Apple motion coprocessors

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Apple M-series coprocessors
NXP LPC18A1.jpg
The NXP LPC18A1, also known as the M7 motion coprocessor
General information
LaunchedSeptember 2013
Discontinuedpresent
Designed byM7, M8: NXP Semiconductors
Common manufacturer(s)
Product codeM7: LPC18A1[1]
M8: LPC18B1[2]
Performance
Max. CPU clock rate150[3] MHz
Architecture and classification
Min. feature size90 nm[3]
MicroarchitectureCortex-M3[3]
Instruction setARMv7-M[3]
Physical specifications
Cores

The Apple M-series coprocessors are motion coprocessors used by Apple Inc. in their mobile devices. First released in 2013, their function is to collect sensor data from integrated accelerometers, gyroscopes and compasses and offload the collecting and processing of sensor data from the main central processing unit (CPU).

As of September 2020, the M-series coprocessors so far released have been the M7 (codename Oscar), the M8, the M9, the M10, the M11, the M12, the M13 and the M14. The M7 was introduced in September 2013 with the iPhone 5S[4][5] and the updated version, M8 was introduced in September 2014 with the iPhone 6 and also processes data from the barometer that is included in the iPhone 6 and iPad Air 2.[6][7] September 2015 brought the M9 motion coprocessor embedded within the A9 chip found in the iPhone 6S, iPhone 6S Plus, first-generation iPhone SE[8] and within the A9X chip found in the iPad Pro.[9][10] The iPhone 7, iPad Pro 10.5-inch and 12.9-inch feature the M10 motion coprocessor.[11] Apple included the M11 in the iPhone 8, 8 Plus and iPhone X.[12] The most recent addition to the M-series processor line is the M14, which first appeared embedded into the A14 Bionic processor found in the iPhone 12, 12 mini, 12 Pro and 12 Pro Max as well as the iPad Air (4th generation).

Chipworks found that the M7 most likely is a NXP LPC1800 based microcontroller called LPC18A1. It uses an ARM Cortex-M3 core with a customised packaging and naming scheme indicating that it is for an Apple customized part.[1] iFixit have identified the M8 in the iPhone 6 to be an NXP device with a very similar name, the LPC18B1.[2][13] The later coprocessors are embedded into the A-series SoCs.

Usage[edit]

The Apple M7, M8, M9, M10, M11, M12, M13 and M14 coprocessors collect, process, and store sensor data even if the device is asleep, and applications can retrieve data when the device is powered up again. This reduces power draw of the device and saves battery life.[14] In addition to servicing the accelerometer, gyroscope, compass, and in M8 and later coprocessors, barometer, the M9 coprocessor can recognize Siri voice commands from the built in microphones of the device.[15]

The M-series motion coprocessors are accessible to applications through the Core Motion API introduced in iOS 7, so they do, for example, allow fitness apps that track physical activity and access data from the M processors without constantly engaging the main application processor. They enable applications to be aware of what type of movement the user is experiencing, such as driving, walking, running, or sleeping.[16][17][18] Another application could be the ability to do indoor tracking and mapping.[19] In iOS 10, the motion coprocessor is used to implement raise-to-wake functionality, reducing idle energy usage.

Products[edit]

Coprocessor Processor Launched Discontinued iPhone iPad Other
Apple M7
(LPC18A1)
Apple A7 September 20, 2013 March 21, 2017 iPhone 5S iPad Air
iPad mini 2
iPad mini 3
(none)
Apple M8
(LPC18B1)
Apple A8 September 9, 2014 May 28, 2019 iPhone 6[2]
iPhone 6 Plus[13]
iPad Mini 4 iPod Touch (6th generation)
Apple A8X October 16, 2014 March 21, 2017 (none) iPad Air 2 (none)
Apple M9 Apple A9 September 9, 2015 September 12, 2018 iPhone 6S
iPhone 6S Plus
iPhone SE (1st generation)
iPad (5th generation) (none)
Apple A9X September 9, 2015 June 5, 2017 (none) iPad Pro 9.7"
iPad Pro 12.9" (1st generation)
(none)
Apple M10 Apple A10 Fusion September 7, 2016 Present iPhone 7
iPhone 7 Plus
iPad (6th generation)

iPad (7th generation)

