A fully assembled Apple I computer with a homemade wooden computer case
|Also known as||Ruby|
|Release date||April 11, 1976citation needed][|
|Introductory price||US$666.66 (equivalent to $2,777 in 2015)|
|Discontinued||September 30, 1977|
|CPU||MOS 6502 @ 1 MHz|
|Memory||4 KB standard
expandable to 8 KB or 48 KB using expansion cards
|Graphics||40×24 characters, hardware-implemented scrolling|
Apple Computer 1, also known later as the Apple I, or Apple-1, is a desktop computer released by the Apple Computer Company (now Apple Inc.) in 1976. It was designed and hand-built by Steve Wozniak. Wozniak's friend Steve Jobs had the idea of selling the computer. The Apple I was Apple's first product, and to finance its creation, Jobs sold his only motorized means of transportation, a VW Microbus, for a few hundred dollars, and Wozniak sold his HP-65 calculator for $500; however, Wozniak said that Jobs planned to use his bicycle if necessary. It was demonstrated in July 1976 at the Homebrew Computer Club in Palo Alto, California.
Production was discontinued on September 30, 1977, after the June 10, 1977, introduction of its successor, the Apple II, which Byte magazine referred to as part of the "1977 Trinity" of personal computing (along with the PET 2001 and the TRS-80).
On March 5, 1975, Steve Wozniak attended the first meeting of the Homebrew Computer Club in Gordon French's garage. He was so inspired that he immediately set to work on what would become the Apple I computer. After building it for himself and showing it at the Club, he and Steve Jobs gave out schematics (technical designs) for the computer to interested club members and even helped some of them build and test out copies. Then, Steve Jobs suggested that they design and sell a single etched and silkscreened circuit board—just the bare board, no electronic parts—that people could use to build the computers. Wozniak calculated that having the board design laid out would cost $1,000 and manufacturing would cost another $20 per board; he hoped to recoup his costs if 50 people bought the boards for $40 each. To fund this small venture, their first company, Jobs sold his van and Wozniak sold his HP-65 calculator. Very soon after, Steve Jobs arranged to sell "something like 100" completely built computers to the The Byte Shop (a computer store in Mountain View, California) at $500 each. To fulfill the $50,000 order, they obtained $20,000 in parts at 30 days net and delivered the finished product in 10 days.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 at a price of US$666.66, because Wozniak "liked repeating digits" and because of a one-third markup on the $500 wholesale price. Wozniak, who called himself "atheist or agnostic," stated that he was unaware of any Satanic connotations with the number.
The first unit produced was used in a high school math class, and donated to Liza Loop's public access computer center. About 200 units were produced and all but 25 were sold during nine or ten months. Unlike other hobbyist computers of its day, which were sold as kits, the Apple I was a fully assembled circuit board containing over 60 chips. However, to make a working computer, users still had to add a case, power supply transformers, power switch, ASCII keyboard and composite video display. An optional board providing a cassette interface for storage was later released at the cost of $72.
The Apple I's built-in computer terminal circuitry was distinctive. All one needed was a keyboard and an inexpensive television set. Competing machines such as the Altair 8800 generally were programmed with front-mounted toggle switches and used indicator lights (red LEDs, most commonly) for output, and had to be extended with separate hardware to allow connection to a computer terminal or a teletypewriter machine. This made the Apple I an innovative machine for its day. In April 1977, the price was dropped to $475. It continued to be sold through August 1977, despite the introduction of the Apple II in April 1977, which began shipping in June of that year. In October 1977, the Apple I was officially discontinued and removed from Apple's price list. As Wozniak was the only person who could answer most customer support questions about the computer, the company offered Apple I owners discounts and trade-ins for Apple IIs to persuade them to return their computers. These recovered boards were then destroyed by Apple, contributing to their rarity today.
As of 2013, at least 63 Apple I computers have been confirmed to exist. Only six have been verified to be in working condition.
- An Apple I reportedly sold for $50,000 USD at auction in 1999.
- In 2008, the website "Vintage Computing and Gaming" reported that Apple I owner Rick Conte was looking to sell his unit and was "expecting a price in excess of $15,000 US." The site later reported Conte had donated the unit to the Maine Personal Computer Museum in 2009.
- A unit was sold in September 2009 for $17,480 on eBay.
