cast in his role. The film took so long to finish that Fishburne was eighteen by the time of its release.
- Dennis Hopper as an American photojournalist, a manic disciple of Kurtz who greets Willard. According to the DVD commentary of Redux, the character is based on Sean Flynn, a famed news correspondent who disappeared in Cambodia in 1970. His dialogue follows that of the Russian "harlequin" in Conrad's story.
- G. D. Spradlin as Lieutenant General R. Corman, military intelligence (G-2), an authoritarian officer who fears Kurtz and wants him removed. The character is named after filmmaker Roger Corman, for whom Coppola had previously directed his early works.
- Jerry Ziesmer as Jerry, a mysterious man in civilian attire who sits in on Willard's initial briefing. His only line in the film is "terminate with extreme prejudice". Ziesmer also served as the film's assistant director.
- Harrison Ford as Colonel G. Lucas, aide to Corman and a general information specialist who gives Willard his orders. The character's name is a reference to George Lucas, who was involved in the script's early development with Milius and was originally intended to direct the film.
- Scott Glenn as Captain Richard M. Colby, previously assigned Willard's current mission before he defected to Kurtz's private army and sent a message to his wife, intercepted by the U.S. Army, telling her that he was never coming back and to sell everything they owned, including their children.
- Colleen Camp, Cynthia Wood and Linda Beatty as Playboy Playmates. Wood was the 1974 Playmate of the Year, and Beatty was the August 1976 Playmate of the Month.
- Bill Graham as Agent, the announcer in charge of the Playmates' show.
- Francis Ford Coppola (cameo) as a TV news director filming beach combat; he shouts "Don't look at the camera, go by like you're fighting!" Cinematographer Vittorio Storaro plays the cameraman by Coppola's side.
- Ronald Lee Ermey (uncredited) as a helicopter pilot. Ermey was himself a former USMC drill instructor and Vietnam War veteran, and later achieved fame for his role as Gunnery Sergeant Hartman in the 1987 film Full Metal Jacket.
Although inspired by Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, the film deviates extensively from its source material. The novella, based on Conrad's experience as a steamboat captain in Africa, is set in the Congo Free State during the 19th century. Kurtz and Marlow (whose corresponding character in the movie is Capt. Willard) work for a Belgian trading company that brutally exploits its native African workers.
After arriving at Kurtz's outpost, Marlow concludes that Kurtz has gone insane and is lording over a small tribe as a god. The novella ends with Kurtz dying on the trip back and the narrator musing about the darkness of the human psyche: "the heart of an immense darkness".
In the novella, Marlow is the pilot of a river boat sent to collect ivory from Kurtz's outpost, only gradually becoming infatuated with Kurtz. In fact, when he discovers Kurtz in terrible health, Marlow makes an effort to bring him home safely. In the film, Willard is an assassin dispatched to kill Kurtz. Nevertheless, the depiction of Kurtz as a god-like leader of a tribe of natives and his malarial fever, Kurtz's written exclamation "Exterminate all the brutes!" (which appears in the film as "Drop the bomb. Exterminate them all!") and his last words "The horror! The horror!" are taken from Conrad's novella.
Coppola argues that many episodes in the film—the spear and arrow attack on the boat, for example—respect the spirit of the novella and in particular its critique of the concepts of civilization and progress. Other episodes adapted by Coppola, the Playboy Playmates' (Sirens) exit, the lost souls, "take me home" attempting to reach the boat and Kurtz's tribe of (white-faced) natives parting the canoes (gates of Hell) for Willard, (with Chef and Lance) to enter the camp are likened to Virgil and "The Inferno" (Divine Comedy) by Dante. While Coppola replaced European colonialism with American interventionism, the message of Conrad's book is still clear.
It is often speculated that Coppola's interpretation of the Kurtz character was modeled after Tony Poe, a highly decorated Vietnam-era paramilitary officer from the CIA's Special Activities Division. Poe's actions in Vietnam and in the "Secret War" in neighboring Laos, in particular his highly unorthodox and often savage methods of waging war, show many similarities to those of the fictional Kurtz; for example, Poe was known to drop severed heads from helicopters into enemy-controlled villages as a form of psychological warfare and use human ears to record the number of enemies his indigenous troops had killed. He would send these ears back to his superiors as proof of the efficacy of his operations deep inside Laos. Coppola denies that Poe was a primary influence and says the character was loosely based on Special Forces Colonel Robert B. Rheault, who was the actual head of 5th Special Forces Group (May to July 1969), and whose 1969 arrest over the murder of suspected double agent Thai Khac Chuyen in Nha Trang generated substantial contemporary news coverage, in the Green Beret Affair, including making public the phrase "terminate with extreme prejudice", which was used prominently in the movie.
It is considered that the character of Lieutenant Colonel Bill Kilgore is based on several characters, including John B. Stockton, commander of the 1st Squadron, 9th Cavalry Regiment in Vietnam, and legendary infantry general James F. Hollingsworth.
Use of T.S. Eliot's poetry
In the film, shortly before Colonel Kurtz dies, he recites part of T. S. Eliot's poem "The Hollow Men". The poem is preceded in printed editions by the epigraph "Mistah Kurtz – he dead", a quotation from Conrad's Heart of Darkness.
Two books seen opened on Kurtz's desk in the film are From Ritual to Romance by Jessie Weston and The Golden Bough by Sir James Frazer, the two books that Eliot cited as the chief sources and inspiration for his poem "The Waste Land". Eliot's original epigraph for "The Waste Land" was this passage from Heart of Darkness, which ends with Kurtz's final words:
Did he live his life again in every detail of desire, temptation, and surrender during that supreme moment of complete knowledge? He cried in a whisper at some image, at some vision, – he cried out twice, a cry that was no more than a breath –"The horror! The horror!"
When Willard is first introduced to Dennis Hopper's character, the photojournalist describes his own worth in relation to that of Kurtz with: "I should have been a pair of ragged claws/Scuttling across the floors of silent seas", from "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock". Additionally, Dennis Hopper's character paraphrases the end of "The Hollow Men" to Martin Sheen's character: "This is the way the /expletive/ world ends! [...] Not with a bang, but with a whimper."
While working as an assistant for Francis Ford Coppola on The Rain People in 1967, filmmaker John Milius was encouraged by his friends George Lucas and Steven Spielberg to write a Vietnam War film. Milius had wanted to volunteer for the war, and was disappointed when he was rejected for having asthma. Milius came up with the idea for adapting the plot of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness to the Vietnam War setting. He had read the novel as a teenager and was reminded about it when his college English professor, Irwin Blacker of USC, mentioned the several unsuccessful attempts to adapt it into a movie. Blacker challenged his class by saying, "No screenwriter has ever perfected a film adaption of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness."[b]
Coppola gave Milius $15,000 to write the screenplay with the promise of an additional $10,000 if it were green-lit. Milius claims that he wrote the screenplay in 1969 He wanted to use Conrad's novel as "a sort of allegory. It would have been too simple to have followed the book completely." Some sources state that Milius' original title was The Psychedelic Soldier, but Milius disputed this in a 2010 interview, claiming Apocalypse Now was always the intended title.
