Apostolic Christian Church
The Apostolic Christian Church (ACC) is a worldwide Christian denomination from the anabaptist tradition that practices credobaptism, closed communion, greeting other believers with a holy kiss, a capella worship in some branches (in others, singing is with piano), and the headcovering of women during services. The Apostolic Christian Church only ordains men, who are authorized to administer baptism, the Lord's Supper, and the laying on of hands. Not every Apostolic Christian Church practices the women's headcovering; however, it is seen in most.
The origins of the Apostolic Christian Church are found in the conversion experience of Samuel Heinrich Froehlich (1803–57) of Switzerland. Froehlich was baptized in 1832 and soon founded the Evangelical Baptist Church. The first American church was formed in Lewis County, New York, in 1847 by Benedict Weyeneth (1819–87), who had been sent by Froehlich at the request of Joseph Virkler, a Lewis County minister in an Alsatian Amish-Mennonite church. In 1848 a church was formed in Sardis, Ohio. The church experienced primary growth in the Midwest, where many congregations gained membership from local Amish and Mennonite churches. Though sometimes referred to as the New Amish, these believers generally called themselves Evangelical Baptist. In 1917, the church adopted a uniform name: Apostolic Christian Church.
There are currently at least five main divisions of this church in America. In the early 1900s a disagreement arose over the practice of some European customs (namely, the wearing of a mustache) and the church split into two bodies (from 1901 to 1911). In 1932 a second schism originated from a letter sent by elders in Europe asking for greater adherence to traditional teachings and practices. Those adhering to the request of the letter separated themselves from the Apostolic Christian Church of America and became known as the Christian Apostolic Church (later the German Apostolic Christian Church). The Apostolic Christian Church of America did not retain German language preaching. It is a common misconception that German language preaching was a primary issue in the division.
- The Apostolic Christian Church of America has about 93 congregations in 22 states, including 1 church in Canada, 5 in Mexico, and 2 in Japan. The total number of members is approximately 11,500. This church has a national missionary committee/humanitarian aid program called HarvestCall, eleven retirement communities/nursing homes for the elderly, a home for people with developmental disabilities (Apostolic Christian Timber Ridge) in Morton, Illinois, Apostolic Christian Counseling & Family Services in Morton, IL, and a children's home in Leo, Indiana.
- The Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean) has 50 congregations in the United States, with 2756 members, 14 congregations in Canada with about 850 members, 6 congregations in Australia with roughly 200 members, 16 congregations in Argentina with about 1200 members, one congregation the Republic of Hungary with roughly 1,000–2,000 members as well as congregations in Brazil and Mexico. They have mission work in New Guinea, Argentina, Zambia, and Paraguay. Though the minority of the split, this body remained in fellowship with the European churches. There is also a small congregation of Nazareans in Israel.
- The Nazarene Christian Congregation is the result of a split during World War II which had to do with disagreements in caving to Communist demands in Yugoslavia. This church also split into two sides during the early 2000s. The NCC has churches in former Yugoslavia, Australia, United States, and Canada, with more members in Yugoslavia than anywhere else. In North America and Australia the church has shrunk considerably.
- The German Apostolic Christian Church has several congregations in the United States and Europe. As of 2020, there are about 135 members in the United States, primarily in Illinois and Oregon, and this is down from 150 in 2017. This German Apostolic Christian Church is the result of a relatively small group splitting away from the Apostolic Christian Church in 1932 and 1933 with currently four congregations: Cissna Park, IL; Fairbury, IL; Peoria, IL; and Silverton, OR. Formerly it had also a congregation in Sabetha, KS, this became one of the Christian Apostolic Churches after 1955. Until 1955 this church was known as Christian Apostolic Church, afterwards it named itself German Apostolic Christian Church. The German language is still predominantly used in worship services, but not anymore as the internal group's language or mother language.
