Aposymbiosis occurs when symbiotic organisms live apart from one another (for example, a clownfish living independently of a sea anemone). Studies have shown that the lifecycles of both the host and the symbiote are affected in some way, usually negative, and that for obligate symbiosis the effects can be drastic. Aposymbiosis is distinct from exsymbiosis, which occurs when organisms are recently separated from a symbiotic association.
- A. E. Douglas, Requirement of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) for their symbiotic bacteria, Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata (Historical Archive), Volume 65, Issue 2, Nov 1992, Pages 195–198
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