Milius based the character of Willard and some of Kurtz's on a friend of his, Fred Rexer. Rexer claimed to have experienced, first-hand, the scene related by Brando's character wherein the arms of villagers are hacked off by the Viet Cong. Kurtz was based on Robert B. Rheault, head of Special Forces in Vietnam. Scholars have never found any evidence to corroborate Rexer's claim, nor any similar Viet Cong behavior, and consider it an urban legend. The title Apocalypse Now was inspired by a button badge popular with hippies during the 1960s that said "Nirvana Now".
At one point, Coppola told Milius, "Write every scene you ever wanted to go into that movie", and he wrote ten drafts, amounting to over a thousand pages. He was influenced by an article written by Michael Herr titled "The Battle for Khe Sanh", which referred to drugs, rock 'n' roll, and people calling airstrikes down on themselves. He was also inspired by such films as Dr. Strangelove.
Milius says the classic line "Charlie don't surf" was inspired by a comment Ariel Sharon made during the Six-Day War, when he went skin diving after capturing enemy territory and announced, "We're eating their fish". He says the line "I love the smell of napalm in the morning" just came to him.
Warner Bros.-Seven Arts acquired the screenplay in 1969 but put it into turnaround. Milius had no desire to direct the film himself and felt that Lucas was the right person for the job. Lucas worked with Milius for four years developing the film, alongside his work on other films, including his script for Star Wars. He approached Apocalypse Now as a black comedy, and intended to shoot the film after making THX 1138, with principal photography to start in 1971. Lucas's friend and producer Gary Kurtz traveled to the Philippines, scouting suitable locations. They intended to shoot the film both in the rice fields between Stockton and Sacramento, California, and on-location in South Vietnam, on a $2 million budget, cinéma vérité style, using 16 mm cameras, and real soldiers, while the war was still going on. However, due to the studios' safety concerns and Lucas's involvement with American Graffiti and Star Wars, Lucas decided to shelve the project for the time being.
Coppola was drawn to Milius's script and acquired the rights, which he described as "a comedy and a terrifying psychological horror story". In the spring of 1974, Coppola discussed with friends and co-producers Fred Roos and Gray Frederickson the idea of producing the film. He asked Lucas and then Milius to direct Apocalypse Now, but both were involved with other projects; in Lucas's case, he got the go-ahead to make Star Wars, and declined the offer to direct Apocalypse Now. Coppola was determined to make the film and pressed ahead himself. He envisioned the film as a definitive statement on the nature of modern war, the difference between good and evil, and the impact of American society on the rest of the world. The director said that he wanted to take the audience "through an unprecedented experience of war and have them react as much as those who had gone through the war".
In 1975, Coppola was hoping for co-operation from the United States Army and scouted military locations in Georgia and Florida. When the Army did not co-operate, while promoting The Godfather Part II in Australia, Coppola and his producers scouted possible locations for Apocalypse Now in Cairns in northern Queensland, that had jungle resembling Vietnam, and in Malaysia. He decided to make his film in the Philippines for its access to American military equipment and cheap labor. Production coordinator Fred Roos had already made two low-budget films there for Monte Hellman, and had friends and contacts in the country. Frederickson went to the Philippines and had dinner with President Ferdinand Marcos to formalize support for the production and to allow them to use some of the country's military equipment. Coppola spent the last few months of 1975 revising Milius's script and negotiating with United Artists to secure financing for the production. Milius claimed it would be the "most violent film ever made". According to Frederickson, the budget was estimated between $12 and 14 million. Coppola's American Zoetrope obtained $7.5 million from United Artists for domestic distribution rights and $8 million from international sales on the assumption that the film was going to star Marlon Brando, Steve McQueen and Gene Hackman.
Steve McQueen was Coppola's first choice to play Willard, but the actor did not accept because he did not want to leave America for three weeks and Coppola was unwilling to pay his $3 million fee. After McQueen dropped out in February 1976, Coppola had to return $5 million of the $21 million he had raised in financing. Al Pacino was also offered the role, but he too did not want to be away for that long and was afraid of falling ill in the jungle as he had done in the Dominican Republic during the shooting of The Godfather Part II. Jack Nicholson, Robert Redford, and James Caan were approached to play either Kurtz or Willard. Tommy Lee Jones, Keith Carradine, Nick Nolte, and Frederic Forrest were also considered for the role of Willard. In a 2015 The Hollywood Reporter interview, Clint Eastwood revealed that Coppola offered him the role of Willard, but much like McQueen and Pacino, he did not want to be away from America for a long time. Eastwood also revealed that McQueen tried to convince him to play Willard; McQueen wanted to play Kurtz because then he would only have to work for two weeks.
Coppola and Roos had been impressed by Martin Sheen's screen test for Michael in The Godfather and he became their top choice to play Willard, but the actor had already accepted another project and Harvey Keitel was cast in the role based on his work in Martin Scorsese's Mean Streets. By early 1976, Coppola had persuaded Marlon Brando to play Kurtz for a fee of $2 million for a month's work on location in September 1976. He also received 10% of the gross theatrical rental and 10% of the TV sale rights, earning him around $9 million.
Hackman had been due to play Wyatt Khanage, who later became Kilgore, played by Robert Duvall. Dennis Hopper was cast as a war correspondent and observer of Kurtz; when Coppola heard Hopper talking nonstop on location, he remembered putting "the cameras and the Montagnard shirt on him, and [shooting] the scene where he greets them on the boat". James Caan was the first choice to play Colonel Lucas. Caan wanted too much money for what was considered a minor part in the movie, and Harrison Ford was eventually cast instead.
Prior to departure for principal photography, Coppola took out an advertisement in the trade press declaring Keitel, Duvall and others as the "first choices" for the film. The advertisement also listed other actors who did not appear in the film, including Harry Dean Stanton, Robby Benson and Michael Learned.
Sam Bottoms, Larry Fishburne and Albert Hall all signed seven-year deals, with Coppola including acting training of their choice in their deal. Bottoms was infected with hookworm during filming in the Philippines, and the parasite "wrecked his liver".
On March 1, 1976, Coppola and his family flew to Manila and rented a large house there for the planned four-month shoot. Sound and photographic equipment had been coming in from California since late 1975. John Ashley assisted with production in the Philippines. The film was due to be released on Coppola's 38th birthday, April 7, 1977.
Shooting began on March 20, 1976. Within a few days, Coppola was unhappy with Harvey Keitel's take on Willard, saying that the actor "found it difficult to play him as a passive onlooker". With Brando not due to film until three months later as he did not want to work while his children were on school vacation, Keitel left the project in April and quit the seven-year deal he had signed as well. Coppola returned to Los Angeles and replaced Keitel with Martin Sheen, who arrived in the Philippines on April 24. Only four days of reshoots were reported to be required following the change.