- A unit belonging to early Apple Computer engineers Dick and Cliff Huston was sold on March 23, 2010, for $42,766 on eBay.
- In November 2010, an Apple I sold for £133,250 ($210,000) at Christie's auction house in London. The high price was likely due to the rare documents and packaging offered in the sale in addition to the computer, including the original packaging (with the return label showing Steve Jobs' parents' address, the original Apple Computer Inc 'headquarters' being their garage), a personally typed and signed letter from Jobs (answering technical questions about the computer), and the original invoice showing 'Steven' as the salesman. The computer was brought to Polytechnic University of Turin where it was fixed and used to run the BASIC programming language.
- On June 15, 2012, a working Apple I was sold at auction by Sotheby's for a record $374,500, more than double the expected price. This unit is on display at the Nexon Computer Museum in Jeju City, South Korea.
- In October 2012, a non-working Apple I from the estate of former Apple Computer employee Joe Copson was put up for auction by Christie's, but found no bidder who was willing to pay the starting price of US$80,000 (£50,000). Copson's board had previously been listed on eBay in December 2011, with a starting bid of $170,000 and failed to sell. Following the Christie's auction, the board was restored to working condition by computer historian Corey Cohen. Copson's Apple I was once again listed on eBay, where it sold for US$263,100.03 on April 23, 2015.
- On November 24, 2012, a working Apple I was sold at auction by Auction Team Breker for €400,000 (US$515,000).
- On May 25, 2013, a functioning 1976 model was sold for a record €516,000 (US$668,000) in Cologne. Auction Team Breker said "an unnamed Asian client" bought the Apple I. This particular unit has Wozniak's signature. An old business transaction letter from Jobs also was included, as well as the original owner's manual.
- On June 24, 2013, an Apple I was listed by Christie's as part of a special on-line only auction lot called, "First Bytes: Iconic Technology From the Twentieth Century." Bidding ran through July 9, 2013. The unit sold for $390,000.
- In November 2013, a working unit speculated to have been part of the original lot of 50 boards delivered to The Byte Shop was listed by Auction Team Breker for €180,000 ($242,820), but failed to sell during the auction. Immediately following the close of bidding, a private collector purchased it for €246,000 ($330,000). This board was marked "01-0046," matching the numbering placed on other units sold to The Byte Shop and included the original operation manuals, software cassettes, and shipping box autographed by Steve Wozniak. The board also bears Wozniak's signature.
- In October 2014, a working, early Apple 1 was sold at auction for $905,000 to the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan. The sale included the keyboard, monitor, cassette decks and a manual. The auction was run by Bonhams.
- On December 13, 2014, a fully functioning, early Apple I was sold at auction for $365,000 by auction house Christie's. The sale included a keyboard, custom case, original manual and a check labeled "Purchased July 1976 from Steve Jobs in his parents' garage in Los Altos".
- On May 30, 2015, a woman reportedly dropped off boxes of electronics for disposal at an electronics recycling center in the Silicon Valley of Northern California, and they would now like to contact her. Included in the items removed from her garage after the death of her husband was an original Apple I computer, which the recycling firm sold for $200,000 to a private collector. It is the company's practice to give back 50% of the proceeds to the original owner when an item is sold, so they want to find the mystery donor.
- On September 21, 2015, an Apple I bearing the Byte Shop number 01-0059 was listed by Bonhams Auctions as part of their "History of Science and Technology" auction with a starting bid of US$300,000. The machine was described as, "in near perfect condition." The owner, Tom Romkey, "...only used the Apple-1 once or twice, and ...set it on a shelf, and did not touch it again." The machine did not sell.
- On August 26, 2016, an Apple I prototype dubbed the 'Holy Grail' of computers was sold for $815,000 to winning bidders Glenn and Shannon Dellimore, the co-founders of cosmetics firm Glamglow, in an auction by Charitybuzz. The for-profit internet company that raises funds for nonprofit organizations declared that ten percent of the proceeds will go to the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, based in New York.
Both Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak have stated that Apple did not assign serial numbers to the Apple l. Several boards have been found with numbered stickers affixed to them, which appear to be inspection stickers from the PCB manufacturer/assembler. A batch of boards is known to have numbers hand-written in black permanent marker on the back; these usually appear as "01-00##" and anecdotal evidence suggests they are inventory control numbers added by the Byte Shop to the batch Apple sold them. These Byte Shop numbers have often erroneously been described as serial numbers by auction houses and in related press coverage.