- The Christian Apostolic Church (formed in 1955 from a split with the German Apostolic Christian) has three churches in Forrest, IL; Salem, OR; and Sabetha, KS with approximately 75 members. Quite a number of other Christian Apostolic groups existed for a while beside this bigger group, some still do today as home gatherings. This new group retained its old church name in opposition to its mother group. Members have retained traditional teaching on divorce and remarriage, birth control, and higher education, whereas the Apostolic Christian Church of America and Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean) have departed somewhat from earlier practice in these areas.
Other divisions and smaller groups
- The Apostolic Christian Faith Church (formed in 2012 from a split with the Apostolic Christian Church of America) has two churches in Canada, and about 25 churches in the United States with approximately 1,100 members. Members have retained what they believe are the church's traditional teachings and doctrine. Their manner of worship and fellowship is currently very similar to the church they withdrew from. However, they reject the New Evangelical thinking[clarification needed] that they believe has influenced a portion of the Apostolic Christian Church of America. They also reject the thought that believers "sin daily".[clarification needed]
The European German language bodies (Neutäufer) have also faced divisions. Although once united throughout Germany, Austria and Switzerland, there are now four sides. The following two (one could say also three) sides belong to the beard (moustache)-accepting side:
- During the 1980s members and leaders were pushing for more liberties, which resulted in a vast majority of churches changing their doctrine and rules to more evangelical/free church standards. Reasons were also, that the church leaders saw no future in keeping the old ways. They formed their own branch (Bund Evangelischer Täufergemeinden) and adopted the name Evangelische Täufergemeinde for most congregations. They currently have churches in Germany, Switzerland, Austria and France (Alsace) and quote to have about 2500 members.
- The small fraction that did not join and emphasized more traditional/conservative standards call themselves Gemeinde Evangelisch Taufgesinnter (Nazarener) with churches in Germany and Austria and formerly about 400 members.
- Some of these German Nazarener congregations do not fellowship with each other, so one could speak of two sides: moderate/liberal minded Nazarener congregations and conservative/traditional minded ones. Both sides are partly in a process to dissolve. The conservative Nazarener congregations maintain strong ties with the rest of the Nazarene congregations, especially to the Balkan states and are led by the Breidenbach congregation.
- There are some congregations of German Apostolic Christians in Germany and in Switzerland since the beginnings of 20th century:
- Three in Germany which call themselves Gemeinschaft evangelisch Taufgesinnter-Altmennoniten plus one close to Basel, Switzerland, which is a dependence of the Swiss Basel congregation.
- Ten (or eleven if one takes Kandergrund-Steffisburg as two congregations) in Switzerland, one thereof is in the Emmental at Bärau/Langnau. The Swiss German Apostolics have over 200–250 members, the German ones under 100. There have been official affiliations with the American side up to 2011. These congregations are the remnants of the beard-refusing-side in Europe. Formerly they had been the majority of all Neutäufer congregations in Switzerland and Germany, but their membership shrank immensely during the last decades.
The remainder of Europe is made up of independent congregations in communion:
- Nazarenes – in Sweden, Hungary, Serbia, Croatia, Romania, Ukraine and Slovakia
- In Hungary their official name is Krisztusban Hívő Nazarénusok Gyülekezete (Congregation of Nazarenes Believing in Christ)
The conversion experienced by each member varies in timing and detail, but all include repentance for one's sins, making restitution, confessing sins to God while in the presence of an elder of the church, and finding peace with God. The word "convert" is used throughout the denomination to describe anyone who begins repentance but has not been baptized into the church; it does not imply conversion from another denomination or religion, but from the carnal to the spiritual state. Once converts "receive peace from God," this is announced to the church and a baptism date is set. Converts give a testimony before the members of the church prior to the public baptism service, telling the story of their personal conversion experience. This testimony, commonly referred to as a "proving", typically takes place the night before the baptism and is a closed member meeting. Because baptism is identified with a "death to sin" in Romans 6 and other New Testament writings, congregational recognition of the convert's repentance and death to sin is desired prior to baptism. The baptism service is open for anyone to attend and is performed before the entire congregation. Before the baptism takes place, the convert makes a covenant with Christ in the presence of the entire congregation. Once the covenant is made, the convert is fully immersed in water (unless they are physically unable to do so). After the baptism service, there is a laying on of hands by one or more elders and an accompanying consecration prayer. This laying on of hands and prayer of consecration places the seal of the Holy Spirit on the life of the newly baptized. In some of the branches, such as the Nazarene branch, this service is for members and converts only.
