Virtual reality applications
Virtual reality applications are applications that make use of virtual reality (VR). VR is an immersive sensory experience that digitally simulates a remote environment. Applications have been developed in a variety of domains, such as education, architectural and urban design, digital marketing and activism, engineering and robotics, entertainment, fine arts, healthcare and clinical therapies, heritage and archaeology, occupational safety, social science and psychology.
- 1 Architecture and urban design
- 2 Digital marketing
- 3 Education and training
- 4 Engineering and robotics
- 5 Entertainment
- 6 Fine arts
- 7 Healthcare
- 8 Heritage and archaeology
- 9 Occupational safety
- 10 Social science and psychology
- 11 Obstacles
- 12 References
Architecture and urban design
One of the first recorded uses of virtual reality in architecture was in the late 1980s when the University of North Carolina virtually modelled Sitterman Hall, home of its computer science department. Designers wore a headset and used a hand controller to simulate moving around a virtual space. With an Autodesk Revit model they could "walk through" a schematic. VR enables architects to better understand the details of a project such as the transition of materials, sightlines, or visually displays of wall stress, wind loads, solar heat gain, or other engineering factors. By 2010, VR programs had been developed for urban regeneration, planning and transportation projects. Entire cities were simulated in VR.
Virtual reality presents an opportunity and an alternative channel for digital marketing. International Data Corporation expected spending to increase for augmented and virtual reality, forecasting a compound annual growth rate of 198% in 2015–2020. Revenues were expected to rise to $143.3 billion in 2020. Global spending on digital advertisements was forecast to increase to $335.5 billion by 2020. A 2015 study found that 75% of companies on Forbes' World's Most Valuable Brands list had developed a VR or AR experience. Although VR is not widespread among consumers compared to other forms of digital media, many companies have invested in VR. Some companies adopted VR to enhance workplace collaboration.
VR can present high definition, three-dimensional interactive imaging. Its marketing benefits were observed by Suh and Lee through via laboratory experiments: with a VR interface, participants' product knowledge and product attitude noticeably increased. VR marketing can engage consumers' emotions. Both studies indicate an increased desire to purchase products marketed through VR; however, these benefits showed minimal return on investment (ROI). Suh and Lee found that products that are primarily experienced through hearing and vision (but not others) benefit more from VR marketing.
Ads that appear during a VR experience (interruption marketing) may be considered invasive. Consumers want to decide whether to accept an ad. Organizations can for example require the user to download a mobile app before experiencing their VR campaign.
Non-profit organizations have used VR to bring potential supporters closer to distant social, political and environmental issues in immersive ways not possible with traditional media. Panoramic views of the conflict in Syria and face-to-face encounters with CGI tigers in Nepal are some examples.
Retailers use VR to show how a product will fit in consumers' homes. Consumers looking at digital photos of the products can virtually spin the product to view it from the side or back.
Architectural design firms allow clients to tour virtual models of proposed buildings. Architects can use VR to experience their developing designs. VR models can replace scale models. Developers and owners can create VR models of existing structures.
Education and training
VR is used to help learners develop skills without the real-world consequences of failing, especially useful in realms with life-or-death implications. The specific device used to provide the VR experience, whether it be through a mobile phone or desktop computer, does not appear to impact on any educational benefit.
Flight and vehicular applications
Flight simulators are a form of VR training. They can range from a fully enclosed module to computer monitors providing the pilot's point of view. Driving simulations can train tank drivers on the basics before allowing them to operate the real vehicle. Similar principles are applied in truck driving simulators for specialized vehicles such as fire trucks. As these drivers often have limited opportunity for real-world experience, VR training provides additional training time.
VR technology has many useful applications in the medical field. Through VR, novice surgeons have the ability to practice complex surgeries without stepping into the operating room. Physicians who experience VR simulations improved their dexterity and performance in the operating room significantly more than control groups. VR can produce a three dimensional representation of a particular patient's anatomy that allows surgeons to map out the surgery ahead of time.