Typhoon Olga wrecked 40-80% of the sets at Iba and on May 26, 1976, production was closed down. Dean Tavoularis remembers that it "started raining harder and harder until finally it was literally white outside, and all the trees were bent at forty-five degrees". One part of the crew was stranded in a hotel and the others were in small houses that were immobilized by the storm. The Playboy Playmate set had been destroyed, ruining a month's shooting that had been scheduled. Most of the cast and crew went back to the United States for six to eight weeks. Tavoularis and his team stayed on to scout new locations and rebuild the Playmate set in a different place. Also, the production had bodyguards watching constantly at night and one day the entire payroll was stolen. According to Coppola's wife, Eleanor, the film was six weeks behind schedule and $2 million over budget; Coppola filed a $500,000 insurance claim for typhoon damage and took out a loan from United Artists on the condition that if the film did not generate theatrical rentals of over $40 million, he would be liable for the overruns. Despite the increasing costs, Coppola promised the University of the Philippines Film Center 1% of the profits, up to $1 million, for a film study trust fund.
Coppola flew back to the U.S. in June 1976. He read a book about Genghis Khan to get a better handle on the character of Kurtz. After filming commenced in July 1976, Marlon Brando arrived in Manila very overweight and began working with Coppola to rewrite the ending. The director downplayed Brando's weight by dressing him in black, photographing only his face, and having another, taller actor double for him in an attempt to portray Kurtz as an almost mythical character.
A water buffalo was slaughtered with a machete for the climactic scene in a ritual performed by a local Ifugao tribe, which Coppola had previously witnessed along with his wife Eleanor (who filmed the ritual later shown in the documentary Hearts of Darkness) and film crew. Although this was an American production subject to American animal cruelty laws, scenes like this filmed in the Philippines were not policed or monitored and the American Humane Association gave the film an "unacceptable" rating.
After Christmas 1976, Coppola viewed a rough assembly of the footage but still needed to improvise an ending. He returned to the Philippines in early 1977 and resumed filming.
On March 5 of that year, Sheen (then only 36 years old) had a heart attack and struggled for a quarter of a mile to reach help. By that time, the film was already so over-budget, even he worried funding would be halted if word about his condition were to reach the investors, and claimed he suffered heat stroke instead. He was back on the set on April 19, and during the interim, his brother Joe Estevez filled in for him and provided voice overs needed for his character. Coppola later admitted that he can no longer tell which scenes are Joe and which are Martin. A major sequence in a French plantation cost hundreds of thousands of dollars but was cut from the final film. Rumors began to circulate that Apocalypse Now had several endings but Richard Beggs, who worked on the sound elements, said, "There were never five endings, but just the one, even if there were differently edited versions". These rumors came from Coppola departing frequently from the original screenplay. Coppola admitted that he had no ending because Brando was too fat to play the scenes as written in the original script. With the help of Dennis Jakob, Coppola decided that the ending could be "the classic myth of the murderer who gets up the river, kills the king, and then himself becomes the king – it's the Fisher King, from The Golden Bough". Principal photography ended on May 21, 1977, after 238 days of filming.
Post-production and audio
The budget had doubled to over $25 million, and Coppola's loan from United Artists to fund the overruns had been extended to over $10 million. UA took out a $15 million life insurance policy for Coppola. By June 1977, Coppola had offered his car, house, and The Godfather profits as security to finish the film. After Star Wars became a gigantic hit, Coppola sent a telegram to George Lucas asking for money. The release date was pushed back to spring 1978.
Japanese composer Isao Tomita was scheduled to provide an original score, with Coppola desiring the film's soundtrack to sound like Tomita's electronic adaptation of The Planets by Gustav Holst. Tomita went as far as to accompany the film crew in the Philippines, but label contracts ultimately prevented his involvement. In the summer of 1977, Coppola told Walter Murch that he had four months to assemble the sound. Murch realized that the script had been narrated but Coppola abandoned the idea during filming. Murch thought that there was a way to assemble the film without narration but it would take ten months and decided to give it another try. He put it back in, recording it all himself. By September, Coppola told his wife that he felt "there is only about a 20% chance [I] can pull the film off". He convinced United Artists executives to delay the premiere from May to October 1978. The author Michael Herr received a call from Zoetrope in January 1978 and was asked to work on the film's narration based on his well-received book about Vietnam, Dispatches. Herr said that the narration already written was "totally useless" and spent a year writing various narrations with Coppola giving him very definite guidelines.
Murch had problems trying to make a stereo soundtrack for Apocalypse Now because sound libraries had no stereo recordings of weapons. The sound material brought back from the Philippines was inadequate, because the small location crew lacked the time and resources to record jungle sounds and ambient noises. Murch and his crew fabricated the mood of the jungle on the soundtrack. Apocalypse Now had novel sound techniques for a movie, as Murch insisted on recording the most up-to-date gunfire and employed the Dolby Stereo 70 mm Six Track system for the 70 mm release. This used two channels of sound from behind the audience as well as three channels of sound from behind the movie screen. The 35 mm release used the new Dolby Stereo optical stereo system but due to the limitations of the technology at the time, this 35 mm release that played in the majority of theaters did not include any surround sound. In May 1978, Coppola postponed the opening until spring of 1979. The cost overruns had reached $18 million which Coppola was personally liable for but obtained the rights to the picture in perpetuity.
Problems while filming
Real human corpses were bought from a man who turned out to be a grave-robber. The police took the film crew's passports and questioned them, and then soldiers came and took the bodies away.
At times, Dennis Hopper tormented Marlon Brando, leading Brando to refuse to be on the set at the same time as Hopper.
In April 1979, Coppola screened a "work in progress" for 900 people that was not well received. That same year, he was invited to screen Apocalypse Now at the Cannes Film Festival. United Artists was not keen on showing an unfinished version in front of so many members of the press. Since his 1974 film The Conversation won the Palme d'Or, Coppola agreed to screen Apocalypse Now with only a month before the festival.
The week prior to Cannes, Coppola arranged three sneak previews of a 139-minute cut in Westwood, Los Angeles on May 11 attended by 2,000 paying customers, some of whom lined up for over 6 hours. Other cuts shown during 1979 ran 150 and 165 minutes. The film was also shown at the White House for Jimmy Carter on May 10. Coppola allowed critics to attend the L.A. screenings and believed that they would honor the embargo not to review the work in progress. On May 14, Rona Barrett previewed the film on television on Good Morning America and called it "a disappointing failure". As Variety considered the embargo broken, it published its review the following day in Daily Variety saying it was "worth the wait" and called it a "brilliant and bizarre film" and noted that it was the first "70mm presentation without credits", for which Coppola obtained permission from the various guilds (Screen Actors Guild, Directors Guild, and Writers Guild of America) and instead provided a program with the credits. The title appeared scrawled on a wall on a temple in the last third of the film. Daily Variety reported that the first, 8 p.m. screening was received with "limited, if enthusiastic, applause".
