Apostille Convention

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Apostille Convention
Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents
MembersandnNonMembersOfTheApostilleOfTheHague.svg
  State parties to the convention (members of the HCCH)
  State parties to the convention (non-members of the HCCH)
  State parties for which the convention has not entered into force
Signed5 October 1961
LocationThe Netherlands
Effective14 January 1965
Conditionratification by 3 states[1]
Parties120
DepositaryMinistry of Foreign Affairs (Netherlands)
LanguagesFrench (prevailing in case of divergence)
and English
Apostille Convention at Wikisource

The Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents, the Apostille Convention, or the Apostille Treaty, is an international treaty drafted by the Hague Conference on Private International Law. It specifies the modalities through which a document issued in one of the signatory countries can be certified for legal purposes in all the other signatory states. A certification under the terms of the convention is called an apostille (from Latin post illa and then French: a marginal note) or Hague apostille.[2] It is an international certification comparable to a notarisation in domestic law, and normally supplements a local notarisation of the document. If the convention applies between two countries, such an apostille is sufficient to certify a document's validity, and removes the need for double-certification, by the originating country and then by the receiving country.

Procedure[edit]

Apostilles are affixed by Competent Authorities designated by the government of a state which is party to the convention.[3] A list of these authorities is maintained by the Hague Conference on Private International Law. Examples of designated authorities are embassies, ministries, courts or (local) governments. For example, in the United States, the Secretary of State of each state and their deputies are usually competent authorities. In the United Kingdom all apostilles are issued by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in Milton Keynes.[4]

To be eligible for an apostille, a document must first be issued or certified by an officer recognised by the authority that will issue the apostille. For example, in the US state of Vermont, the Secretary of State maintains specimen signatures of all notaries public, so documents that have been notarised are eligible for apostilles.[5] Likewise, courts in the Netherlands are eligible to place an apostille on all municipal civil status documents directly. In some cases, intermediate certifications may be required in the country in which the document originates before it is eligible for an apostille. For example, in New York City, the Office of Vital Records (which issues, among other things, birth certificates) is not directly recognised by the New York Secretary of State.[6] As a consequence, the signature of the City Clerk must be certified by the County Clerk of New York County to make the birth certificate eligible for an apostille.[7][8] In Japan all official documents are issued in Japanese; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA, JAPAN) can then provide an apostille for these documents.[9] In India the apostille certification can be obtained from the Ministry of External Affairs[10] in New Delhi, after authentication by the administration of the Indian state where the document was issued (for educational documents).

Information[edit]

An apostille issued by the Norwegian government

The apostille itself is a stamp or printed form consisting of ten numbered standard fields. At the top is the text Apostille, under which the text Convention de La Haye du 5 octobre 1961 (French for "Hague Convention of 5 October 1961") is placed. This title must be written in French for the apostille to be valid (article 4 of the Convention). In the numbered fields, the following information is added,which may be in the official language of the authority that issues it or in a second language:

  1. Country ... [e.g. Korea, Spain, Hong Kong]
    This public document
  2. has been signed by [e.g. Henry Cho]
  3. acting in the capacity of [e.g. Notary Public]
  4. bears the seal/stamp of [e.g. High Court of Hong Kong]
    Certified
  5. at [e.g. Hong Kong]
  6. the ... [e.g. 16 April 2014]
  7. by ... [e.g. the Chief Executive of the Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong]
  8. No ... [e.g. 2536218517]
  9. Seal/stamp ... [of the authority giving the apostille]
  10. Signature

The information can be placed on the document itself, on the back of the document, or attached to the document as an allonge.

Eligible documents[edit]

Four types of documents are mentioned in the convention:[1]

  • court documents
  • administrative documents (e.g. civil status documents)
  • notarial acts
  • official certificates which are placed on documents signed by persons in their private capacity, such as official certificates recording the registration of a document or the fact that it was in existence on a certain date and official and notarial authentications of signatures.