In 1982 Thomas A. Furness III presented the United States Air Force with a working model of his virtual flight simulator, the Visually Coupled Airborne Systems Simulator (VCASS). The second phase of his project, which he called the "Super Cockpit", added high-resolution (for the time) graphics and a responsive display. The United Kingdom has been using VR in military training since the 1980s. The United States military announced the Dismounted Soldier Training System in 2012. It was cited as the first fully immersive military VR training system.
Virtual training environments have been claimed to increase realism while minimizing cost, e.g., by saving ammunition. In 2016, researchers at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory reported that instructor feedback is necessary for virtual training. Virtual training has been used for combined arms training and instructing soldiers to learn when to shoot.
Military programs such as Battle Command Knowledge Systems (BCKS) and Advanced Soldier Sensor Information and Technology (ASSIST) were intended to assist the development of virtual technology. Described goals of the ASSIST initiative were to develop software and wearable sensors for soldiers to improve battlefield awareness and data collection. Researchers stated that these programs would allow the soldier to update their virtual environment as conditions change. Virtual Battlespace 3 (VBS3, successor to the earlier versions named VBS1 and VBS2) is a widely used military training solution adapted from a commercial off the shelf product. Live, Virtual, Constructive – Integrated Architecture (LVC-IA) is a U.S. military technology that allows for multiple training systems to work together to create an integrated training environment. Reported primary uses of the LVC-IA were live training, virtual training, and constructive training. In 2014, the LVC-IA version 1.3 included VBS3.
NASA has used VR technology for decades. Most notable is their use of immersive VR to train astronauts before flights. VR simulations include exposure to zero-gravity work environments, training on how to spacewalk and tool usage using low cost tool mock-ups.
Engineering and robotics
In the mid-to-late 1990s 3D computer-aided design (CAD) data took over when video projectors, 3D tracking and computer technology enabled its use in virtual reality environments. Active shutter glasses and multi-surface projection units appeared. Virtual reality has been used in automotive, aerospace, and ground transportation original equipment manufacturers. Virtual reality aids prototyping, assembly, service and performance use-cases. This enables engineers from different disciplines to experience their design. Engineers can view the bridge, building or other structure from any angle. Simulations allow engineers to test their structure's resistance to winds, weight, and other elements.
Virtual reality can control robots in telepresence and telerobotic systems. VR has been used in experiments that investigate how robots can be applied as an intuitive human user interface. Another example is remotely-controlled robots in dangerous environments.
Early commercial virtual reality headsets were released for gaming during the early-mid 1990s. These included the Virtual Boy, iGlasses, Cybermaxx and VFX1 Headgear. Since 2010, commercial headsets for VR gaming include the Oculus Rift, HTC Vive and PlayStation VR. The Samsung Gear VR is an example of a phone-based device.
Other modern examples of VR for gaming include the Wii Remote, the Kinect, and the PlayStation Move/PlayStation Eye, all of which track and send player motions to the game. Many devices complement VR with controllers or haptic feedback. VR-specific and VR versions of popular video games have been released.
Films produced for VR permit the audience to view scenes in 360 degrees. This can involve the use of VR cameras to produce interactive films and series. Pornography makers use VR, usually for POV-style porn.
The 2016 World Chess Championship match between Magnus Carlsen and Sergey Karjakin was promoted as "the first in any sport to be broadcast in 360-degree virtual reality." However, a VR telecast featuring Oklahoma hosting Ohio State, preceded it on September 17, 2016. The telecasts (which used roughly 180 degrees of rotation, not the 360 required for full VR) were made available through paid smartphone apps and head-mounted displays.
VR can allow individuals to virtually attend concerts. VR concerts can be enhanced using feedback from the user's heartbeat and brainwaves. Virtual reality can be used for other forms of music, such as music videos and music visualization or visual music applications.
