Applications of virtual reality
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- 1 Architectural and urban design
- 2 Digital marketing and activism
- 3 Education and training
- 4 Engineering and robotics
- 5 Entertainment
- 6 Fine arts
- 7 Healthcare and clinical therapies
- 8 Heritage and archaeology
- 9 Occupational safety
- 10 Social science and psychology
- 11 Disadvantages and drawbacks to virtual reality
- 12 References
Architectural and urban design
One of the first recorded uses of virtual reality in architecture was in the late 1980s when the University of North Carolina modeled its Sitterman Hall, home of its computer science department, in a virtual environment. Designers can wear a headset and use a hand controller to move about a virtual space.W ith an Autodesk Revit model they can walk through a schematic design. VR enables architects to better understand the details of a project such as the transition of materials, exploring sightlines, or visually displaying wall stress, wind loads, solar heat gain or other engineering factors. By 2010, VR programs were developed for urban regeneration, planning and transportation projects.
Digital marketing and activism
Virtual reality's growing market presents an opportunity and an alternative channel for digital marketing. The International Data Corporation expects spending to increase for augmented and virtual reality; forecasting a compound annual growth rate of 198% in 2015–2020, reaching $143.3 billion in the final year. It is also estimated that global spending on digital advertisements will increase to $335.5 billion by 2020. However, it is encouraged that utilising technology as a marketing tool should be based on its potential results rather than its number of users. In 2015, a study revealed 75% of Forbes' World Most Valuable Brands had developed a VR or AR experience. Although VR is not as widespread among consumers compared to other forms of digital media, companies have increased their use of VR in recent years.
Consumers can learn in detail about products through VR. It can present high definition, three-dimensional images and interactivity with a product, increasing its telepresence. Its marketing benefits are observed by Suh and Lee through their laboratory experiments: with a VR interface, participants' product knowledge and product attitude had noticeably increased. VR marketing can engage consumers' emotions. Both studies indicate an increased desire to purchase products marketed through VR; however, these benefits showed minimal return on investment (ROI) compared to the costs of VR. Suh and Lee also found that a product's type impacts VR marketing's effect on consumers. Products that are primarily sensed through hearing and vision are more likely to be advertised effectively through VR. Products experienced primarily through other senses cannot have their attributes adequately reflected in VR.
The design of a VR advertisement is an important consideration as it can affect brand equity. Without a feature for consumers to prevent VR advertisements, they may consider them invasive and react negatively. In this method, it is considered interruption marketing. Consumers want information to be presented in a format where they can observe its relevance before investing their time. Organizations are able to make interaction with their VR campaign optional. For example, UNICEF requires the user to download a mobile app before experiencing their VR campaign.
VR has allowed organizations to engage their target audience through a variety of methods. Non-profit organizations have used VR to bring potential supporters closer to distant social, political and environmental issues in immersive ways not possible with traditional media. Panoramic views of the conflict in Syria and face-to-face encounters with CGI tigers in Nepal have been used in experiential activation and shared online for educational and fundraising purposes.
Retailers developed systems which allow their products to be seen in VR to provide consumers with a clearer idea of how the product will look and fit in their home without entering a physical store. Consumers looking at digital photos of the products can "turn" each product around virtually to view it from the side or back.
Companies have developed software or services to allow architectural design firms and real estate clients to tour virtual models of proposed buildings. During the design process, architects can use VR to experience their developing designs so as to provide the correct sense of scale and proportion. VR models can replace physical miniatures to demonstrate a design to clients or the public. In addition, developers and owners can create VR models of built spaces, allowing potential buyers or tenants to tour them in VR. This is particularly beneficial when real-life circumstances make a physical tour unfeasible.
Education and training
VR is used to provide learners with a virtual environment where they can develop their skills without the real-world consequences of failing. It has also been used and studied in primary education. For example, in Japan's online high school ("N High School") VR plays a major role in education. Even the school's opening ceremony was a virtual experience for 73 of the students: they received headsets, which were connected to the campus hundreds of miles away – so they got to listen to the principal's opening speech without having to travel so far. According to the school's workers, they wanted to give the students a chance to experience VR technology, before having to use it "live" as part of their education. The specific device used to provide the VR experience, whether it be through a mobile phone or desktop computer, does not appear to impact on any educational benefit.
Thomas A. Furness III was one of the first to develop the use of VR for military training when, in 1982, he presented the United States Air Force with a working model of his virtual flight simulator the Visually Coupled Airborne Systems Simulator (VCASS). The second phase of his project, which he called the "Super Cockpit", was even more advanced, with high-resolution graphics (for the time) and a responsive display. Furness is often credited as a pioneer in virtual reality for this research. The United Kingdom Ministry of Defense has been using VR in military training since the 1980s. The United States military announced the Dismounted Soldier Training System in 2012. It was cited as the first fully immersive military VR training system.