Legalization[edit]

A state that has not signed the Convention must specify how foreign legal documents can be certified for its use. Two countries may have a special convention on the recognition of each other's public documents, but in practice this is infrequent. Otherwise, the document must be certified by the foreign ministry of the country in which the document originated, and then by the foreign ministry of the government of the state in which the document will be used; one of the certifications will often be performed at an embassy or consulate. In practice this means the document must be certified twice before it can have legal effect in the receiving country. For example, as Canada is not a signatory, Canadian documents for use abroad must be certified by the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs in Ottawa or by a Canadian consular official abroad, and subsequently by the relevant government office or consulate of the receiving state.[11]

List of contracting states[edit]

As of February 2021, 120 states are contracting states of the Apostille Convention. They include 73 of the 82 Hague Conference on Private International Law member states in addition to 47 other states.[12]

The convention is in force between all states, unless an existing party objects to the accession of a new state. In that case the convention enters into force for the new state, except with regards to the new state and the objecting state(s).

State party Signed Deposited Entered into force
 Albania[A] 3 September 2003 9 May 2004
 Andorra 15 April 1996 31 December 1996
 Antigua and Barbuda[B] 1 May 1985 1 November 1981
 Argentina 8 May 1987 18 February 1988
 Armenia 19 November 1993 14 August 1994
 Australia[C] 11 July 1994 16 March 1995
 Austria 5 October 1961 14 November 1967 13 January 1968
 Azerbaijan[D] 13 May 2004 2 March 2005
 Bahamas, The[E] 30 April 1976 10 July 1973
 Bahrain 10 April 2013 31 December 2013
 Barbados[F] 11 August 1995 30 November 1966
 Belarus[G] 16 June 1992 31 May 1992
 Belgium 10 March 1970 11 December 1975 9 February 1976
 Belize 17 July 1992 11 April 1993
 Bolivia 6 September 2017 7 May 2018
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[H] 23 August 1993 6 March 1992
 Botswana[I] 16 September 1968 30 September 1966
 Brazil 2 July 2015 14 August 2016
 Brunei 23 February 1987 3 December 1987
 Bulgaria 1 August 2000 29 April 2001
 Burundi[J] 10 June 2014 13 February 2015
 Cape Verde 7 May 2009 13 February 2010
 Chile 16 December 2015 30 August 2016
 China[K]
 Colombia 27 April 2000 30 January 2001
 Cook Islands 13 July 2004 30 April 2005
 Costa Rica 6 April 2011 14 December 2011
 Croatia[H] 23 April 1993 8 October 1991
 Cyprus 26 July 1972 30 April 1973
 Czech Republic 23 June 1998 16 March 1999
 Denmark[L] 20 October 2006 30 October 2006 26 December 2006
 Dominica[M] 22 October 2002 3 November 1978
 Dominican Republic[N] 12 December 2008 30 August 2009
 Ecuador 2 July 2004 2 April 2005
 El Salvador 14 September 1995 31 May 1996
 Estonia 11 December 2000 30 September 2001
 Eswatini[O] 3 July 1978 6 September 1968
 Fiji[P] 29 March 1971 10 October 1970
 Finland 13 March 1962 27 June 1985 26 August 1985
 France[Q] 9 October 1961 25 November 1964 24 January 1965
 Georgia[R] 21 August 2006 14 May 2007
 Germany[S] 5 October 1961 15 December 1965 13 February 1966
 Greece 5 October 1961 19 March 1985 18 May 1985
 Grenada 17 July 2001 7 April 2002