Family entertainment centers
In 2015 roller coasters and theme parks began to incorporate VR to match visual effects with haptic feedback. The Void is a theme park in Pleasant Grove, Utah that offers VR attractions that stimulate multiple senses. In March 2018, a VR water slide was launched using a waterproof headset.
David Em was the first fine artist to create navigable virtual worlds, in the 1970s. His early work was done on mainframes at Information International, Inc., Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology. Jeffrey Shaw with Legible City in 1988 and Matt Mullican with Five into One in 1991, were among the first to exhibit elaborate VR artworks.
Virtopia was the first VR artwork to premiere at a film festival. Created by artist/researcher Jacquelyn Ford Morie with researcher Mike Goslin, it debuted at the 1992 Florida Film Festival. A more developed version of the project appeared at the 1993 Florida Film Festival. Other artists to explore the early artistic potential of VR through the 1990s include Jeffrey Shaw, Ulrike Gabriel, Char Davies, Maurice Benayoun, Knowbotic Research, Rebecca Allen and Perry Hoberman.
The first Canadian virtual reality film festival was the FIVARS Festival of International Virtual & Augmented Reality Stories, founded in 2015 by Keram Malicki-Sánchez. In 2016, the first Polish VR program, The Abakanowicz Art Room was realized – it documented the art office of Magdalena Abakanowicz, made by Jarosław Pijarowski and Paweł Komorowski. Some museums have begun making some of their content virtual reality accessible including the British Museum and the Guggenheim.
VR began to appear in rehabilitation in the 2000s. For Parkinson's disease, evidence of its benefits compared to other rehabilitation methods is lacking. A 2018 review on the effectiveness of VR mirror therapy and robotics found no benefit.
Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is a form of exposure therapy for treating anxiety disorders such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and phobias. Studies have indicated that combining VRET with behavioral therapy, patients experience a reduction of symptoms. In some cases, patients no longer met the DSM-V criteria for PTSD.
Heritage and archaeology
Virtual reality enables heritage sites to be recreated. The sites may be have restricted or no access for the public, such as caves, damaged/destroyed structures, or sensitive environments that are closed to allow them to recover from overuse.
The first use of VR in a heritage application was in 1994 when a museum visitor interpretation provided an interactive "walk-through" of a 3D reconstruction of Dudley Castle in England as it was in 1550. This consisted of a computer controlled laserdisc-based system designed by engineer Colin Johnson. The system was featured in a conference held by the British Museum in November 1994.
VR simulates real workplaces for occupational safety and health (OSH) purposes. Within work scenarios, for example, some parts of a machine move of their own accord while others can be moved by human operators. Perspective, angle of view, and acoustic and haptic properties change according to where the operator is standing and how he or she moves relative to the environment.
VR can be used for OSH purposes to:
- Review and improve the usability of products and processes during design and development.
- Safely test potentially hazardous products, processes and safety concepts.[better source needed]
- Identify cause-effect relationships following accidents on and involving products. This saves material, personnel, time and financial outlay associated with in-situ testing.[better source needed]
Social science and psychology
Virtual reality offers social scientists and psychologists a cost-effective tool to study and replicate interactions in a controlled environment. It allows an individual to embody an avatar. "Embodying" another being presents a different experience from simply imagining that you are someone else. Researchers have used immersion to investigate how digital stimuli can alter human perception, emotion and physiological states, and how can change social interactions, in addition to studying how digital interaction can enact social change in the physical world.
Altering perception, emotion and physiological states
Studies have considered how the form we take in virtual reality can affect our perception and actions. One study suggested that embodying the body of a child can cause objects to be perceived as much larger otherwise. Another study found that white individuals who embodied the form of a dark-skinned avatar performed a drumming task with a more varied style than otherwise.
Research exploring perception, emotions and physiological responses within VR suggest that virtual environments can alter how a person responds to stimuli. For example, a virtual park coupled affects subjects' anxiety levels. Similarly, simulated driving through dark areas in a virtual tunnel can induce fear. Social interaction with virtual characters has been shown to produce physiological responses such as changes in heart rate and galvanic skin responses.
