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"Apodictic" or "apodeictic" (Ancient Greek: ἀποδεικτικός, "capable of demonstration") is an adjectival expression from Aristotelean logic that refers to propositions that are demonstrable, that are necessarily or self-evidently the case or that, conversely, are impossible.[1] Apodicticity or apodixis is the corresponding abstract noun, referring to logical certainty.

Apodictic propositions contrast with assertoric propositions, which merely assert that something is (or is not) the case, and with problematic propositions, which assert only the possibility of something being true. Apodictic judgments are clearly provable and logically certain. For instance, "Two plus two equals four" is apodictic. "Chicago is larger than Omaha" is assertoric. "A corporation could be wealthier than a country" is problematic. In Aristotelian logic, "apodictic" is opposed to "dialectic," as scientific proof is opposed to philosophical reasoning. Kant contrasts "apodictic" with "problematic" and "assertoric" in the Critique of Pure Reason, on page A70/B95.

The expression "apodictic" is also sometimes applied to a style of argumentation in which a person presents his reasoning as being categorically true, even if it is not necessarily so.[2]

Apodictic a priorism[edit]

Hans Reichenbach, one of the founders of logical positivism, offered a modified version of Immanuel Kant's a priorism by distinguishing between apodictic a priorism and constitutive a priorism.[3]


  1. ^ Dictionary definitions of apodictic, from dictionary.com, including material from the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Random House, Inc (2006), The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company, and WordNet 3.0, Princeton University 2006.
  2. ^ Lobban, M., A Treatise of Legal Philosophy and General Jurisprudence, Vol. 7: "The Jurists’ Philosophy of Law from Rome to the Seventeenth Century," and Vol. 8: "A History of the Philosophy of Law in The Common Law World, 1600–1900" (Berlin & Heidelberg: Springer, 2007).
  3. ^ Mormann, Thomas (2012). Creath, Richard, ed. Toward a Theory of the Pragmatic A Priori: From Carnap to Lewis and Beyond. Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 16 (2012. ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media. p. 116. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-3929-1_7. ISBN 978-94-007-3928-4. Retrieved 7 March 2016. 


External links[edit]

  • The dictionary definition of apodictic at Wiktionary