 Guatemala 19 January 2017 18 September 2017
 Guyana 30 July 2018 18 April 2019
 Honduras 20 January 2004 30 September 2004
 Hungary 18 April 1972 18 January 1973
 Iceland 7 September 2004 28 September 2004 27 November 2004
 India[T] 26 October 2004 14 July 2005
 Ireland 29 October 1996 8 January 1999 9 March 1999
 Israel 11 November 1977 14 August 1978
 Italy 15 December 1961 13 December 1977 11 February 1978
 Jamaica 2 November 2020 3 July 2021
 Japan 12 March 1970 28 May 1970 27 July 1970
 Kazakhstan 5 April 2000 30 January 2001
 Korea, South 25 October 2006 14 July 2007
 Kosovo[U] 6 November 2015 14 July 2016
 Kyrgyzstan[V] 15 November 2010 31 July 2011
 Latvia 11 May 1995 30 January 1996
 Lesotho[W] 24 April 1972 4 October 1966
 Liberia[X] 24 May 1995 8 February 1996
 Liechtenstein 18 April 1962 19 July 1972 17 September 1972
 Lithuania 5 November 1996 19 July 1997
 Luxembourg 5 October 1961 4 April 1979 3 June 1979
 Malawi 24 February 1967 2 December 1967
 Malta 12 June 1967 3 March 1968
 Marshall Islands 18 November 1991 14 August 1992
 Mauritius[Y] 20 December 1968 12 March 1968
 Mexico 1 December 1994 14 August 1995
 Moldova[Z] 19 June 2006 16 March 2007
 Monaco 24 April 2002 31 December 2002
 Mongolia[AA] 2 April 2009 31 December 2009
 Montenegro[AB] 30 January 2007 3 June 2006
 Morocco[AC] 27 November 2015 14 August 2016
 Namibia 25 April 2000 30 January 2001
 Netherlands[AD] 30 November 1962 9 August 1965 8 October 1965
 New Zealand[AE] 7 February 2001 22 November 2001
 Nicaragua 7 September 2012 14 May 2013
 Niue 10 June 1998 2 March 1999
 North Macedonia[H] 20 September 1993 17 November 1991
 Norway 30 May 1983 30 May 1983 29 July 1983
 Oman 12 May 2011 30 January 2012
 Palau 17 October 2019 23 June 2020
 Panama 30 October 1990 4 August 1991
 Paraguay[AF] 10 December 2013 30 August 2014
 Peru[AG] 13 January 2010 30 September 2010
 Philippines[AH] 12 September 2018 14 May 2019
 Poland 19 November 2004 14 August 2005
 Portugal[K][AI] 20 August 1965 6 December 1968 4 February 1969
 Romania 7 June 2000 16 March 2001
 Russia[G] 4 September 1991 31 May 1992
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 26 February 1994 14 December 1994
 Saint Lucia 5 December 2001 31 July 2002
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[AJ] 2 May 2002 27 October 1979
 Samoa 18 January 1999 13 September 1999
 San Marino 26 May 1994 13 February 1995
 São Tomé and Príncipe 19 December 2007 13 September 2008
 Serbia[H][AB] 26 April 2001 27 April 1992
 Seychelles 9 June 1978 31 March 1979
 Singapore 18 January 2021 16 September 2021
 Slovakia 6 June 2001 18 February 2002
 Slovenia[H] 8 June 1992 25 June 1991
 South Africa 3 August 1994 30 April 1995
 Spain 21 October 1976 27 July 1978 25 September 1978
 Suriname[AK] 29 October 1976 25 November 1975
 Sweden 2 March 1999 2 March 1999 1 May 1999
  Switzerland 5 October 1961 10 January 1973 11 March 1973
 Tajikistan[AL] 20 February 2015 31 October 2015
 Tonga[AM] 28 October 1971 4 June 1970
 Trinidad and Tobago 28 October 1999 14 July 2000
 Tunisia[AN] 10 July 2017 30 March 2018
 Turkey 8 May 1962 31 July 1985 29 September 1985
 Ukraine[AO] 2 April 2003 22 December 2003
 United Kingdom[K][AP][AQ] 19 October 1961 21 August 1964 24 January 1965
 United States 24 December 1980 15 October 1981
 Uruguay 9 February 2012 14 October 2012
 Uzbekistan[AR] 25 July 2011 15 April 2012
 Vanuatu[AS] 1 August 2008 30 July 1980
 Venezuela 1 July 1998 16 March 1999