At Cannes, Zoetrope technicians worked during the night before the screening to install additional speakers on the theater walls, to achieve Murch's 5.1 soundtrack. A three-hour version of Apocalypse Now was screened as a work in progress at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival on Saturday, May 19, 1979 and met with prolonged applause. It was the first work in progress shown in competition at the festival. At the subsequent press conference, Coppola criticized the media for releasing reviews of the work in progress and for attacking him and the production during their problems filming in the Philippines and said, "We had access to too much money, too much equipment, and little by little we went insane", and "My film is not about Vietnam, it is Vietnam". The filmmaker upset newspaper critic Rex Reed who reportedly stormed out of the conference. Apocalypse Now won the Palme d'Or for best film along with Volker Schlöndorff's The Tin Drum – a decision that was reportedly greeted with "some boos and jeers from the audience".
On August 15, 1979 Apocalypse Now was released in North America in only three theaters equipped to play the Dolby Stereo 70 mm prints with stereo surround sound, – the Ziegfeld Theatre in New York City, the Cinerama Dome in Los Angeles and the University Theatre in Toronto. The film, without credits, ran 147 minutes and tickets cost $5, a new high for L.A.
It ran exclusively in these three locations for four weeks before opening in an additional 12 theaters on October 3, 1979. On October 10, 1979, the 35 mm version, with credits, was released in over 300 theatres.
The film had a $9 million advertising campaign bringing total costs to $45 million.
Alternative and varied endings
At the time of its release, discussion and rumors circulated about the supposed various endings for Apocalypse Now. Coppola said the original ending was written in haste, where Kurtz convinced Willard to join forces and together they repelled the air strike on the compound. Coppola said he never fully agreed with Kurtz and Willard dying in fatalistic explosive intensity, preferring to end the film in a more encouraging manner.
When Coppola originally organized the ending, he considered two significantly different ends to the movie. One involved Willard leading Lance by the hand as everyone in Kurtz's base throws down their weapons, and ends with images of Willard piloting the PBR slowly away from Kurtz's compound, this final scene superimposed over the face of a stone idol, which then fades into black. The other option showed an air strike being called and the base being blown to bits in a spectacular display, consequently killing everyone left within it.
The original 1979 70mm exclusive theatrical release ended with Willard's boat, the stone statue, then fade to black with no credits, save for '"Copyright 1979 Omni Zoetrope"' right after the film ends. This mirrors the lack of any opening titles and supposedly stems from Coppola's original intention to "tour" the film as one would a play: the credits would have appeared on printed programs provided before the screening began.
There have been, to date, many variations of the end credit sequence, beginning with the 35 mm general release version, where Coppola elected to show the credits superimposed over shots of the jungle exploding into flames. The explosions were from the detonation of the sets. Rental prints circulated with this ending, and can be found in the hands of a few collectors. Some versions of this had the subtitle "A United Artists release", while others had "An Omni Zoetrope release". The network television version of the credits ended with "... from MGM/UA Entertainment Company" (the film made its network debut shortly after the merger of MGM and UA). One variation of the end credits can be seen on both YouTube and as a supplement on the current Lionsgate Blu-ray.
Later when Coppola heard that audiences interpreted this as an air strike called by Willard, Coppola pulled the film from its 35 mm run and put credits on a black screen. The "air strike" footage continued to circulate in repertory theaters well into the 1980s, and it was included in the 1980s LaserDisc release. In the DVD commentary, Coppola explains that the images of explosions had not been intended to be part of the story; they were intended to be seen as completely separate from the film. He had added the explosions to the credits as a graphic background to the credits.
Coppola explained he had shot the footage during demolition of the sets (set destruction and removal was required by the Philippine government). Coppola filmed the demolition with cameras fitted with different film stocks and lenses to capture the explosions at different speeds. He wanted to do something with the dramatic footage and decided to add them to the credits.
The film was re-released on August 28, 1987, in six cities to capitalize on the success of Platoon, Full Metal Jacket, and other Vietnam War movies. New 70 mm prints were shown in Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Jose, Seattle, St. Louis and Cincinnati – cities where the film did financially well in 1979. The film was given the same kind of release as the exclusive engagement in 1979, with no logo or credits and audiences were given a printed program.
On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, Apocalypse Now holds an approval rating of 98% based on 96 reviews, with an average rating of 9/10. The website's critics consensus reads: "Francis Ford Coppola's haunting, hallucinatory Vietnam War epic is cinema at its most audacious and visionary." Metacritic, which uses a weighted average, assigned the film a score of 94 out of 100 based on 15 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".
Upon its release, Apocalypse Now received mixed reviews. In his original review, Roger Ebert wrote: "Apocalypse Now achieves greatness not by analyzing our 'experience in Vietnam', but by re-creating, in characters and images, something of that experience." and named it "The best film of 1980". In his review for the Los Angeles Times, Charles Champlin wrote: 'as a noble use of the medium and as a tireless expression of national anguish, it towers over everything that has been attempted by an American filmmaker in a very long time.' Other reviews were less positive; Frank Rich, writing for Time said: 'While much of the footage is breathtaking, Apocalypse Now is emotionally obtuse and intellectually empty.' Vincent Canby argued: 'Mr. Coppola himself describes it as 'operatic', but...Apocalypse Now is neither a tone poem nor an opera. It's an adventure yarn with delusions of grandeur, a movie that ends — in the all-too-familiar words of the poet Mr. Coppola drags in by the bootstraps — not with a bang, but a whimper.'
Ebert added Coppola's film to his list of The Great Movies, stating: "Apocalypse Now is the best Vietnam film, one of the greatest of all films, because it pushes beyond the others, into the dark places of the soul. It is not about war so much as about how war reveals truths we would be happy never to discover."
Commentators have debated whether Apocalypse Now is an anti-war or pro-war film. Some evidence of the film's anti-war message includes the purposeless brutality of the war, the absence of military leadership, and the imagery of machinery destroying nature. Advocates of a pro-war stance view these same elements as a glorification of war and the assertion of American supremacy. According to Frank Tomasulo, 'the US foisting its culture on Vietnam', including the destruction of a village so that soldiers could surf, affirms the film's pro-war message. Anthony Swofford recounted how his marine platoon watched Apocalypse Now before being sent to Iraq in 1990 to get excited for war. Nidesh Lawtoo illustrates the ambiguity of the film by focusing on the contradictory responses the movie in general – and the "Ride of the Valkyries" scene in particular – triggered in a university classroom. According to Coppola, the film may be considered anti-war, but is even more anti-lie: '... the fact that a culture can lie about what's really going on in warfare, that people are being brutalized, tortured, maimed, and killed, and somehow present this as moral is what horrifies me, and perpetuates the possibility of war'.
In May 2011, a new restored digital print of Apocalypse Now was released in UK cinemas, distributed by Optimum Releasing. Total Film magazine gave the film a five-star review, stating: 'This is the original cut rather than the 2001 'Redux' (be gone, jarring French plantation interlude!), digitally restored to such heights you can, indeed, get a nose full of the napalm.'
Apocalypse Now performed well at the box office when it opened on August 15, 1979. The film initially opened in three theaters in New York City, Toronto, and Hollywood, grossing $322,489 in the first five days. The film grossed over $40 million domestically with a worldwide total of over $100 million.