Worship, biblical practices and tradition
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- In general, the Authorized Version (King James Version) of the Bible is the English translation used for church services in North American congregations. Some congregations use the corresponding translation in another language, such as Spanish (RVR 1960), Romanian, or Hungarian.
- Worship services are held on Sunday while various churches also conduct additional mid-week services.
- Sunday services in the ACCA (the Nazarean order of services) is similar in a few churches but widely vary in others, the order of worship in the Christian Apostolic Church and German Apostolic Christian Church are essentially identical—this is basically the same order of worship used in old order German Baptist, Mennonite and Amish churches as follows:
- Public worship services in the morning and afternoon, usually of the following format:
- The congregation sings several songs before the service starts
- The congregation prays together in silence asking for the Holy Spirit's leadership
- A minister opens to a random Old Testament passage, and sometimes discusses it briefly
- The minister selects a hymn to be sung by the congregation, the congregation sings, and then the minister prays out loud
- The minister opens to a random passage in the New Testament – this passage serves as the basis of most of the sermon, although the Old Testament passage (or fore-reading) is often referred to as well
- A second minister provides some closing or summarizing thoughts and either selects a closing hymn or asks the congregation to suggest one
- A minister gives the opportunity for a male member of the congregation to lead the group in prayer
- A minister "takes greetings". Members stand up and announce other AC churches that they have recently traveled to or are traveling from
- A final hymn is sometimes sung following the afternoon service.
- A light meal is generally served between the morning and afternoon services
- Public worship services in the morning and afternoon, usually of the following format:
- Midweek services consist of a single service, generally of the same format as the Sunday services
- Some congregations conduct Bible studies and classes as part of the routine church schedule. In addition, some local fellowships have outside study groups and classes among members. However, there is no standard format for these bible studies across all churches. Some congregations do not encourage Bible studies among groups of members. Personal Bible study is always encouraged and expected.
- Female members are expected to wear a Christian headcovering during prayer and worship. Wearing of a head covering when praying outside of church, when with other believers, and at other times is encouraged to varying degrees among the congregations, but the Biblical basis is somewhat universally recognized.
- Within the Apostolic Christian Churches (Nazarean), singing usually includes piano playing, and (on occasion) includes other instruments.
- The Zions Harfe (Zion's Harp is the primary hymnal used during worship services. The Zion's Harp was assembled in the 19th century by a European elder and includes numerous hymns written by that elder, along with other hymns not generally used in other American denominations. Most of the hymns are either traditional Amish/Mennonite hymns or from the 19th-century Swiss state church. It is a good source for English metrical translations of Amish Ausbund hymns. Because the Apostolic Christian Church of America and the Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarene) were separated before both sides began using English in worship services, the Zion's Harps used by the two denominations have lyrics somewhat differently translated from the German. A slightly different translation is also used in the Christian Apostolic Church.
- Another hymnal used in church services, the Hymns of Zion, includes arrangements and lyrics more commonly used in other denominations, but also includes several written by members of the American congregations. This book was originally envisioned as a Sunday school hymnal, but gained popularity with the church as a whole. Beginning in 2012, some ACCA churches have transitioned from the Hymns of Zion to the new "combined hymnal" which is a combination of the Hymns of Zion and the Tabernacle Hymns. The latter has long been used in Sunday Schools.
Biblical practices and tradition
- Communion is served once (to several times) a year at varying times, usually near Easter or near to a Baptism. Communion services are a closed service, with only members and converts present. Communion is typically preceded by a period, typically around a month, of self-examination and restitution, if needed.