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Convention entered into force between Albania and the following contracting states on different dates: Belgium on 21 December 2015, Germany on 9 December 2016, Greece on 26 February 2018, Italy on 26 May 2011, and Spain on 7 February 2017.[13]
  2. ^ The United Kingdom extended the Convention to the territory of Antigua (now Antigua and Barbuda) effective 25 April 1965. Following its independence, Antigua and Barbuda declared itself to continue to be bound by the Convention.[14][15]
  3. ^ Australia extended the Convention to all of its external territories upon its accession.[16]
  4. ^ The Convention is not in force between Azerbaijan and Germany. The Convention entered into force between Albania and the following contracting states on different dates: Hungary on 10 March 2005 and the Netherlands on 10 August 2010.[17]
  5. ^ The United Kingdom extended the Convention to the territory of the Bahamas Islands (now The Bahamas) effective 25 April 1965. Following its independence, The Bahamas declared itself to continue to be bound by the Convention.[18][15]
  6. ^ The United Kingdom extended the Convention to the territory of Barbados effective 25 April 1965. Following its independence, Barbados declared itself to continue to be bound by the Convention.[19][15]
  7. ^ a b Russia is the successor state of the  Soviet Union. Belarus declared itself bound by the Convention pursuant to the Soviet Union's accession.[20][21]
  8. ^ a b c d e  Yugoslavia signed the Convention on 5 October 1961 and ratified it on 21 May 1961. The Convention entered into force for Yugoslavia on 24 January 1965. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the successor states of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, North Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia declared themselves bound by the Convention.[22][23][24][25][26]
  9. ^ The United Kingdom extended the Convention to the territory of the Bechuanaland Protectorate (now Botswana) effective 25 April 1965. Following its independence, Botswana declared itself to continue to be bound by the Convention.[27][15]
  10. ^ The Convention is not in force between Burundi and the following contracting states: Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, and Poland.[28]
  11. ^ a b c The Convention is only in force for China in Hong Kong and Macau. The United Kingdom extended the Convention to Hong Kong on 25 April 1965 and Portugal extended the Convention to Macao on 4 February 1969. China declared that the Convention would continue to be in force for both territories following their respective transfer to China.[29][30]
  12. ^ Denmark has not extended the Convention to the Faroe Islands and Greenland.[31]
  13. ^ The United Kingdom extended the Convention to the territory of Dominica effective 25 April 1965. Following its independence, Dominica declared itself to continue to be bound by the Convention.[32][15]
  14. ^ The Convention is not in force between the Dominican Republic and the following contracting states: Austria and Germany. The Convention entered into force between Albania and the following contracting states on different dates: Belgium on 8 March 2019 and the Netherlands on 3 November 2017.[33]
  15. ^ The United Kingdom extended the Convention to the territory of Swaziland (now Eswatini) effective 25 April 1965. Following its independence, Eswatini declared itself to continue to be bound by the Convention.[34][15]
  16. ^ The United Kingdom extended the Convention to the territory of Fiji effective 25 April 1965. Following its independence, Fiji declared itself to continue to be bound by the Convention.[35][15]
  17. ^ France extended the Convention to all of its external territories upon its ratification.[36]
  18. ^ The Convention entered into force between Georgia and the following contracting states on different dates: Germany on 3 February 2010 and Greece on 17 December 2015.[37]
  19. ^ Germany ratified the Convention as  West Germany. Following its reunification with  East Germany on 3 October 1990, it declared that the Convention applied to the entire territory of Germany.[38]
  20. ^ The Convention is not in force between India and Germany. The Convention entered into force between Albania and the following contracting states on different dates: Belgium on 9 January 2008, Finland on 5 October 2009, the Netherlands on 16 September 2008, and Spain on 12 February 2008.[39]
  21. ^ The Convention is not in force between Kosovo and the following contracting states: Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Brazil, Chile, China, Cyprus, Ecuador, Georgia, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Namibia, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Venezuela.[40]
  22. ^ The Convention is not in force between Kyrgyzstan and the following contracting states: Austria, Austria, Germany, and Greece.[41]