Today, the movie is regarded by many as a masterpiece of the New Hollywood era. Roger Ebert considered it to be the finest film on the Vietnam War and included it on his list for the 2002 Sight & Sound poll for the greatest movie of all time. In the 2002 Sight & Sound director's poll of the "greatest films of all time", the film was ranked at No. 19. It is on the American Film Institute's 100 Years...100 Movies list at number 28, but it dropped two to number 30 on their 10th anniversary list. Kilgore's quote, "I love the smell of napalm in the morning", written by Milius, was number 12 on the AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movie Quotes list and was also voted the greatest movie speech of all time in a 2004 poll. In 2006, Writers Guild of America ranked the film's screenplay (Written by John Milius and Francis Ford Coppla) the 55th greatest ever. It is listed at number 7 on Empire's 2008 list of the 500 greatest movies of all time. Empire re-ranked the film at #20 in their 2014 list of The 301 Greatest Movies of All Time, and again at #22 on their 2018 list of The 100 Greatest Movies. The film was Voted at No. 66 on the list of "100 Greatest Films" by the prominent French magazine Cahiers du cinéma in 2008. In 2010, The Guardian named Apocalypse Now "the best action and war film of all time". In 2016, The Hollywood Reporter ranked the film 11th among 69 counted winners of the Palme d'Or to date. The New York Times placed the film on its Best 1000 Movies Ever list. Entertainment Weekly ranked Apocalypse Now as having one of the "10 Best Surfing Scenes" in cinema.
In 2002, Sight and Sound magazine invited several critics to name the best film of the last 25 years and Apocalypse Now was named number one. It was also listed as the second best war film by viewers on Channel 4's 100 Greatest War Films and was the second rated war movie of all time based on the Movifone list (after Schindler's List) and the IMDb War movie list (after The Longest Day). It is ranked number 1 on Channel 4's 50 Films to See Before You Die. In a 2004 poll of UK film fans, Blockbuster listed Kilgore's eulogy to napalm as the best movie speech. The helicopter attack scene with the Ride of the Valkyries soundtrack was chosen as the most memorable film scene ever by Empire magazine (this same piece of music was also used in 1915 to similar effect to accompany The Birth of a Nation). This scene is recalled in one of the last acts of the 2012 video game Far Cry 3 as the song is played while the character shoots from a helicopter. It was likewise adapted for the Cat's Eye anime episode "From Runan Island with Love" and the Battle of Italica scene in Gate: Jieitai Kano Chi nite, Kaku Tatakaeri.
In 2011, actor Charlie Sheen, son of the film's leading actor Martin, started playing clips from the film on his live tour and played the film in its entirety during post-show parties. One of Sheen's films, the 1993 comedy Hot Shots! Part Deux, includes a brief scene in which Charlie is riding a boat up a river in Iraq while on a rescue mission and passes Martin, as Captain Willard, going the other way. As they pass, each man shouts to the other "I loved you in Wall Street!", referring to the 1987 film that had featured both of them. Additionally, the promotional material for Hot Shots! Part Deux included a mockumentary that aired on HBO titled Hearts of Hot Shots! Part Deux—A Filmmaker's Apology, in parody of the 1991 documentary Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse, about the making of Apocalypse Now.
The film is credited with having created the Philippines surfing culture based around the town of Baler where the helicopter attack and surfing sequences were filmed. Apocalypse Now was included in BBC's 2015 list of the 100 greatest American films.
On January 25, 2017, Coppola announced that he was seeking funding through Kickstarter for a horror role-playing video game based on Apocalypse Now. The game has since been canceled by Montgomery Markland (the game's director), as revealed on the game's official Tumblr page.
The Sympathizer, a Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Vietnamese-American author Viet Thanh Nguyen, features a subplot that Nguyen describes as a critique of Apocalypse Now. Nguyen told the New York Times that “Apocalypse Now is an important work of art. But that doesn’t mean I’m going to bow down before it. I’m going to fight with it because it fought with me.” Nguyen said that the film centers American perspectives of the war over Vietnamese experiences, and was especially critical of the scene where all the passengers of a boat are killed by the traveling party: “People just like me were being slaughtered. I felt violated.”
Awards and honors
- American Film Institute lists
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies – No. 28
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes:
- "I love the smell of napalm in the morning." – No. 12
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) – No. 30
Apocalypse Now Redux
In 2001, Coppola released Apocalypse Now Redux in cinemas and subsequently on DVD. This is an extended version that restores 49 minutes of scenes cut from the original film. Coppola has continued to circulate the original version as well: the two versions are packaged together in the Complete Dossier DVD, released on August 15, 2006, and in the Blu-ray edition released on October 19, 2010.
The longest section of added footage in the Redux version is the "French Plantation" sequence, a chapter involving the de Marais family's rubber plantation, a holdover from the colonization of French Indochina, featuring Coppola's two sons Gian-Carlo and Roman as children of the family. Around the dinner table, a young French child recites a poem by Charles Baudelaire entitled L'albatros. The French family patriarch is not satisfied with the child's recitation. The child is sent away. These scenes were removed from the 1979 cut, which premiered at Cannes. In behind-the-scenes footage in Hearts of Darkness, Coppola expresses his anger, on the set, at the technical limitations of the scenes, the result of shortage of money. At the time of the Redux version, it was possible to digitally enhance the footage to accomplish Coppola's vision. In the scenes, the French family patriarchs argue about the positive side of colonialism in Indochina and denounce the betrayal of the military men in the First Indochina War. Hubert de Marais argues that French politicians sacrificed entire battalions at Điện Biên Phủ, and tells Willard that the US created the Viet Cong (as the Viet Minh) to fend off Japanese invaders.
Other added material includes extra combat footage before Willard meets Kilgore, a scene in which Willard's team steals Kilgore's surfboard (which sheds some light on the hunt for the mangoes), a follow-up scene to the dance of the Playboy Playmates, in which Willard's team finds the Playmates stranded after their helicopter has run out of fuel (trading two barrels of fuel for two hours with the Bunnies), and a scene of Kurtz reading from a Time magazine article about the war, surrounded by Cambodian children.
A deleted scene titled "Monkey Sampan" shows Willard and the PBR crew suspiciously eyeing an approaching sampan juxtaposed to Montagnard villagers joyfully singing "Light My Fire" by The Doors. As the sampan gets closer, Willard realizes there are monkeys on it and no helmsman. Finally, just as the two boats pass, the wind turns the sail and exposes a naked dead Viet Cong (VC) nailed to the sail boom. His body is mutilated and looks as though the man had been flogged and castrated. The singing stops. As they pass on by, Chief notes out loud, "That's comin' from where we goin', Captain." The boat then slowly passes the giant tail of a shot down B-52 bomber as the noise of engines high in the sky is heard. Coppola said that he made up for cutting this scene by having the PBR pass under an aircraft tail in the final cut.
A 289-minute First Assembly circulates as a video bootleg, containing extra material not included in either the original theatrical release or the "redux" version.
