|Dog (domestic dog)|
The Appenzeller Sennenhund is a Swiss breed of medium-sized working dog. It originates in the Appenzell region of north-eastern Switzerland, and is one of four regional breeds of Sennenhund or Swiss mountain dog, all of which are characterised by a distinctive tricolour coat.
The Appenzeller Sennenhund is the traditional working dog of the Sennen – Alpine cattle-herders and dairymen – of the Appenzell region of north-eastern Switzerland. The earliest written description of it is that of Friedrich von Tschudi in Das Thierleben der Alpenwelt, published in 1853.: 553 In the late nineteenth century Max Sieber, a forester who had seen the dogs at cattle shows in eastern Switzerland, asked the Schweizerische Kynologische Gesellschaft to recognise the breed; a commission was established with financing from the canton of St. Gallen and the Appenzeller Sennenhund was recognised in either 1896 or 1898.: 88 Eight of the dogs were shown at the international dog show in Winterthur in 1898; they were entered in a new Sennenhunde class.
It has spread from Appenzell to other parts of Switzerland and to other European countries. A study published in 2004 found it to be the most-registered breed in the canton of Appenzell, with 259 out of a total of 1358 registrations in the canton, or about 19%; in the whole of Switzerland it accounted for 360 of a total of 33470, or about 1.1% of all dogs registered by the Schweizerische Kynologische Gesellschaft.: 226
It is the only Swiss dog breed considered to be at risk by ProSpecieRara, which lists it as gefährdet, 'endangered'. Numbers are stable but the gene pool is narrow; the association is in collaboration with the breed society, the Schweizerischer Club für Appenzeller Sennenhunde, to broaden it.
The Appenzeller Sennenhund is the third-largest of the Sennenhund or Swiss mountain dog group, which also includes the Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund, the Berner Sennenhund or Bernese Mountain Dog, and the Entlebucher Sennenhund. It is a medium-sized dog: male dogs stand some 52–56 cm at the withers, bitches about 2 cm less; weights are in the range 22–32 kg.: 66
The coat is double, the top-coat thick, straight and glossy. It it always tricoloured: the principal colour may be either black or Havana brown, with white markings to the chest, face and feet, and reddish-brown areas between those and the base colour.
The tail is set high and is carried in a tight curl over the back when the animal is moving. The ears are set high and are triangular and fairly small; they hang close to the cheeks when the animal is at rest, and are raised and turned forward when it is alert. Among the faults that disqualify a dog from registration are a wall eye, a kinked tail, a single coat and a coat that is not three-coloured.: 88 Dogs may be expected to live for some 12–14 years.: 290
The Appenzeller Sennenhund was traditionally used by the Alpine cattle-herders and dairymen of the Appenzell region both to herd cattle and to guard property. It is often kept as a companion dog.
- Appenzeller Sennenhund (in German). Basel: ProSpecieRara. Accessed August 2022.
- Senne. Beolingus. Chemnitz: Technische Universität Chemnitz. Accessed August 2022.
- Jean-Maurice Paschoud (1994). The Swiss canine breeds: FCI-standards. [Bern]: Schweizerische Kynologische Gesellschaft. Cited at: Appenzell Cattle Dog. Bern: Naturhistorische Museum der Burgergemeinde Bern. Archived 5 February 2007.
- Friedrich von Tschudi (1853). Das Thierleben der Alpenwelt: Naturansichten und Thierzeichnungen aus dem schweizerischen Gebirge (in German). Leipzig: J.J. Weber.
- Livio Janett (1 May 2020). Vielseitige Vierbeiner: Die vier Schweizer Sennenhunderassen im Überblick (in German). Münchenbuchsee: BauernZeitung. Archived 6 August 2022.
- Appenzeller Sennenhunde – Rasseportrait (in German). Schweizer Sennenhund-Verein für Deutschland. Accessed August 2022.
- Anne Rogers Clark, Andrew H. Brace (1995). The International Encyclopedia of Dogs. New York: Howell Book House. ISBN 9780876056240.
- FCI breeds nomenclature: Appenzeller Sennenhund (46). Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Accessed August 2022.
- U. Horisberger, K.D.C. Stärk, J. Rüfenacht, C. Pillonel, A. Steiger (2004). Demographie der Hundepopulation in der Schweiz (in German). Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde. 146 (5): 223–232.
- Kooperation mit ProSpecieRara (in German). Schweizerischer Club für Appenzeller Sennenhunde = Club Suisse des Bouviers Appenzellois. Accessed August 2022.
- FCI-Standard N° 46: Appenzeller Sennenhund (Appenzell Cattle Dog). Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Accessed August 2022.
- [Bruce Fogle] (2013). The Dog Encyclopedia. London; New York: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 9781465408440.
- Tamsin Pickeral (2014). Dogs Unleashed. San Diego: Thunder Bay Press. ISBN 9781626860681.