  23. ^ The United Kingdom extended the Convention to the territory of Basutoland (now Lesotho) effective 25 April 1965. Following its independence, Lesotho declared itself to continue to be bound by the Convention.[42][15]
  24. ^ The Convention is not in force between Liberia and the following contracting states: Belgium and Germany. The Convention entered into force between Albania and the United States on 20 May 2015.[43]
  25. ^ The United Kingdom extended the Convention to the territory of Mauritius effective 25 April 1965. Following its independence, Mauritius declared itself to continue to be bound by the Convention.[44][15]
  26. ^ The Convention is not in force between Moldova and Germany.[45]
  27. ^ The Convention is not in force between Mongolia and the following contracting states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, Germany, and Greece.[46]
  28. ^ a b Serbia is the successor state to  Serbia and Montenegro. Montenegro declared itself bound by the Convention following its independence.[25][47]
  29. ^ The Convention is not in force between Morocco and Germany.[48]
  30. ^ For the European part. The convention was extended to the Netherlands Antilles (now: Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten as well as Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba) from 30 April 1967.[49]
  31. ^ New Zealand has not extended the Convention to Tokelau.[50]
  32. ^ The Convention is not in force between Paraguay and Germany.[51]
  33. ^ The Convention is not in force between Peru and Greece. The Convention entered into force between Peru and Germany on 1 January 2014.[52]
  34. ^ The Convention is not in force between the Philippines and the following contracting states: Austria, Finland, Germany, and Greece.[53]
  35. ^ Portugal declared on 22 October 1969 that the Convention would enter into force for its territory on 21 December 1969.[54]
  36. ^ The United Kingdom extended the Convention to the territory of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines effective 25 April 1965. Following its independence, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines declared itself to continue to be bound by the Convention.[55][15]
  37. ^ The Netherlands extended the Convention to the territory of Suriname on 16 May 1967. Following its independence, Suriname declared itself to continue to be bound by the Convention.[56]
  38. ^ The Convention is not in force between Tajikistan and the following contracting states: Austria, Belgium, and Germany.[57]
  39. ^ The United Kingdom extended the Convention to the territory of Tonga effective 25 April 1965. Following its independence, Tonga declared itself to continue to be bound by the Convention.[58][15]
  40. ^ The Convention is not in force between Tunisia and the following contracting states: Austria, Belgium, Germany, and Greece.[59]
  41. ^ The Convention entered into force between Ukraine and the following contracting states on different dates: Belgium on 5 July 2004 and Germany on 22 July 2010.[60]
  42. ^ The United Kingdom extended the Convention, effective 24 January 1965, to the following territories: Guernsey, the Isle of Man, and Jersey. It extended the Convention, effective 25 April 1965, to the following territories: Anguilla; Bermuda; the British Antarctic Territory; the British Virgin Islands; the Cayman Islands; the Falkland Islands; Gibraltar; Montserrat; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; and the Turks and Caicos Islands.[61]
  43. ^ The United Kingdom extended the Convention, effective 25 April 1965, to former territories, several of which declared themselves to continue to be bound to the Convention following their independence. In addition, the former territories of Brunei, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis (formerly part of the territory of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla), Saint Lucia, and Seychelles acceded to the Convention with effective dates other than their respective dates of independence. Also, the following former territories have neither acceded nor declared themselves to continue to be bound to the Convention: Guyana (formerly the territory of British Guiana), which gained independence on 26 May 1966; Kiribati (formerly part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands), which gained independence on 12 July 1979; the Solomon Islands (formerly the territory of the British Solomon Islands), which gained independence on 7 July 1978; Tuvalu (formerly part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands), which gained independence on 1 October 1978; and Zimbabwe (formerly Southern Rhodesia), which gained independence on 18 April 1980.[15]
  44. ^ The Convention is not in force between Uzbekistan and the following contracting states: Austria, Belgium, Germany, and Greece.[62]
  45. ^ France and the United Kingdom extended the Convention to the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu) effective 15 February 1966. Following its independence, Vanuatu declared itself to continue to be bound by the Convention.[36][63]