Supplementing military training with virtual training environments has been claimed to offer avenues of realism in military training while minimizing cost. It also has been said to minimize the amounts of ammunition expended during training periods, reducing costs. The stated motivations for virtual environments is not to replace guided instruction. In 2016, researchers at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory reported that informed feedback by instructors is necessary for virtual training environment technology. Virtual environments have been said to be used in many ways, examples being combined arms training, instructing soldiers to learn when to shoot, etc.
Military programs such as Battle Command Knowledge Systems (BCKS) and Advanced Soldier Sensor Information and Technology (ASSIST) were intended to assist the development of virtual technology. Described goals of the ASSIST initiative were to develop software and wearable sensors for soldiers to improve battlefield awareness and data collection. Researchers stated that these programs would allow the soldier to update their virtual environment as conditions change. Virtual Battlespace 3 (VBS3, successor to the earlier versions VBS1 and VBS2), is a military training solution based off a Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) virtual technology. Live, Virtual, Constructive – Integrated Architecture (LVC-IA) is a technology that allows for multiple training systems to work together to create an integrated training environment. Reported primary uses of the LVC-IA were live training, virtual training, and constructive training. In 2014, the LVC-IA version 1.3 was made to include VBS3. This technology is expected to be eventually replaced by the Army's Synthetic Training Environment (STE) once it is developed.
NASA has used VR technology for decades. Most notable is their use of immersive VR to train astronauts while they are still on Earth. Such applications of VR simulations include exposure to zero-gravity work environments and training on how to spacewalk. Astronauts can even simulate what it is like to work with tools in space while using low cost 3D printed mock up tools.
Flight and vehicular applications
Flight simulators are a form of VR pilot training. They can range from a fully enclosed module to a series of computer monitors providing the pilot's point of view. By the same token, virtual driving simulations are used to train tank drivers on the basics before allowing them to operate the real vehicle. Similar principles are applied in truck driving simulators for specialized vehicles such as firetrucks. As these drivers often have less opportunity for real-world experience, VR training provides additional training time.
VR technology has many useful applications in the medical field. Simulated surgeries allow surgeons to practice their technical skills without any risk to patients. Numerous studies have shown that physicians who receive surgical training via VR simulations improve dexterity and performance in the operating room significantly more than control groups. Through VR, medical students and novice surgeons have the ability to view and experience complex surgeries without stepping into the operating room. On April 14, 2016, Shafi Ahmed was the first surgeon to broadcast an operation in virtual reality; viewers followed the surgery in real time from the surgeon's perspective. The VR technology allowed viewers to explore the full range of activities in the operating room as it was streamed by a 4K 360fly camera.
Engineering and robotics
The use of 3D computer-aided design (CAD) data was limited by 2D monitors and paper printouts until the mid-to-late 1990s, when video projectors, 3D tracking, and computer technology enabled a renaissance in the use of 3D CAD data in virtual reality environments. With the use of active shutter glasses and multi-surface projection units immersive engineering was made possible by companies like VRcom and IC.IDO. Virtual reality has been used in automotive, aerospace, and ground transportation original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in their product engineering and manufacturing engineering. Virtual reality adds more dimensions to virtual prototyping, product building, assembly, service, performance use-cases. This enables engineers from different disciplines to view their design as its final product. Engineers can view the virtual bridge, building or other structure from any angle. Some computer models allow engineers to test their structure's resistance to winds, weight, and other elements. Immersive VR engineering systems enable engineers to see virtual prototypes prior to the availability of any physical prototypes.
Virtual reality has been used to control robots in telepresence and telerobotic systems. It has been used in robotics development. For example, in experiments that investigate how robots—through virtual articulations—can be applied as an intuitive human user interface. Another example is the use of robots that are remotely controlled in dangerous environments such as space. Here, virtual reality not only offers insights into the manipulation and locomotion of robotic technology but also shows opportunities for inspection.
Several early commercial virtual reality headsets were released for gaming during the early-mid 1990s. These included the Virtual Boy developed by Nintendo, the iGlasses developed by Virtual I-O, the Cybermaxx developed by Victormaxx and the VFX1 Headgear developed by Forte Technologies. Since 2010, commercial tethered headsets for VR gaming include the Oculus Rift, the HTC Vive and PlayStation VR. Additionally, the Samsung Gear VR is an example of a mobile-phone based device.
Other modern examples of narrow VR for gaming include the Wii Remote, the Kinect, and the PlayStation Move/PlayStation Eye, all of which track and send motion input of the players to the game console. Many devices have been developed to compliment VR programs with specific controllers or haptic feedback systems. Following the widespread release of commercial VR headsets in the mid-2010s, several VR-specific and VR versions of popular video games have been released.