iPod Touch (7th generation)
Apple A10X Fusion June 16, 2017 Present (none) iPad Pro 10.5"
iPad Pro 12.9" (2nd generation)
Apple TV 4K
Apple M11 Apple A11 Bionic September 12, 2017 April 15, 2020 iPhone 8
iPhone 8 Plus
iPhone X
(none) (none)
Apple M12 Apple A12 Bionic September 12, 2018 Present iPhone XS
iPhone XS Max
iPhone XR
iPad Air (3rd generation)
iPad mini (5th generation)
iPad (8th generation)
(none)
Apple A12X Bionic October 30, 2018 March 18, 2020 (none) iPad Pro 11" (1st generation)
iPad Pro 12.9" (3rd generation)
(none)
Apple A12Z Bionic March 18, 2020 Present (none) iPad Pro 11" (2nd generation)
iPad Pro 12.9" (4th generation)
Developer Transition Kit (DTK)
Apple M13 Apple A13 Bionic September 10, 2019 Present iPhone 11
iPhone 11 Pro
iPhone 11 Pro Max
iPhone SE (2nd generation)
(none) (none)
Apple M14 Apple A14 Bionic September 15, 2020 Present iPhone 12

iPhone 12 mini

iPhone 12 Pro

iPhone 12 Pro Max

iPad Air (4th generation) (none)

[20]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Tanner, Jason; Morrison, Jim; James, Dick; Fontaine, Ray; Gamache, Phil (September 20, 2013). "Inside the iPhone 5s". Chipworks. Archived from the original on August 3, 2014. Retrieved September 20, 2013.
  2. ^ a b c "iPhone 6 Plus Teardown". iFixit. Retrieved 2014-09-20.
  3. ^ a b c d e NXP 150 MHz, 32-bit Cortex-M3 microcontrollers LPC1800 (PDF) (Technical report). NXP Semiconductors. September 2010. 9397 750 17002. Retrieved September 20, 2013.
  4. ^ Estes, Adam Clark (2013-09-10). "How Apple's M7 Chip Makes the iPhone 5S the Ultimate Tracking Device". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2013-09-13.
  5. ^ Sumra, Husain (2013-09-10). "iPhone 5s Includes New 'M7' Motion Coprocessor for Health and Fitness Tracking". MacRumors. Retrieved 2013-09-13.
  6. ^ "iPhone 6 - Technology". Apple. Archived from the original on 2014-09-09.
  7. ^ "iPad Air 2 - Performance". Apple. Archived from the original on 2014-10-16.
  8. ^ "iPhone SE - Technical Specifications". Apple. Archived from the original on 2016-06-16. Retrieved 2016-06-14.
  9. ^ "Apple Introduces iPhone 6s & iPhone 6s Plus" (Press release). Apple. 2016-09-09.
  10. ^ "iPad Pro". Apple. Archived from the original on 2015-09-13.
  11. ^ "iPhone 7 - Technical Specifications". Apple. Archived from the original on 2016-09-08. Retrieved 2016-09-08.
  12. ^ "iPhone X - Technical Specifications". Apple. Archived from the original on 2017-09-17. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
  13. ^ a b "iPhone 6 Teardown". iFixit. Retrieved 2014-09-20.
  14. ^ Lal Shimpi, Anand (2013-09-17). "The iPhone 5s Review: M7 Motion Coprocessor". AnandTech. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
  15. ^ "iPhone 6s - Technology". Apple. September 8, 2015. Archived from the original on September 13, 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
  16. ^ Martin, Mel (2013-09-12). "The iPhone's M7 Motion coprocessor and Maps". TUAW. Retrieved 2013-09-13.
  17. ^ Colon, Alex (2013-09-12). "Apple's M7 coprocessor might bring big improvements to its mapping abilities". GigaOM. Retrieved 2013-09-13.
  18. ^ Burns, Chris (2013-09-12). "iPhone 5S Apple M7 coprocessor "knows" when you are sleeping". SlashGear. Retrieved 2013-09-13.
  19. ^ Gurman, Mark (2013-09-12). "iPhone's M7 motion processor to integrate with Maps as Apple develops indoor mapping, public transit". 9to5Mac. Retrieved 2013-09-13.
  20. ^ https://www.apple.com/ipad-pro/specs/