Abuse[edit]

The apostille does not give information regarding the quality of the content in the underlying document but certifies the signature (and the capacity of who placed it) and correctness of the seal/stamp on the document which must be certified. In 2005 the Hague Conference surveyed its members and produced a report in December 2008 which expressed serious concerns about diplomas and degree certificates issued by diploma mills. The possible abuse of the system was highlighted: "Particularly troubling is the possible use of diploma mill qualifications to circumvent migration controls, possibly by potential terrorists." (page 5) The risk comes from the fact that the various government stamps give the document an air of authenticity without anyone having checked the underlying document. "An official looking certificate may be issued to a copy of a diploma mill qualification, and then subsequently issued with an apostille, without anyone having ever verified the signature on, let alone the contents of, the diploma." (page 7) Further member states indicated "they would be obliged to issue an apostille for certification of a certified copy of a diploma issued by a diploma mill". (page 15) The evaluation commission of the Hague Conference expressed concern as to whether this issue could affect the entire convention. "... the apostille does not 'look through the certification' and does not relate to the diploma itself ... There is a clear risk that such practices may eventually undermine the effectiveness and therefore the successful operation of the apostille Convention". (page 5)[64]

In February 2009 the Hague Conference recommended to amend the wording on the apostille to make it clear that only the seal and the signature were authenticated. The wording to be added is:

This apostille only certifies the signature, the capacity of the signer and the seal or stamp it bears. It does not certify the content of the document for which it was issued."[2]

Validity[edit]

Technically, an apostille never expires once issued. However, there are some factors which may render an apostilled document unusable in certain situations. A document or certificate with an apostille acquired outside of the convention may need to be re-processed before use. For example, for a work permit in China, the apostille on documentation must have been issued within the past six months in order to be valid for the application.[65]

Further stages of legalisation[edit]

Some Apostille Convention member states require additional stages after an apostille, dependent on use. For marriage in Greece, for example, a translation of the apostilled documents is required, which must be verified at the Greek Consulate[66] before the documents can be presented for the marriage licence in-country. It's advisable to confirm the requirements in each and every case.

Gallery of apostilles by country[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "12: Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents". Hague Conference on Private International Law. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
  2. ^ a b Permanent Bureau (February 2009). "Conclusions and Recommendations of the Special Commission on the Practical Operation of the Hague Apostille, Service, Taking of Evidence, and Access to Justice Conventions" (PDF). Hague Conference on Private International Law. p. 13.
  3. ^ "ABCs of Apostilles p. 13" (PDF). Hague Conference on Private International Law.
  4. ^ "United Kingdom, Competent Authorities". Hague Conference on Private International Law. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
  5. ^ Authentication Archived 30 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine 2009
  6. ^ Birth certificate application Archived 4 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine 2010
  7. ^ Crampton 2007
  8. ^ Apostiles Archived 24 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine n.d.
  9. ^ Apostille, MOFA Japan (website in Japanese)
  10. ^ MEA, India Legalisation of Documents.
  11. ^ Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Canada
  12. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Status Table". HCCH. 18 January 2021. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  13. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Albania Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  14. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Antigua and Barbuda Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: United Kingdom Declarations". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  16. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Australia Declaration". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  17. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Azerbaijan Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  18. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: The Bahamas Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  19. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Barbados Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  20. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Russia Declarations/Notifications". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  21. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Belarus Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  22. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Bosnia and Herzegovina Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  23. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Croatia Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  24. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: North Macedonia Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  25. ^ a b "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Serbia Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  26. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Slovenia Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  27. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Botswana Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  28. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Burundi Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  29. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: China Continuation". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  30. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: China Declarations/Notifications". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  31. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Denmark Declarations". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  32. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Dominica Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  33. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Dominican Republic Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  34. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Eswatini Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  35. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Fiji Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  36. ^ a b "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: France Declarations". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  37. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Georgia Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  38. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Germany Declarations/Notifications". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  39. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: India Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  40. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Kosovo Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  41. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Kyrgyzstan Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  42. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Lesotho Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  43. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Liberia Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  44. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Mauritius Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  45. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Moldova Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  46. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Mongolia Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  47. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Montenegro Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  48. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Morocco Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  49. ^ "Convention abolishing the requirement of legalisation for foreign public documents: Treaty data". Treaty database of the Netherlands. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  50. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: New Zealand Declarations". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  51. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Paraguay Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  52. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Peru Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  53. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Philippines Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  54. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Portugal Declarations". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  55. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  56. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Suriname Succession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  57. ^ "Convention of 5 October 1961 Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents: Tajikistan Accession". HCCH. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
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  66. ^ Consular notarisations for Greece

External links[edit]