Films produced for VR permit the audience to view a 360-degree environment. This can involve the use of VR cameras to produce films and series that are interactive in VR. Pornographic studios apply VR into their products, usually shooting from an angle that resembles POV-style porn.
The 2016 World Chess Championship match between Magnus Carlsen and Sergey Karjakin, was promoted as "the first in any sport to be broadcast in 360-degree virtual reality." However, a VR telecast featuring Oklahoma hosting Ohio State, took place September 17, 2016. The telecasts (which used roughly 180 degrees of rotation, not the 360 required for full VR) were made available through paid smartphone apps and head-mounted displays.
Since 2015, virtual reality has been installed onto a number of roller coasters and theme parks. The Void is a virtual reality theme park in Pleasant Grove, Utah that has attractions where, by using virtual reality, AR and customized mechanical rooms, an illusion of tangible reality is created by the use of multiple senses.
Music and concerts
VR can allow individuals to attend concerts without actually being there. The experience of VR concerts can feel passive with the lack of interaction between the user and the performers and audience, but it can be enhanced using feedback from user's heartbeat rates and brainwaves. Virtual reality can also be used for other forms of music, such as music videos and music visualization or visual music applications.
Family entertainment centers
Since 2015, roller coasters and theme parks have incorporated virtual reality to match visual effects with haptic feedback. Virtual Reality Attractions can now be found in many Family Entertainment Centers (FECs), and increasingly hold a substantial presence in FEC Expos such as the major International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions (IAAPA) Expo. In March 2018, a VR system for waterslides was launched at the Galaxy Erding in Germany, using a waterproof headset.
David Em was the first fine artist to create navigable virtual worlds in the 1970s. His early work was done on mainframes at Information International, Inc., Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology.
Virtopia was the first VR Artwork to be premièred at a film festival. Created by artist/researcher Jacquelyn Ford Morie with researcher Mike Goslin, it debuted at the 1992 Florida Film Festival. Subsequent screenings of a more developed version of the project were at the 1993 Florida Film Festival and at SIGGRAPH 1994's emerging tech venue, The Edge. Morie was one of the first artists to focus on emotional content in VR experiences. Other artists to explore the early artistic potential of VR through the 1990s include Jeffrey Shaw, Ulrike Gabriel, Char Davies, Maurice Benayoun, Knowbotic Research, Rebecca Allen and Perry Hoberman.
The first Canadian virtual reality film festival was the FIVARS Festival of International Virtual & Augmented Reality Stories, founded in 2015 by Keram Malicki-Sánchez. In 2016, the first Polish VR program, The Abakanowicz Art Room was realized – it was documentation of the art office of Magdalena Abakanowicz made by Jarosław Pijarowski and Paweł Komorowski. Some museums have begun making some of their content virtual reality accessible including the British Museum and the Guggenheim.
Healthcare and clinical therapies
A 2017 Goldman Sachs report examined VR and AR uses in healthcare. VR devices are also used in clinical therapy. Some companies are adapting VR for fitness by using gamification concepts to encourage exercise.
Virtual reality has been used in rehabilitation since the 2000s. Despite numerous studies conducted, good quality evidence of its efficacy compared to other rehabilitation methods without sophisticated and expensive equipment is lacking for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. A 2018 review on the effectiveness of mirror therapy by virtual reality and robotics for any type of pathology concluded in a similar way.
Surgery training can be done via virtual reality. To allow this, 360° video is recorded during operations and the data thus obtained can (together with other data) be shared online. Through virtual reality, physicians can produce a three dimensional model that patients can see and manipulate. This allows surgeons to map out the surgery ahead of time.
Anxiety disorder treatment
Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is a form of exposure therapy for treating anxiety disorders such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and phobias. Studies have indicated that when VRET is combined with other forms of behavioral therapy, patients experience a reduction of symptoms. In some cases, patients no longer meet the DSM-V criteria for PTSD after a series of treatments with VRET.
Immersive VR has been studied for acute pain management, on the theory that it may distract people, reducing their experience of pain. Researchers theorize that immersive VR helps with pain reduction by distracting the mind and flooding sensories with a positive experience.
Heritage and archaeology
Virtual reality enables heritage sites to be recreated extremely accurately so that the recreations can be published in various media. The original sites are often inaccessible to the public or, due to the poor state of their preservation, hard to depict. This technology can be used to develop virtual replicas of caves, natural environment, old towns, monuments, sculptures and archaeological elements. The first use of VR in a heritage application was in 1994 when a museum visitor interpretation provided an interactive "walk-through" of a 3D reconstruction of Dudley Castle in England as it was in 1550. This consisted of a computer controlled laserdisc-based system designed by British-based engineer Colin Johnson. The system was featured in a conference held by the British Museum in November 1994, and in the subsequent technical paper, Imaging the Past – Electronic Imaging and Computer Graphics in Museums and Archaeology.