Apocalypse Now Final Cut
In April 2019, Coppola showed Apocalypse Now Final Cut for the 40th anniversary screening at the Tribeca Film Festival. This new version is Coppola's preferred version of the film and has a runtime of three hours and three minutes, with Coppola having cut 20 minutes of the added material from Redux; the scenes deleted include the second encounter with the Playmates, parts of the plantation sequence, and Kurtz's reading of Time magazine. It is also the first time the film has been restored from the original camera negative at 4K; previous transfers were made from an interpositive. It was released in autumn 2019, along with an extended cut of The Cotton Club. It also had a release in select IMAX theaters on August 15 and 18, 2019.
In terms of early days of the movie on home media, Apocalypse Now was released on VHS and Betamax in 1981, on both Stereo and Mono sound releases - the Stereo release being on one tape, the Mono release (which is much rarer) placed on two VHS tapes (an 82 minute first tape and a 71 minute second tape). Betamax was only on two tapes due to its restrictions. Over the years, the improvement of movies on VHS would allow for Hi-Fi sound and better visual quality.
Unlike most Paramount Home Video titles that were once released on two VHS tapes (such as Ragtime), Apocalypse Now would not be released on two VHS tapes again in its original rendition, although the Redux would inevitably be released on two tapes due to its length.
The first home video releases of Apocalypse Now were pan-and-scan versions of the original 35 mm Technovision anamorphic 2.39:1 print, and the closing credits, white on black background, were presented in compressed 1.33:1 full-frame format to allow all credit information to be seen on standard televisions. The first letterboxed appearance, on Laserdisc on December 29, 1991, cropped the film to a 2:1 aspect ratio (conforming to the Univisium spec created by cinematographer Vittorio Storaro), and included a small degree of pan-and-scan processing at the insistence of Coppola and Storaro. The end credits, from a videotape source rather than a film print, were still crushed for 1.33:1 and zoomed to fit the anamorphic video frame. All DVD releases have maintained this aspect ratio in anamorphic widescreen, but present the film without the end credits, which were treated as a separate feature. The Blu-ray releases of Apocalypse Now restore the film to a 2.39:1 aspect ratio, making it the first home video release to display the film in its original theatrical aspect ratio.
As a DVD extra, the footage of the explosion of the Kurtz compound was featured without text credits but included commentary by Coppola, explaining the various endings based on how the film was screened.
On the cover of the Redux DVD, Willard is erroneously listed as "Lieutenant Willard".
Lionsgate released a 6-disc 40th anniversary edition on August 27, 2019. It includes two 4K Ultra HD Blu-ray discs and four standard Blu-ray discs, containing the theatrical version, Redux, and the Final Cut featuring 4K restorations from the original camera negative. Previous extras (including the Hearts of Darkness documentary) have been re-used for this release, along with brand new content including a Tribeca Film Festival Q&A with Francis Ford Coppola and Steven Soderbergh and never-before-seen B-roll footage.
Apocalypse Now – The Complete Dossier DVD (Paramount Home Entertainment) (2006). Disc 2 extras include:
- The Post Production of Apocalypse Now: Documentary (four featurettes covering the editing, music, and sound of the film through Coppola and his team)
- "A Million Feet of Film: The Editing of Apocalypse Now" (18 minutes). Written and directed by Kim Aubry.
- "The Music of Apocalypse Now" (15 minutes)
- "Heard Any Good Movies Lately? The Sound Design of Apocalypse Now" (15 minutes)
- "The Final Mix" (3 minutes)
- Heart of Darkness, Nicolas Roeg's 1993 film adaptation of the Conrad novel.
- List of films considered the best
- A few days before Willard received this dispatch, Chief had told him that about six months prior to Willard's mission, he (Chief) had taken another man north of the Do Long Bridge. Chief had heard this man shot himself in the head.
- However, filmmaker Carroll Ballard claims that Apocalypse Now was his idea in 1967 before Milius had written his screenplay. Ballard had a deal with producer Joel Landon and they tried to get the rights to Conrad's book but were unsuccessful. Lucas acquired the rights but failed to tell Ballard and Landon.
- Tied with Melvyn Douglas for Being There.
- Pollock, Dale (May 23, 1979). "An Archival Detailing Of UA's 'Apocalypse Now' Since 1967 Start". Variety. p. 5.
- "APOCALYPSE NOW". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved December 20, 2014. Retrieved December 3, 2017
- Appelo, Tim (August 30, 2014). "Telluride: Francis Ford Coppola Spills 'Apocalypse Now' Secrets on 35th Anniversary". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on September 2, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
- Cowie 1990, p. 132.
- Hinson, Hal (January 17, 1992). "'Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse'". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
- "The Best War Movies". Empire. June 4, 2020. Archived from the original on November 2, 2020. Retrieved November 4, 2020.
- Peary, Gerald. "Francis Ford Coppola, Interview with Gerald Peary". Gerald Peary. Archived from the original on December 17, 2006. Retrieved March 14, 2007.
- McNary, Dave (January 4, 2019). "Richard Marks, 'Apocalypse Now,' 'Terms of Endearment' Editor, Dies at 75". Variety. Archived from the original on February 9, 2019. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
- "Critics' top 100". bfi.org.uk. Archived from the original on October 26, 2013. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- "Directors' top 100". bfi.org.uk. Archived from the original on April 24, 2019. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
- "THE GREATEST FILMS OF ALL TIME". Archived from the original on June 18, 2019. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- "Complete National Film Registry Listing". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on October 31, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
- "Librarian of Congress Names 25 More Films to National Film Registry". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
- French, Karl (1998) Apocalypse Now, Bloomsbury, London. ISBN 978-0-7475-3804-2
- "Robert Duvall (Apocalypse Now), 1991". YouTube. February 23, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2021.
- Appelo, Tim (August 30, 2014). "Telluride: Francis Ford Coppola Spills 'Apocalypse Now' Secrets on 35th Anniversary". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on September 2, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
- "Martin Sheen (Apocalypse Now)". YouTube. February 23, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2021.
- DeadBySense, Joe Estevez shares an incredible story., archived from the original on March 7, 2016, retrieved October 10, 2019
- Cowie 2001, p. 19.
- Murfin, Ross C (ed.) (1989): Joseph Conrad: Heart of Darkness. A Case Study in Contemporary Criticism. Boston: St. Martin's Press, pp. 3–16.
- "Heart of Darkness & Apocalypse Now: A comparative analysis of novella and film". Cyberpat.com. Archived from the original on January 3, 2010. Retrieved March 6, 2010.
- Leary, William L. "Death of a Legend". Air America Archive. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
- Warner, Roger. Shooting at the Moon.
- Ehrlich, Richard S. (July 8, 2003). "CIA operative stood out in 'secret war' in Laos". Bangkok Post. Archived from the original on August 6, 2009. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
- Isaacs, Matt (November 17, 1999). "Agent Provocative". SF Weekly. Archived from the original on June 12, 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2009.
- Smith, Terence (August 14, 1969). "Details of Green Beret Case Are Reported in Saigon" (PDF). The New York Times. pp. 1–2. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
His status as a double agent was reportedly confirmed by the Central Intelligence Agency, which, according to the sources, suggested that he either be isolated or 'terminated with extreme prejudice.' This term is said to be an intelligence euphemism for execution.