USA Museums displaying an original Apple 1 Computer
- American Computer & Robotics Museum in Bozeman, Montana
- Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California
Clones and replicas
Several Apple I clones and replicas have been released in recent years. These are all created by hobbyists and marketed to the hobbyist/collector community. Availability is usually limited to small runs in response to demand.
- Replica 1: Created by Vince Briel. A software-compatible clone, produced using modern components, released in 2003 at a price of around $200.
- A-One: Created by Frank Achatz, also using modern components.
- Obtronix Apple I reproduction: Created by Steve Gabaly, using original components or equivalents thereof. Sold through eBay.
- Mimeo 1: Created by Mike Willegal. A hardware kit designed to replicate a real Apple I as accurately possible. Buyers are expected to assemble the kits themselves.
- Newton 1: Created by Michael Ng and released in 2012. Similar to the Mimeo 1, but is said to be made using the same obsolete processing technique commonly used in the 1970s. Boards, kits and assembled boards are sold through eBay occasionally. There are both Newton NTI and non-NTI versions available.
- Brain Board, a plug in firmware board for the Apple II that, with the optional "Wozanium Pack" program, can emulate a functional Apple-1.
- MESS, a multi-system emulator able to emulate the Apple I.
- OpenEmulator, an accurate emulator of the Apple I, the ACI (Apple Cassette Interface) and CFFA1 expansion card.
- Pom1, an open source Apple I emulator for Microsoft Windows, Arch Linux and Android devices.
- Apple 1 Emulator, an emulator for the SAM Coupé home computer.
- CocoaPom, a Java-based emulator with a Cocoa front end for Macintosh.
- Sim6502, an Apple I emulator for Macintosh.
- "Co-founder tells his side of Apple story". Reuters. September 27, 2006.
- NPR : A Chat with Computing Pioneer Steve Wozniak
- Kelley: Jobs' vision changed the way we work, play
- Steve Jobs: Steve Wozniak Remembers
- Freiberger, Paul; Swaine, Michael (2000). Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. pp. 265–267. ISBN 0-07-135892-7.
At a Homebrew meeting in July 1976, Woz gave a demonstration of the Apple 1. Paul Terrell, one of the industries earliest retailers, was in attendance.
- "Most Important Companies". Byte. September 1995. Retrieved 2008-06-10.
- Wozniak, Steve (2006). iWoz. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-393-33043-4.
After my first meeting, I started designing the computer that would later be known as the Apple I. It was that inspiring.
- Williams, Gregg; Moore, Rob (December 1984). "The Apple Story / Part 1: Early History". BYTE (interview). pp. A67. Retrieved October 23, 2013.
- "Video: Wozniak: $666.66 seemed like a good idea". CNET News. November 7, 2005. Retrieved February 19, 2009.
- Wozniak, Steven: "iWoz", page 180. W. W. Norton, 2006. ISBN 978-0-393-06143-7
- Steve Wozniak (2002). "Letters-General Questions Answered". Los Gatos, Californiashit: Unuson Corp. Retrieved June 20, 2013.
I am also atheist or agnostic (I don't even know the difference). I've never been to church and prefer to think for myself. I do believe that religions stand for good things, and that if you make irrational sacrifices for a religion, then everyone can tell that your religion is important to you and can trust that your most important inner faiths are strong.
- Brian Riley (2012). "Interview with Steve Wozniak". Davis, California: BrianRiley.us. Retrieved August 17, 2014.
I’m kind of spiritual inside. I have a lot of philosophies of how to be a good person, how to treat people, and I’ve worked them out, thinking over and over, reflecting inside my mind the way shy people do, and I was very shy, and coming up with my own little keys and rules for life, and they stayed with me…
- Turner, Daniel (May 1, 2007). "MIT Technology Review". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
- April 1977 Price List | Applefritter
- Bill of Sale | Applefritter
- October 1977 Price List | Applefritter
- "The Apple II, cont.". Apple II History. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
- "The Huston brothers' Apple-1 Back Story". Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Ong, Josh (November 11, 2010). "Auction of Apple's first computer expected to top $160k". Apple Insider. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
- Edwards, Benj (September 15, 2008), "Apple I For Sale", Vintage Computing and Gaming, archived from the original on March 14, 2016, retrieved April 1, 2016.