VR simulates real workplaces for occupational safety and health purposes. Information and projection technology are used to produce a virtual, three-dimensional, dynamic work environment. Within work scenarios for example some parts of a machine move of their own accord while others can be moved by human operators. Perspective, angle of view, and acoustic and haptic properties change according to where the person is standing and how he or she moves relative to the environment. VR technology allows human information processing close to real life situations.
VR enables all phases of a product life cycle, from design, through use, up to disposal, to be simulated, analysed and optimised. VR can be used for OSH purposes to:
- Review and improve the usability of products and processes whilst their development and design are still in progress. This can visualize errors during development and reduces the need for subsequent modifications.
- Systematically and empirically review design solutions for the human-system interfaces and their influence upon human behaviour. This reduces the need for physical modifications to machinery, and for extensive field studies.
- Safely test potentially hazardous products, processes and safety concepts. This avoids actual hazards during the study of human-system interaction.
- Identify cause-effect relationships following accidents on and involving products. This saves material, personnel, time and financial outlay associated with in-situ testing.
Social science and psychology
Virtual reality offers social scientists and psychologists a cost-effective tool to study and replicate interactions in a controlled environment. It enables a new form of perspective-taking by allowing an individual to embody a virtual avatar. Research in this area suggests that embodying another being presents a very different experience from solely imagining one's self in a digital form. Researchers have used the immersion of virtual reality to investigate how digital stimuli can alter human perception, emotion and physiological state, and how it has transformed social interaction, in addition to studying how digital interaction can enact social change in the physical world.
Altering perception, emotion and physiological states
Studies have considered how the form we take in virtual reality can affect our perception and actions. One study suggests that embodying the body of a young child can influence perception of object sizes such that objects are perceived as being much larger than if the objects were perceived by an individual embodying an adult body. Similarly, another study has found that white individuals who embodied the form of a dark-skinned avatar performed a drumming task with a more varied style than when they were represented by a pair of white-shaded hands and in comparison to individuals who embodied a light-skin avatar. As a whole, these works suggest that immersive virtual reality can create body-transfer illusions capable of influencing how humans respond to different circumstances.
Research exploring perception, emotions and physiological responses within virtual reality suggest that controlled virtual environments can alter how a person feels or responds to stimuli. For example, a controlled virtual environment of a park coupled with a strong perceived feeling of presence causes an individual to feel anxious or relaxed. Similarly, simulated driving through areas of darkness in a virtual tunnel can induce fear. Social interaction with virtual characters in a virtual environment has also been shown to produce physiological responses such as changes in heart rate and galvanic skin responses. In fact, individuals with high levels of social anxiety were found to have larger changes in heart rate than their more socially confident counterparts.
The sense of presence in virtual reality is also linked to the triggering of emotional and physiological responses. Research suggests that a strong presence can facilitate an emotional response, and this emotional response can further increase one's feeling of presence. Similarly, breaks in presence (or a loss in the sense of presence) can cause physiological changes.
Understanding biases and stereotypes
Researchers have utilized embodied perspective-taking in virtual reality to evaluate whether changing a person's self-representation may help in reducing bias against particular social groups. However, the nature of the relationship between embodiment and implicit bias is not yet clear as studies have demonstrated contrasting effects. Individuals who embodied the avatars of old people have demonstrated a significant reduction in negative stereotyping of the elderly when compared with individuals placed in avatars of young people. Similarly, light-skinned individuals placed in avatars with a dark body have shown a reduction in their implicit racial bias. However, other research has shown individuals taking the form of a black avatar had higher levels of implicit racial bias favoring whites after leaving the virtual environment than individuals who were embodied as white avatars.
Disadvantages and drawbacks to virtual reality
Motion sickness is a major drawback of virtual reality. There is an inevitable delay between motion of the user's head and the updating of the screen image. If this is severe enough, the user will experience discomfort. It has been known that users often report discomfort due to use. In a study reported by Ruddle et al. all 12 participants complained of at least two side effects while three had to withdraw from severe nausea and dizziness.
Virtual reality users exclude themselves from the environment. By doing so, there is a higher risk of accidents by walking into tables, etc. Users must immerse themselves into the technology and this can cause social exclusion which may lead to a decrease in positive mood ratings and increased anger ratings. Behavioral responses can be influenced by time spent in VR. There has been evidence that behavior in virtual reality can have lasting psychological impact when in the physical world. Behavioral changes can be beneficial or harmful depending on the situation. The virtual reality world can lead to false hope or therapeutic misconception.
- "Applications of Virtual Reality". 2017-05-05. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
- "Li R.Y.M. (2018) Virtual Reality and Construction Safety. In: An Economic Analysis on Automated Construction Safety. Springer, Singapore".