Research suggests that a strong presence can facilitate an emotional response, and this emotional response can further increase the feeling of presence. Similarly, breaks in the presence (or a loss in the sense of presence) can cause physiological changes.[clarification needed]
Understanding biases and stereotypes
Researchers have utilized embodied VR perspective-taking to evaluate whether changing a person's self-representation may help in reducing bias against particular social groups. However, the nature of any relationship between embodiment and bias is not yet defined. Individuals who embodied old people demonstrated a significant reduction in negative stereotyping when compared with individuals embodying young people. Similarly, light-skinned individuals placed in dark-bodied avatars showed a reduction in their implicit racial bias. However, other research has shown individuals taking the form of a black avatar had higher levels of implicit racial bias favoring whites after leaving the virtual environment.
Investigating basal mental abilities like Spatial Cognition
One of the most general abilities in order to perform in everyday life is Spatial Cognition, which involves orientation, navigation etc. Especially in the field of its investigation, Virtual Reality became an invaluable tool, since it allows to test the performance of subjects in an environment which is highly-immersive and controllable at the same time.
As of 1997[update], motion sickness is still a major issue for virtual reality. The delay between a motion and the updating of the screen image is the source. Users often report discomfort. One study reported that all 12 participants complained of at least two side effects while three had to withdraw from severe nausea and dizziness.
Virtual reality users remove themselves from the physical environment. This creates a risk that the user will experience a mishap while moving. Immersion in a virtual world has the potential for social exclusion that may decrease positive mood and increase anger. Behavior in virtual reality may have lasting psychological impact when returning to the physical world. Russian news agency, TASS, reported in 2017, a death from VR use, when a 44-year old man "tripped and crashed into a glass table, suffered wounds and died on the spot from a loss of blood". It is thought to be the first death from VR use.
- Barlow, John Perry (1990). "Being in Nothingness: Virtual Reality and the Pioneers of Cyberspace". Electronic Frontiers Foundation. Archived from the original on 2016-01-20.
- "A virtual revolution: How VR can enhance design, for architect and client".
- Roudavski, S. (2010). Virtual Environments as Techno-Social Performances: Virtual West Cambridge Case-Study, in CAADRIA2010: New Frontiers, the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, ed. by Bharat Dave, Andrew I-kang Li, Ning Gu and Hyoung-June Park, pp. 477-486
- "How Virtual Reality Is Revolutionising Town Planning". www.digitalistmag.com. Retrieved 2019-08-30.
- Shirer, Michael; Torchia, Marcus (February 27, 2017). "Worldwide Spending on Augmented and Virtual Reality Forecast to Reach $13.9 Billion in 2017, According to IDC". International Data Corporation. International Data Corporation. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
- "Worldwide Spending on Augmented and Virtual Reality Expected to Surpass $20 Billion in 2019, According to IDC". www.businesswire.com. 2018-12-06. Retrieved 2019-07-02.
- "Digital advertising spending worldwide from 2015 to 2020 (in billion U.S. dollars)". Statista. Statista. October 1, 2016. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
- Chaffey, Dave; Ellis-Chadwick, Fiona (2016). Digital Marketing. Loughborough University: Pearson. p. 11,44. ISBN 9781292077611.
- Deflorian, Adam (August 15, 2016). "How Virtual Reality Can Revolutionize Digital Marketing". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
- Matia, Alexa. "What the Rise of Virtual Reality Means for Marketers". Convinceandconvert. Convinceandconvert. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- "10 Amazing Uses of Virtual Reality". ReadWrite. 2018-11-08. Retrieved 2019-07-02.
- Suh, Kil-Soo; Lee, Young Eun (Dec 1, 2005). "The Effects of Virtual Reality on Consumer Learning: An Empirical Investigation". MIS Quarterly. 29 (4): 673, 680, 681, 691. doi:10.2307/25148705. JSTOR 25148705.
