|Specialty||Oncology, general surgery|
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare tumors with malignant potential. Primary lymphomas can occur in the appendix. Breast cancer, colon cancer, and tumors of the female genital tract may metastasize to the appendix.
Small carcinoids (<2 cm) without features of malignancy may be treated by appendectomy if complete removal is possible. Other carcinoids and adenocarcinomas may require right hemicolectomy. Note: the term "carcinoids" is outdated: these tumors are now more accurately called "neuroendocrine tumors."
Pseudomyxoma peritonei treatment includes cytoreductive surgery which includes the removal of visible tumor and affected essential organs within the abdomen and pelvis. The peritoneal cavity is infused with heated chemotherapy known as HIPEC in an attempt to eradicate residual disease. The surgery may or may not be preceded or followed with intravenous chemotherapy or HIPEC.
A study of primary malignacies in the United States found a rate of 0.12 cases per 1,000,000 population per year. Carcinoids that were not identified as malignant were not included in this data. Carcinoid is found in roughly 1 in 300-400 appendectomies for acute appendicitis. A Hong Kong case series of 1492 appendectomies identified 17 neoplasms. Eight were carcinoids without specification of malignant features. Three cases of adenocarcinoma, and one each of cystadenocarcinoma, pseudomyxoma peritoneii, and metastasic carcinoma were identified. The remaining tumors were benign. Carcinoid tumors are the most common tumors of the appendix.
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