- Barlow, John Perry (1990). "Being in Nothingness: Virtual Reality and the Pioneers of Cyberspace". Electronic Frontiers Foundation.
- A virtual revolution: How VR can enhance design, for architect and client
- Roudavski, S. (2010). Virtual Environments as Techno-Social Performances: Virtual West Cambridge Case-Study, in CAADRIA2010: New Frontiers, the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, ed. by Bharat Dave, Andrew I-kang Li, Ning Gu and Hyoung-June Park, pp. 477-486
- Llorca, Josep (2018-04-12). "Virtual Reality for Urban Sound Design: A Tool for Architects and Urban Planners". Artificial Intelligence - Emerging Trends and Applications. doi:10.5772/intechopen.75957. ISBN 978-1-78923-364-3.
- Shirer, Michael; Torchia, Marcus (February 27, 2017). "Worldwide Spending on Augmented and Virtual Reality Forecast to Reach $13.9 Billion in 2017, According to IDC". International Data Corporation. International Data Corporation. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
- "Digital advertising spending worldwide from 2015 to 2020 (in billion U.S. dollars)". Statista. Statista. October 1, 2016. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
- Chaffey, Dave; Ellis-Chadwick, Fiona (2016). Digital Marketing. Loughborough University: Pearson. p. 11,44. ISBN 9781292077611.
- Deflorian, Adam (August 15, 2016). "How Virtual Reality Can Revolutionize Digital Marketing". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
- Matia, Alexa. "What the Rise of Virtual Reality Means for Marketers". Convinceandconvert. Convinceandconvert. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- Suh, Kil-Soo; Lee, Young Eun (Dec 1, 2005). "The Effects of Virtual Reality on Consumer Learning: An Empirical Investigation". MIS Quarterly. 29 (4): 673, 680, 681, 691. doi:10.2307/25148705. JSTOR 25148705.
- Kirkpatrick, David (March 15, 2012). "Marketing 101: What is conversion?". Marketingsherpa Blog. Marketingsherpa Blog. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
The point at which a recipient of a marketing message performs a desired action.
- Ryan, Damian (November 3, 2016). Understanding Digital Marketing: Marketing Strategies for Engaging the Digital Generation. London: Kogan Page Limited. p. 29. ISBN 978-0749478438.
- "Unicef 360". Unicef 360. Unicef. 2016. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- "Tiger Experience: Adopt a Tiger". World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
- Kirsner, Scott (May 5, 2016). "Adding a level of reality to online shopping". The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- "CG Garage Podcast #61 | Shane Scranton – IrisVR – Chaos Group Labs". labs.chaosgroup.com. Retrieved 2016-02-26.
- "Online High School In Japan Enters Virtual Reality". blogs.wsj.com. 2016-04-07.
- Moro, Christian; Štromberga, Zane; Stirling, Allan (2017-11-29). "Virtualisation devices for student learning: Comparison between desktop-based (Oculus Rift) and mobile-based (Gear VR) virtual reality in medical and health science education". Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. 33 (6). doi:10.14742/ajet.3840. ISSN 1449-5554.
- Chesher, Chris (1994). "Colonizing Virtual Reality: Construction of the Discourse of Virtual Reality". Cultronix.
- "How VR is training the perfect soldier". Wareable. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- "DSTS: First immersive virtual training system fielded". www.army.mil. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- "Virtual reality used to train Soldiers in new training simulator".
- Shufelt, Jr., J.W. (2006) A Vision for Future Virtual Training. In Virtual Media for Military Applications (pp. KN2-1 – KN2-12). Meeting Proceedings RTO-MP-HFM-136, Keynote 2. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: RTO. Available from: http://www.rto.nato.int/abstracts.asp
- Smith, Roger (2010-02-01). "The Long History of Gaming in Military Training". Simulation & Gaming. 41 (1): 6–19. doi:10.1177/1046878109334330. ISSN 1046-8781.
- Bukhari, Hatim; Andreatta, Pamela; Goldiez, Brian; Rabelo, Luis (2017-01-01). "A Framework for Determining the Return on Investment of Simulation-Based Training in Health Care". INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing. 54: 0046958016687176. doi:10.1177/0046958016687176. ISSN 0046-9580. PMC 5798742. PMID 28133988.
- Maxwell, Douglas (2016-07-17). "Application of Virtual Environments for Infantry Soldier Skills Training: We are Doing it Wrong". Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 9740. pp. 424–432. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-39907-2_41. ISBN 9783319399065.