- Kirkpatrick, David (March 15, 2012). "Marketing 101: What is conversion?". Marketingsherpa Blog. Marketingsherpa Blog. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
The point at which a recipient of a marketing message performs a desired action.
- Ryan, Damian (November 3, 2016). Understanding Digital Marketing: Marketing Strategies for Engaging the Digital Generation. London: Kogan Page Limited. p. 29. ISBN 978-0749478438.
- "Unicef 360". Unicef 360. Unicef. 2016. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- "Tiger Experience: Adopt a Tiger". World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
- Kirsner, Scott (May 5, 2016). "Adding a level of reality to online shopping". The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- "CG Garage Podcast #61 | Shane Scranton – IrisVR – Chaos Group Labs". labs.chaosgroup.com. Retrieved 2016-02-26.
- Moro, Christian; Štromberga, Zane; Stirling, Allan (2017-11-29). "Virtualisation devices for student learning: Comparison between desktop-based (Oculus Rift) and mobile-based (Gear VR) virtual reality in medical and health science education". Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. 33 (6). doi:10.14742/ajet.3840. ISSN 1449-5554.
- Dourado, Antônio O.; Martin, C.A. (2013). "New concept of dynamic flight simulator, Part I". Aerospace Science and Technology. 30 (1): 79–82. doi:10.1016/j.ast.2013.07.005.
- "How Virtual Reality Military Applications Work". 2007-08-27.
- RDS. "Nieuws Pivo en VDAB bundelen rijopleiding vrachtwagens". Het Nieuwsblad. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Kuehn, Bridget M. (2018). "Virtual and Augmented Reality Put a Twist on Medical Education". JAMA. 319 (8): 756–758. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.20800. PMID 29417140.
- Moro, Christian; Štromberga, Zane; Raikos, Athanasios; Stirling, Allan (2017-11-01). "The effectiveness of virtual and augmented reality in health sciences and medical anatomy" (PDF). Anatomical Sciences Education. 10 (6): 549–559. doi:10.1002/ase.1696. ISSN 1935-9780. PMID 28419750.
- Seymour, Neal E.; Gallagher, Anthony G.; Roman, Sanziana A.; O'Brien, Michael K.; Bansal, Vipin K.; Andersen, Dana K.; Satava, Richard M. (October 2002). "Virtual Reality Training Improves Operating Room Performance: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blinded Study". Annals of Surgery. 236 (4): 458–63, discussion 463–4. doi:10.1097/00000658-200210000-00008. PMC 1422600. PMID 12368674.
- Ahlberg, Gunnar; Enochsson, Lars; Gallagher, Anthony G.; Hedman, Leif; Hogman, Christian; McClusky III, David A.; Ramel, Stig; Smith, C. Daniel; Arvidsson, Dag (2007-06-01). "Proficiency-based virtual reality training significantly reduces the error rate for residents during their first 10 laparoscopic cholecystectomies". The American Journal of Surgery. 193 (6): 797–804. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2006.06.050. PMID 17512301.
- Colt, Henri G.; Crawford, Stephen W.; Galbraith, III, Oliver (2001-10-01). "Virtual reality bronchoscopy simulation*: A revolution in procedural training". Chest. 120 (4): 1333–1339. doi:10.1378/chest.120.4.1333. ISSN 0012-3692. PMID 11591579.
- Larsen, C.R., Oestergaard, J., Ottesen, B.S., and Soerensen, J.L. The efficacy of virtual reality simulation training in laparoscopy: a systematic review of randomized trials. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012; 91: 1015–1028
- "virtual reality system helps surgeons, reassures patients". Stanford Medicine.