- "Anatomy Of A Scene: Apocalypse Now". Archived from the original on October 29, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2020.
- Davidson, Harriet. "Improper desire: reading The Waste Land" in Anthony David Moody (ed.). The Cambridge companion to T. S. Eliot. Cambridge University Press, 1995, p. 121.
- "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T. S. Eliot". August 24, 2021.
- "Apocalypse Now – Dennis Hopper: Photojournalist". imdb.com. Retrieved October 7, 2021.
- Cowie 2001, p. 2.
- Ken Plume, "Interview with John Milius", IGN, 7 May 2003 Archived February 16, 2013, at archive.today. Retrieved January 5, 2012
- Cowie 1990, p. 120.
- DeadBySense, Apocalypse Now – Interview with John Milius, archived from the original on May 29, 2019, retrieved December 9, 2018
- Cowie 2001, p. 5.
- *Medavoy, Mike with Josh Young, You're Only as Good as Your Next One, Astria, 2002 p 8
- Cowie 2001, p. 3.
- DeadBySense, Apocalypse Now – Interview with John Milius, archived from the original on May 29, 2019, retrieved December 5, 2020
- Charles Higham (May 15, 1977). "Coppola's Vietnam Movie Is a Battle Royal: Francis Ford Coppola's Battle Royal". The New York Times. p. 77.
- "Apocryphal Viet-Cong Attrocity Story – Vietnam Studies Group". sites.google.com. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
- "Welcome to MarkFreemanFilms.com" (PDF). www-rohan.sdsu.edu. Archived from the original on November 14, 2020. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
- "17 Facts About Apocalypse Now On Its 40th Anniversary". Mental Floss. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- Cowie 2001, p. 7.
- Thom Patterson, "Apocalypse writer: Most scripts today 'are garbage' " Archived February 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, CNN, March 9, 2009. Retrieved 2012
- Apocalypse Now at the American Film Institute Catalog
- Lucas, George (2004). A Legacy of Filmmakers: The Early Years of American Zoetrope (DVD). Warner Bros. Home Video.
- Marcus Hearn (2005). The Cinema of George Lucas. New York City: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. pp. 79–80. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7.
- Cowie 1990, p. 122.
- Cowie 1990, p. 121.
- Cowie 2001, p. 6.
- Cowie 2001, p. 12.
- Cowie 2001, p. 16.
- Cowie 2001, p. 13.
- Tapp, Tom (May 25, 2001). "Review: 'The Apocalypse Now Book'". Variety. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
- "Clint Eastwood Describes His Near-Death Experience, Says 'American Sniper' Is Anti-War (Exclusive)". March 16, 2015. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
- "Apocalypse Now". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.
- Bettinger, Brendan (April 28, 2010). "What If Lee Marvin Starred In a Brando-less Apocalypse Now?". Collider. Retrieved October 8, 2021.
- Goldstein, Patrick (July 31, 2001). "'Apocalypse,' Now and Then". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 8, 2021.
- Cowie 2001, p. 18.
- "New York Sound Track". Variety. November 21, 1979. p. 37.
- Ascher-Walsh, Rebecca (July 2, 2004). "Millions for Marlon Brando". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- Biskind 1998, p. 132.
- Vagg, Stephen (December 2019). "A Hell of a Life: The Nine Lives of John Ashley". Diabolique Magazine. Archived from the original on December 30, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
- Biskind 1998, p. 348.
- Cowie 1990, p. 123.
- Biskind 1998, p. 352.
- Cowie 1990, p. 124.
- AmericanHumane. "Apocalypse Now". humanehollywood.org. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- DeadBySense, Apocalypse Now – Conversation Martin Sheen and Francis Ford Coppola Rus sub, archived from the original on December 6, 2018, retrieved December 9, 2018
- Cowie 1990, p. 125.
- Cowie 1990, p. 126.
- Biskind 1998, p. 361.
- Harmetz, Aljean (August 20, 1987). "Apocalypse Now to Be Re-released". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved November 24, 2008.
- Biskind 1998, p. 336-337, 343.
- "Isao Tomita (2014 RBMA Tokyo Lecture)". YouTube. November 13, 2014. Archived from the original on April 25, 2016. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
- Cowie 1990, p. 126-7.
- Cowie 1990, p. 127.
- Eric Dienstfrey (2016). "The Myth of the Speakers: A Critical Reexamination of Dolby History". Film History. Film HIstory: An International Journal. 28 (1): 167–193. doi:10.2979/filmhistory.28.1.06. JSTOR 10.2979/filmhistory.28.1.06. S2CID 192940527.
- Cowie 1990, p. 128.
- Poll (May 16, 1979). "Film Reviews: Apocalyspe Now". Variety. p. 21.
- "The strained making of 'Apocalypse Now'". The Independent. July 24, 2009. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- "Marlon Brando and Dennis Hopper Nearly Came to Blows on 'Apocalypse Now'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on August 9, 2020. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- Cowie 1990, p. 129.
- Archerd, Army (May 14, 1979). "Just For Variety". Daily Variety. p. 3.
- Pollock, Dale (May 14, 1979). "'This Is My Version,' Says Coppola At 'Apocalypse' Bow". Daily Variety. p. 3.
- Cowie 1990, p. 130.
- "Sweeping Cannes". Time. June 4, 1979. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved November 22, 2008.
- Dienstfrey 2016, p. 171
- Cowie 1990, p. 131.
- Destruction of the Kurtz Compound w/ commentary by director Francis Ford Coppola [DVD Extras]. Apocalypse Now Redux (DVD). November 20, 2001.
- "DVD Review Apocalypse Now – Apocalypse Now DVD Review". Homevideo.about.com. March 5, 2014. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
- "Apocalypse Now (1979)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Archived from the original on June 28, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- "Apocalypse Now (1979)". Metacritic. Archived from the original on May 23, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
- Billson, Anne (October 19, 2010). "Apocalypse Now: the best action and war film of all time". The Guardian. Archived from the original on May 7, 2017. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
Reviews were mixed, but within a year or so it had established itself as a modern classic ...
- Rainey, Venetia (May 27, 2011). "Apocalypse Now: the original 1979 reviews". The Week. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
- Fristoe, Roger. "Apocalypse Now". Turner Classic Movies, Inc. Archived from the original on October 14, 2017. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
- Ebert, Roger (June 1, 1979). "Apocalypse Now". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved November 24, 2008.
- "Ebert's 10 Best Lists: 1967–present". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on September 8, 2006.
- Frank Rich (August 27, 1979). "Cinema: The Making of a Quagmire by Frank Rich". Time. Archived from the original on May 31, 2010. Retrieved March 6, 2010.
- Canby, Vincent (August 15, 1979). "APOCALYPSE NOW". New York Times. Archived from the original on September 10, 2017. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
- Ebert, Roger (November 28, 1999). "Great Movies: Apocalypse Now". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved November 24, 2008.