- Technology evaluations and performance metrics for soldier-worn sensors for assist BA Weiss, C Schlenoff, M Shneier, A Virts - Performance Metrics for Intelligent Systems Workshop, 2006
- "Bohemia Interactive Simulations". bisimulations.com. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
- "STAND-TO!". www.army.mil. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
- "Army Shoots for Single Synthetic Training Environment". GovTechWorks. 2015-11-17. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
- "NASA shows the world its 20-year virtual reality experiment to train astronauts: The inside story - TechRepublic". TechRepublic. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- James, Paul (2016-04-19). "A Look at NASA's Hybrid Reality Astronaut Training System, Powered by HTC Vive – Road to VR". Road to VR. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- "How NASA is Using Virtual and Augmented Reality to Train Astronauts". Unimersiv. 2016-04-11. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- "Hybrid Reality Astronaut Training Will NASA Prepare Astronauts | NASA Blog". The Official NVIDIA Blog. 2016-08-01. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- Dourado, Antônio O.; Martin, C.A. (2013). "New concept of dynamic flight simulator, Part I". Aerospace Science and Technology. 30 (1): 79–82. doi:10.1016/j.ast.2013.07.005.
- "How Virtual Reality Military Applications Work". 2007-08-27.
- RDS. "Nieuws Pivo en VDAB bundelen rijopleiding vrachtwagens". Het Nieuwsblad. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Kuehn, Bridget M. (2018). "Virtual and Augmented Reality Put a Twist on Medical Education". JAMA. 319 (8): 756–758. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.20800. PMID 29417140.
- Seymour, Neal E.; Gallagher, Anthony G.; Roman, Sanziana A.; O'Brien, Michael K.; Bansal, Vipin K.; Andersen, Dana K.; Satava, Richard M. (October 2002). "Virtual Reality Training Improves Operating Room Performance: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blinded Study". Annals of Surgery. 236 (4): 458. doi:10.1097/00000658-200210000-00008.
- Ahlberg, Gunnar; Enochsson, Lars; Gallagher, Anthony G.; Hedman, Leif; Hogman, Christian; McClusky III, David A.; Ramel, Stig; Smith, C. Daniel; Arvidsson, Dag (2007-06-01). "Proficiency-based virtual reality training significantly reduces the error rate for residents during their first 10 laparoscopic cholecystectomies". The American Journal of Surgery. 193 (6): 797–804. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2006.06.050. PMID 17512301.
- Colt, Henri G.; Crawford, Stephen W.; Galbraith, III, Oliver (2001-10-01). "Virtual reality bronchoscopy simulation*: A revolution in procedural training". Chest. 120 (4): 1333–1339. doi:10.1378/chest.120.4.1333. ISSN 0012-3692.
- Moro, Christian; Štromberga, Zane; Raikos, Athanasios; Stirling, Allan (2017-11-01). "The effectiveness of virtual and augmented reality in health sciences and medical anatomy". Anatomical Sciences Education. 10 (6): 549–559. doi:10.1002/ase.1696. ISSN 1935-9780. PMID 28419750.
- Volpicelli, Gian. "What's next for virtual reality surgery?". WIRED UK. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- Graham, Luke (2016-07-26). "Now you can watch surgeries live in virtual reality". CNBC. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- Omer; et al. (2018). "Performance evaluation of bridges using virtual reality". Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM 6) & 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ECFD 7), Glasgow, Scotland.
- Seu; et al. (2018). "Use of gaming and affordable VR technology for the visualization of complex flow fields". Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM 6) & 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ECFD 7), Glasgow, Scotland.
- Rosenberg, Louis (1992). "The Use of Virtual Fixtures As Perceptual Overlays to Enhance Operator Performance in Remote Environments." Technical Report AL-TR-0089, USAF Armstrong Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB OH, 1992.
- Rosenberg, L., "Virtual fixtures as tools to enhance operator performance in telepresence environments," SPIE Manipulator Technology, 1993.
- Gulrez, Tauseef; Hassanien, Aboul Ella (2012). Advances in Robotics and Virtual Reality. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. p. 275. ISBN 9783642233623.
- "Comparison of VR headsets: Project Morpheus vs. Oculus Rift vs. HTC Vive". Data Reality. Archived from the original on 20 August 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- "Gear VR: How Samsung makes Virtual Reality a Reality". news.samsung.com. Retrieved 2018-02-08.
- Kharpal, Arjun (31 August 2017). "Lenovo, Disney launch 'Star Wars' Jedi augmented reality game that lets you use a real Lightsaber".