- The Holy Kiss is the greeting used in Apostolic Christian churches (practiced as in German Baptist, Amish, Mennonite churches, and other churches), based on the epistles of Paul and the general epistle of 1 Peter. Men greet men and women greet women. Men and women just shake hands and say "Greetings Brother" and "Greetings Sister."
- Marriage between "a man and a woman of like mind, faith, and fellowship" is encouraged for all members where God leads. In the Apostolic Christian Church of America, Christian Apostolic Church, German Apostolic Christian Church, and the Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean), dating is discouraged.
- Members of the Apostolic Christian Church of America, and Apostolic Christian Church [Nazarean], are somewhat discouraged from visiting churches of other denominations. In the German Apostolic Christian Church, visitors are requested to obtain an elder's permission before attending services, and members do not visit other services, even for wedding or funerals.
- In all traditional AC groups, permanent lifelong excommunication is practiced in certain cases.
- In 1932 all Apostolic Christian groups required a beard without mustache (except the Nazareans), but by the 1950s it was discouraged in all groups. In 2017, The ACCA elder body rescinded the expectation that male members be clean-shaven.
- In the ACCA and ACC Nazarean, members are encouraged to wear modest attire that provides gender distinction.
The all-male leadership of an Apostolic Christian church consists of the "elders" of local congregations. The term "elder" has a somewhat different meaning from that in other denominations. Most congregations have one elder, however some have none and in rare instances a congregation may have more than one. The office of elder is seen as equivalent to that of a bishop as described in the epistles of 1 Timothy and Titus. The elder of each congregation has the oversight of the local congregation but is subject to the authority of the other elders throughout the denomination. Once put in place, Ministers, Deacons and Elders can only be removed of their position by death, voluntary retirement or in extreme cases by the national elder body.
- Elders of local congregations are ordained by the Elders of the other congregations, usually after a ballot is taken from the local congregation. Elders are usually selected from the current ministers serving in the local church. Elders perform both religious rites and also conduct ministerial duties.
- Congregations who do not have a locally residing elder are assigned a "Counseling Elder" by the national elder body. Day-to-day business in these congregations is usually handled by an Ordained Deacon, Deacon or "Lead Minister"; depending on the specific situation of each congregation.
- Each local church Elder serves as an equal member within the collective "Elder Body" of all elders who make decisions regarding the denomination.
Deacons and ministers
- Ministers' duties include both preaching and teaching in their home congregation and in other Apostolic Christian congregations. They also assist the Elder or Deacon as the need arises in their home congregation.
- Ministers (including elders and deacons) do not pursue seminary or other education in preparation for the ministry and serve without compensation. An unpaid lay ministry is not considered a doctrinal issue, but a preference for it is recognized in Paul's writings.
- A minister who is ordained as a deacon may assist the local elder with meeting with new converts, performing baptisms, and other duties usually carried out by the elder alone. Most congregations do not have a Deacon, rather they are ordained mostly in very large congregations where the elder needs assistance, or in very small congregations where there is no local elder.
- Kurian, George Thomas; Lamport, Mark A. (10 November 2016). Encyclopedia of Christianity in the United States. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 112. ISBN 9781442244320.
- Mead, Frank S; Hill, Samuel S; Atwood, Craig D, Handbook of Denominations.
- AC Counseling and Family Services.
- Klopfenstein, Perry, Marching to Zion: A History of the Apostolic Christian Church of America.
- Piepkorn, Arthur Carl, Profiles in Belief: the Religious Bodies in the United States and Canada, II.
- Religious Congregations & Membership in the United States, Glenmary Research Center, 2000.
- 2017 and 2018 ACCA Elder Body Memorandums
- "Froehlich" is for all intents and purposes an anglicization of Fröhlich, although use of "oe" (or a similar digraph with a smaller "e" atop the "o") to denote the same sound actually predates the use of the umlaut in written German.