- Frank P. Tomasulo (1990). The Politics of Ambivalence: Apocalypse Now as Prowar and Antiwar Film. Rutgers.
- Marilyn B. Young (October 2004). Now Playing:Vietnam. Organization of American Historians. OAH.
- Nidesh Lawtoo, The Phantom of the Ego: Modernism and the Mimetic Unconscious, East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2013, pp. 85–90
- Mark J. Lacy (November–December 2003). "War, Cinema, and Moral Anxiety". Alternatives: Global, Local, Political. 28 (5): 611–636. doi:10.1177/030437540302800504. JSTOR 40645126. S2CID 142538404.
- "Apocalypse Now Review". Total Film. Archived from the original on May 19, 2011. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- "How the directors and critics voted". Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. Retrieved October 18, 2010.
- "Apocalypse Now (1979) by Roger Ebert". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved October 18, 2010.
- "Sight & Sound 2002 Directors' Greatest Films poll". listal.com.
- "Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll 2002 The Rest of Director's List". old.bfi.org.uk.
- ""Napalm" Speech Tops Movie Poll". BBC News. January 2, 2004. Archived from the original on July 8, 2009. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
- "101 Greatest Screenplays". Writers Guild of America. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
- Empire's The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time. Empire via Internet Archive. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
- Empire's The 301 Greatest Movies of All Time. Empire. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
- Empire's The 100 Greatest Movies of All Time. Archived July 29, 2020, at the Wayback Machine Empire. Published March 20, 2018. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
- "Cahiers du cinéma's 100 Greatest Films". November 23, 2008.
- Billson, Anne (October 19, 2010). "Apocalypse Now: the best action and war film of all time". The Guardian. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
- THR Staff. "Cannes: All the Palme d'Or Winners, Ranked". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
- The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made. The New York Times via Internet Archive. Published April 29, 2003. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
- "10 Best Surfing Scenes". Entertainment Weekly. August 8, 2002. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved April 24, 2009.
- 'Napalm' speech tops movie poll Archived October 18, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, January 2, 2004, BBC News. Retrieved February 18, 2008.
- "'Far Cry 3' Review – Part Two: Through The Looking Glass". Forbes. August 8, 2013. Archived from the original on December 7, 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
- "War epic Apocalypse Now tops UK film critics poll". BBC. December 1, 2009. Archived from the original on December 4, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
- "Hearts of Hot Shots! Part Deux – A Filmmaker's Apology Television show – Hearts of Hot Shots! Part Deux – A Filmmaker's Apology TV Show – Yahoo!! TV". Yahoo!. April 20, 2011. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
- Kate McGeown (April 16, 2013). "How Apocalypse Now inspired Filipino surfers". BBC News. Archived from the original on October 2, 2019. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
- "The 100 Greatest American Films". bbc. July 20, 2015.
- Spangler, Todd (January 25, 2017). ""Apocalypse Now" Video Game in Works From Francis Ford Coppola". Variety. Archived from the original on January 26, 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
- "Apocalypse Now". Archived from the original on February 25, 2018.
- Streitfeld, David (June 21, 2016). "For Viet Thanh Nguyen, Author of 'The Sympathizer,' a Pulitzer but No Peace". The New York Times.
- "The 52nd Academy Awards (1980) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- "Festival de Cannes: Apocalypse Now". festival-cannes.com. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved May 23, 2009.
- "33rd BAFTA Awards - Film". BAFTA.org. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "Prix et nominations : César 1980". Allocine. Archived from the original on August 9, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
- "David di Donatello Awards 1980". Film Affinity. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
- "32nd Directors Guild of America Awards". Directors Guild of America Awards. Archived from the original on August 4, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
- "37th Golden Globes Awards (1980) - Movies from 1979". Film Affinity. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
- "1979 Grammy Award Winners". Grammy.com. Archived from the original on September 23, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- "Awards Winners". wga.org. Writers Guild of America. Archived from the original on December 5, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- Coates, Gordon (October 17, 2008). "Coppola's slow boat on the Nung". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on October 18, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Lewis, Gordon (March 14, 2019). "Tribeca: Danny Boyle's Beatles Movie 'Yesterday' Set as Closing Night Film". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on November 14, 2020. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
- "Apocalypse Now Comparison: Final Cut – Redux Version". Movie Censorship. September 15, 2019. Archived from the original on April 12, 2020. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
- O'Falt, Chris (April 29, 2019). "'Apocalypse Now': 5 Things You Need to Know About Coppola's New 'Final Cut'". IndieWire. Archived from the original on April 30, 2019. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
- Fleming, Mike Jr. (May 13, 2019). "Francis Ford Coppola: How Winning Cannes 40 Years Ago Saved 'Apocalypse Now,' Making 'Megalopolis,' Why Scorsese Almost Helmed 'Godfather Part II' & Re-Cutting Three Past Films". Deadline. Archived from the original on May 16, 2019. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
- "Restored 'Apocalypse Now Final Cut' Coming to IMAX Theaters for the 40th Anniversary". Collider. July 25, 2019. Archived from the original on August 6, 2019. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
- "Apocalypse Now 40th Anniversary 4K Blu-ray". Blu-ray.com. April 29, 2019. Archived from the original on May 1, 2019. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
- Adair, Gilbert (1981) Vietnam on Film: From The Green Berets to Apocalypse Now. Proteus. ISBN 0-906071-86-0
- Biskind, Peter (1998). Easy Riders, Raging Bulls. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-85708-1.
- Coppola, Eleanor (1979) Notes on the Making of Apocalypse Now. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-87910-150-4
- Cowie, Peter (1990). Coppola. New York: Scribner. ISBN 0-684-19193-8.
- Cowie, Peter (2001). The Apocalypse Now Book. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81046-6.
- Fraser, George MacDonald (1988) The Hollywood History of the World: from One Million Years B.C. to Apocalypse Now. Kobal Collection /Beech Tree Books. ISBN 0-688-07520-7
- French, Karl (1999) Karl French on Apocalypse Now: A Bloomsbury Movie Guide. Bloomsbury Publishing ISBN 1-58234-014-5
- Milius, John & Coppola, Francis Ford (2001) Apocalypse Now Redux: An Original Screenplay. Talk Miramax Books/Hyperion ISBN 0-7868-8745-1
- Tosi, Umberto & Glaser, Milton. (1979) Apocalypse Now – Program distributed in connection with the opening of the film. United Artists
- Travers, Steven Coppola's Monster Film: The Making of Apocalypse Now, McFarland 2016, ISBN 978-1-4766-6425-5
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Apocalypse Now|
- Apocalypse Now at the American Film Institute Catalog
- Apocalypse Now at AllMovie
- Apocalypse Now at Box Office Mojo
- Apocalypse Now at IMDb
- Apocalypse Now at Metacritic
- Apocalypse Now at Rotten Tomatoes
- The strained making of Apocalypse Now at www.independent.co.uk.
- Apocalypse Now essay by Daniel Eagan in America's Film Legacy: The Authoritative Guide to the Landmark Movies in the National Film Registry, A&C Black, 2010 ISBN 0826429777, pages 756-758