- Cieply, Michael. "Virtual Reality 'Wild' Trek, With Reese Witherspoon". www.nytimes.com. New York Times. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- Lee, Nicole. "'Gone' is a VR thriller from 'Walking Dead' team and Samsung". Engadget. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
- "Naughty America Invites You to Experience Virtual Reality Adult Entertainment During South by Southwest". Business Wire. Business Wire. 2016-03-10. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- Holden, John. "Virtual reality porn: the end of civilisation as we know it?". The Irish Times. The Irish Times. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- Virtual reality to be added to World Champs Viewing Experience (Chess.com)
- Rœttgers, Janko (September 13, 2016). "Fox Sports Streams College Football Match in Virtual Reality". Variety. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- "Fox Sports streaming Red River Rivalry live in virtual reality". SI.com. Sports Illustrated. October 7, 2016. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- kelly, kevin (April 2016). "The Untold Story of Magic Leap, the World's Most Secretive Startup". WIRED. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- "How virtual reality is redefining live music".
- Hu, Cherie. "Virtual Reality In The Music Industry Needs To Be A Tool, Not Just An Experience".
- Horie, Ryota; Wada, Minami; Watanabe, Eri (2017-07-17). Participation in a Virtual Reality Concert via Brainwave and Heartbeat. Advances in Affective and Pleasurable Design. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. pp. 276–284. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-60495-4_30. ISBN 9783319604947.
- Smith, Nicola K. (31 January 2017). "How virtual reality is shaking up the music industry". BBC News – via www.bbc.com.
- Robertson, Adi (28 December 2015). "Does anybody really want a virtual reality music visualizer?".
- "Inventor updates '70s creation to bring 3-D vision to music - The Boston Globe".
- Kelly, Kevin (19 April 2016). "The Untold Story of Magic Leap, the World's Most Secretive Startup". Wired. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "Ready or not, the world's first VR water slide is here". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-07-18.
- Mura, Gianluca (2011). Metaplasticity in Virtual Worlds: Aesthetics and Semantic Concepts. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-60960-077-8.
- Goslin, M and Morie, J F (1996) Virtopia: Emotional Experiences in Virtual Environments with Mike Goslin. Leonardo Journal, Vol 29, no. 2, 1996. MIT Press.
- Reichhardt, Tony (1994) Virtual Worlds without End. American Way Magazine, 27 (22). November 1994
- "Database of Virtual Art".
- "Digital Journal: Inside Canada's first virtual-reality film festival". 2015-09-18. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- "Information about The Abakanowicz Art Room". kulturalna.warszawa.pl. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- "Virtual reality at the British Museum: What is the value of virtual reality environments for learning by children and young people, schools, and families? - MW2016: Museums and the Web 2016".
- "Extending the Museum Experience with Virtual Reality". 18 March 2016.
- "Goldman Sachs | Our Thinking - Virtual & Augmented Reality: The Next Big Computing Platform?". Goldman Sachs. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- Kim, Meeri (August 21, 2016). "Virtual reality apps aim to make exercise less tedious". Tyler Morning Telegraph. pp. A1, A11.
- Dockx, Kim (2016). "Virtual reality for rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12: CD010760. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010760.pub2. PMC 6463967. PMID 28000926.
- Darbois, Nelly; Guillaud, Albin; Pinsault, Nicolas (2018). "Does Robotics and Virtual Reality Add Real Progress to Mirror Therapy Rehabilitation? A Scoping Review". Rehabilitation Research and Practice. 2018: 6412318. doi:10.1155/2018/6412318. PMC 6120256. PMID 30210873.
- "virtual reality system helps surgeons, reassures patients". Stanford Medicine.
- "Platform". Medical Realities.
- "Virtual Medics". virtualmedics.org.
- Reger, Greg M.; Holloway, Kevin M.; Candy, Colette; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Difede, JoAnn; Rizzo, Albert A.; Gahm, Gregory A. (2011-02-01). "Effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers in a military mental health clinic". Journal of Traumatic Stress. 24 (1): 93–96. doi:10.1002/jts.20574. ISSN 1573-6598. PMID 21294166.
- Gonçalves, Raquel; Pedrozo, Ana Lúcia; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Ventura, Paula (2012-12-27). "Efficacy of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy in the Treatment of PTSD: A Systematic Review". PLOS ONE. 7 (12): e48469. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...748469G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048469. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3531396. PMID 23300515.
- Difede, JoAnn; Hoffman, Hunter G. (2002-12-01). "Virtual reality exposure therapy for World Trade Center Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: a case report". Cyberpsychology & Behavior: The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society. 5 (6): 529–535. doi:10.1089/109493102321018169. ISSN 1094-9313. PMID 12556115.
- Gold, Jeffrey I.; Belmont, Katharine A.; Thomas, David A. (August 2007). "The Neurobiology of Virtual Reality Pain Attenuation". CyberPsychology & Behavior. 10 (4): 536–544. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.9993. PMID 17711362.
- Sharar, Sam R; Miller, William; Teeley, Aubriana; Soltani, Maryam; Hoffman, Hunter G; Jensen, Mark P; Patterson, David R (2017-03-17). "Applications of virtual reality for pain management in burn-injured patients". Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 8 (11): 1667–1674. doi:10.1586/14737126.96.36.1997. ISSN 1473-7175. PMC 2634811. PMID 18986237.
