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Apogastropoda various 3.jpg
Various examples of Apogastropoda
Scientific classification

Salvini-Plawen & Haszprunar, 1987[1]


Apogastropoda was previously used as a major taxonomic grouping of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs. This infraclass mostly consisted of marine limpets and operculate snails. At least 20,000 species were considered to exist within the two clades that were included, Heterobranchia and Caenogastropoda.[2]


Gastropods that were placed in this taxon have bifurcate tentacle nerves and two pedal commissures.[2]

Reasons for establishing[edit]

Older morphological and molecular studies appeared to show that the Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia should be considered as sister taxa, comprising the Apogastropoda.[3][4]

This taxon was used in taxonomy of the Gastropoda (Ponder & Lindberg, 1997).

Reasons for rejection[edit]

However this taxonomic grouping is no longer used (according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005). It is out-dated because more recent molecular studies have proved that it contains two separate evolutionary lineages, the two clades mentioned above.

Apogastropoda was also rejected according to the nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial genome in 2008.[5]


  • Anaclodonta
  • Archaeobranchia
  • Architectonicoida
  • Ctenobranchia
  • Gymnoglossa
  • Heterophrosynidae
  • Oligopteria
  • Orbacea
  • Peristomacea
  • Potamophila
  • Taenioglossa


Apogastropoda comprised taxa as follows according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda (Ponder & Lindberg, 1997):

Superorder Caenogastropoda Cox, 1960

Superorder Heterobranchia J.E. Gray, 1840


  1. ^ Salvini-Plawen, L. von; Haszprunar, G. (1987). "The Vetigastropoda and the systematics of streptonerous Gastropoda (Mollusca)". Journal of Zoology. 211 (4): 747–770 [762]. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1987.tb04485.x.
  2. ^ a b http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/29828/Apogastropoda
  3. ^ Haszprunar G. (1988). "On the origin and evolution of major gastropods group, with special reference to the Streptoneura". Journal of Molluscan Studies. 54 (4): 367–441. doi:10.1093/mollus/54.4.367.
  4. ^ Salvini-Plawen L, Steiner G (1996). "Synapomorphies and plesiomorphies in higher classification of Mollusca". Origin and evolutionary radiation of the Mollusca. The Malacological Society of London. pp. 29–51.
  5. ^ Cristina Grande, José Templado and Rafael Zardoya (2008). "Evolution of gastropod mitochondrial genome arrangements". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 8 (61): 61. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-61. PMC 2291457. PMID 18302768.

External links[edit]