Appalachian hemlock–northern hardwood forest

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The Appalachian hemlock–northern hardwood forest is a forest system found in the Appalachian Mountains of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia and western North Carolina. These forests occur in deep coves, moist flats, and ravines.


Appalachian hemlock–northern hardwood forests include yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), mountain maple (Acer spicatum), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and beech (Fagus grandifolia). These trees often form a deciduous canopy, but are sometimes mixed with hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) or white pine (Pinus strobus). Other common trees include oaks (most commonly red oak (Quercus rubra)), tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), black cherry (Prunus serotina), and sweet birch (Betula lenta).

Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia), hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), and rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.) are found in the understory.[1][2][3]

Adjacent transitions[edit]

In the north this forest type is replaced by Laurentian–Acadian pine–hemlock–hardwood forest and Laurentian–Acadian northern hardwood forest.[1]


  1. ^ a b "Appalachian (Hemlock)-Northern Hardwood". NatureServe Explorer. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  2. ^ "Natural Communities of Virginia - Terrestrial System - Low Elevation Mesic Forests: Eastern Hemlock Hardwood Forests". Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. Archived from the original on 26 September 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  3. ^ "Hemlock-Northern Hardwood Forest Guide - New York Natural Heritage Program". New York Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 22 October 2012.