- Li, Angela; Montaño, Zorash; Chen, Vincent J; Gold, Jeffrey I (2017-03-17). "Virtual reality and pain management: current trends and future directions". Pain Management. 1 (2): 147–157. doi:10.2217/pmt.10.15. ISSN 1758-1869. PMC 3138477. PMID 21779307.
- Pimentel, K., & Teixeira, K. (1993). Virtual reality. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-8306-4065-2
- Pletinckx, D.; Callebaut, D.; Killebrew, A.E.; Silberman, N.A. (2000). "Virtual-reality heritage presentation at Ename", "On-site VR" paragraph, in MultiMedia, IEEE, vol.7, no.2, pp.45-48
- "Architecture's Virtual Shake-Up" Tayfun King, Click, BBC World News (2005-10-28)
- Higgins, T., Main, P. & Lang, J. (1996). "Imaging the Past: Electronic Imaging and Computer Graphics in Museums and Archaeology", Volume 114 of Occasional paper, London: British Museum. ISSN 0142-4815.
- "What Place Does Virtual Reality Have in Product Design? - Inventor Official Blog". Inventor Official Blog. 2017-01-17. Retrieved 2018-12-03.
- "Can Virtual Reality Make Construction Safer?". For Construction Pros. Retrieved 2018-12-03.
- Burgess, Scott (December 3, 2018). "Use of Virtual Environments for Simulation of Accident Investigation".
- Groom, Victoria; Bailenson, Jeremy N.; Nass, Clifford (2009-07-01). "The influence of racial embodiment on racial bias in immersive virtual environments". Social Influence. 4 (3): 231–248. doi:10.1080/15534510802643750. ISSN 1553-4510.
- Slater, Mel; Pérez Marcos, Daniel; Ehrsson, Henrik; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V. (2009). "Inducing illusory ownership of a virtual body". Frontiers in Neuroscience. 3 (2): 214–20. doi:10.3389/neuro.01.029.2009. ISSN 1662-453X. PMC 2751618. PMID 20011144.
- Kilteni, Konstantina; Bergstrom, Ilias; Slater, Mel (April 2013). "Drumming in immersive virtual reality: the body shapes the way we play". IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics. 19 (4): 597–605. doi:10.1109/TVCG.2013.29. hdl:2445/53803. ISSN 1941-0506. PMID 23428444.
- Riva, Giuseppe; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Capideville, Claret Samantha; Preziosa, Alessandra; Morganti, Francesca; Villani, Daniela; Gaggioli, Andrea; Botella, Cristina; Alcañiz, Mariano (February 2007). "Affective interactions using virtual reality: the link between presence and emotions". Cyberpsychology & Behavior: The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society. 10 (1): 45–56. doi:10.1089/cpb.2006.9993. ISSN 1094-9313. PMID 17305448.
- Mühlberger, Andreas; Wieser, Matthias J.; Pauli, Paul (2008-01-01). "Darkness-enhanced startle responses in ecologically valid environments: A virtual tunnel driving experiment". Biological Psychology. 77 (1): 47–52. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.09.004. PMID 17950519.
- Slater, Mel; Guger, Christoph; Edlinger, Guenter; Leeb, Robert; Pfurtscheller, Gert; Antley, Angus; Garau, Maia; Brogni, Andrea; Friedman, Doron (2006-10-01). "Analysis of Physiological Responses to a Social Situation in an Immersive Virtual Environment". Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. 15 (5): 553–569. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.105.3332. doi:10.1162/pres.15.5.553. ISSN 1054-7460.
- "Walk A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective-Taking on The Reduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual Environments - Semantic Scholar". www.semanticscholar.org. Retrieved 2017-07-10.
- Peck, Tabitha C.; Seinfeld, Sofia; Aglioti, Salvatore M.; Slater, Mel (September 2013). "Putting yourself in the skin of a black avatar reduces implicit racial bias". Consciousness and Cognition. 22 (3): 779–787. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2013.04.016. hdl:2445/53641. ISSN 1090-2376. PMID 23727712.
- Wilson, Paul N.; Foreman, Nigel; Stanton, Danaë (1 January 1997). "Virtual reality, disability and rehabilitation". Disability and Rehabilitation. 19 (6): 213–220. doi:10.3109/09638289709166530.
- Seidel, E.M.; Silani, G.; Metzler, H.; Thaler, H.; Lamm, C.; Gur, R.C.; Kryspin-Exner, I.; Habel, U.; Derntl, B. (1 December 2013). "The impact of social exclusion vs. inclusion on subjective and hormonal reactions in females and males". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 38 (12): 2925–2932. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.07.021. PMC 3863951. PMID 23972943.
- [dead link]