- "The Apple 1 Registry". Apple I Mimeo Project. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
- Calande, John (March 24, 2010). "Another very nice Apple-1 sold on ebay yesterday". Retrieved June 16, 2012.
- BBC News (November 23, 2010). "First Apple computer fetches £130,000 at auction". BBC News. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
- "Christie's Sale 7882 / Lot 65". Christie's. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
- Heater, Brian. "$211,000 Apple-1 up and running, wants to know what this 'cloud' thing is all about". engadget. engadget.com. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
- Austin, Scott (June 15, 2012). "Original Apple 1 Computer Sells for $374,500 in Auction". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
- "Rare apple 1 computer no sale at christies auction". ABC News. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
- "Rare working Apple-1 pops up on eBay with Cassette board accessory". iPhone Hacks. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
- "Early 1976 Apple-1 computer, from the garage of Steve Jobs". Retrieved September 30, 2015.
- "the-saleroom.com". ATG Media. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
- "Vintage Apple computer auctioned off for $668,000". Yahoo News. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- "First Apple Computer Sells for $390,000 in Christie's Technology Auction". International Business Times. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- "Apple I auction fails to break 500K". Macmint. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- "Apple 1 Sold for $330k After Auction Close". Cult of Mac. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- "Apple-1 computer sold at auction for $905,000". Fox News. Retrieved October 22, 2014.
- "Computer sold by Steve Jobs out of his parents' garage raises $365,000 at auction". Yahoo!. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- "Mystery Woman Dumps Rare, Collectable Apple Computer Worth $200K At Recycling Center". Milpitas: CBS News. 2015-05-30. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
- "Apple 1 computer worth $200K left at recycling centre". CBC News. 2015-05-31. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
A recycling centre in the Silicon Valley is looking for a woman who dropped off an old Apple computer that turned out to be a collectible item worth $200,000 US.
- "Lot 77 APPLE-1 COMPUTER". Bonhams Auctions. 21 September 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- "Early Apple computer fails to sell". BBC News. 22 September 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Fried, Ina (2016-08-26). "This rare Apple 1 prototype, possibly assembled by Steve Jobs, sold to cosmetics executives for $815,000". Recode. Retrieved 2016-08-28.
- "'First Apple computer' sells for $815,000 - BBC News". Retrieved 2016-08-28.
- "The Apple 1 Registry". Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- replica I – the apple I(c) clone, retrieved August 15, 2009
- replica I Archived January 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. at official Briel computers web site, retrieved August 15, 2008
- Gagne, Ken Image gallery: Building an Apple-1 replica from scratch, Computerworld, 2009-08-14, story with pictures for assembling a Briel replica I from a kit, retrieved August 15, 2009
- Owad, Tom Apple I Replica Creation, retrieved August 15, 2009
- Achatz Electronics, retrieved July 29, 2013, archived May 13, 2012
- Vectronics Apple World: Obtronix Apple I Reproduction Archived July 26, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., retrieved July 8, 2013
- Mimeo 1 kit, retrieved July 8, 2013
- Apple 1 Replica (Newton 1) Running Test Program, retrieved September, 2016
- Album of Newton 1 (by Michael Ng) including a side by side comparison with what believed to be one of the original boards, retrieved September, 2016
- The Brain Board with Wozanium Pack, retrieved February 2, 2014
- Pom1 Apple 1 Emulator, retrieved July 17, 2013
- Apple 1 Emulator - SAM Coupé, retrieved July 17, 2013
- CocoaPom Apple 1 Emulator, retrieved July 17, 2013
- Sim6502 Apple I emulator retrieved July 17, 2013
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Apple I.|
- Bugbook Computer Museum blog. Apple 1 display.
- Apple I Owners Club
- Apple I Operational Manual
- Apple I project on www.sbprojects.com
- Apple 1 Computer Registry
- Macintosh Prehistory: The Apple I
- LCF Historical Collection – Apple 1 Video
- John Calande III blog – Building the Apple I clone
- Apple 1 Computer sold at auction for $671,000
- Apple 1 Short Film
April 11, 1976