- Chesher, Chris (1994). "Colonizing Virtual Reality: Construction of the Discourse of Virtual Reality". Cultronix. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
- "How VR is training the perfect soldier". Wareable. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- "DSTS: First immersive virtual training system fielded". www.army.mil. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- "Virtual reality used to train Soldiers in new training simulator".
- Shufelt, Jr., J.W. (2006) A Vision for Future Virtual Training. In Virtual Media for Military Applications (pp. KN2-1 – KN2-12). Meeting Proceedings RTO-MP-HFM-136, Keynote 2. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: RTO. Available from: http://www.rto.nato.int/abstracts.asp
- Smith, Roger (2010-02-01). "The Long History of Gaming in Military Training". Simulation & Gaming. 41 (1): 6–19. doi:10.1177/1046878109334330. ISSN 1046-8781.
- Bukhari, Hatim; Andreatta, Pamela; Goldiez, Brian; Rabelo, Luis (2017-01-01). "A Framework for Determining the Return on Investment of Simulation-Based Training in Health Care". INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing. 54: 0046958016687176. doi:10.1177/0046958016687176. ISSN 0046-9580. PMC 5798742. PMID 28133988.
- Maxwell, Douglas (2016-07-17). "Application of Virtual Environments for Infantry Soldier Skills Training: We are Doing it Wrong". Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 9740. pp. 424–432. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-39907-2_41. ISBN 9783319399065.
- Technology evaluations and performance metrics for soldier-worn sensors for assist BA Weiss, C Schlenoff, M Shneier, A Virts - Performance Metrics for Intelligent Systems Workshop, 2006
- "Bohemia Interactive Simulations". bisimulations.com. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
- "STAND-TO!". www.army.mil. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
- "NASA shows the world its 20-year virtual reality experiment to train astronauts: The inside story - TechRepublic". TechRepublic. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- James, Paul (2016-04-19). "A Look at NASA's Hybrid Reality Astronaut Training System, Powered by HTC Vive – Road to VR". Road to VR. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- "How NASA is Using Virtual and Augmented Reality to Train Astronauts". Unimersiv. 2016-04-11. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- "Hybrid Reality Astronaut Training Will NASA Prepare Astronauts | NASA Blog". The Official NVIDIA Blog. 2016-08-01. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- Omer; et al. (2018). "Performance evaluation of bridges using virtual reality". Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM 6) & 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ECFD 7), Glasgow, Scotland.
- Seu; et al. (2018). "Use of gaming and affordable VR technology for the visualization of complex flow fields". Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM 6) & 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ECFD 7), Glasgow, Scotland.
- Rosenberg, Louis (1992). "The Use of Virtual Fixtures As Perceptual Overlays to Enhance Operator Performance in Remote Environments." Technical Report AL-TR-0089, USAF Armstrong Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB OH, 1992.
- Rosenberg, L., "Virtual fixtures as tools to enhance operator performance in telepresence environments," SPIE Manipulator Technology, 1993.
- Gulrez, Tauseef; Hassanien, Aboul Ella (2012). Advances in Robotics and Virtual Reality. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. p. 275. ISBN 9783642233623.
- "Comparison of VR headsets: Project Morpheus vs. Oculus Rift vs. HTC Vive". Data Reality. Archived from the original on 20 August 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- "Gear VR: How Samsung makes Virtual Reality a Reality". news.samsung.com. Retrieved 2018-02-08.
- Kharpal, Arjun (31 August 2017). "Lenovo, Disney launch 'Star Wars' Jedi augmented reality game that lets you use a real Lightsaber".
- Cieply, Michael. "Virtual Reality 'Wild' Trek, With Reese Witherspoon". www.nytimes.com. New York Times. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- Lee, Nicole. "'Gone' is a VR thriller from 'Walking Dead' team and Samsung". Engadget. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
- "Naughty America Invites You to Experience Virtual Reality Adult Entertainment During South by Southwest". Business Wire. Business Wire. 2016-03-10. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- Holden, John. "Virtual reality porn: the end of civilisation as we know it?". The Irish Times. The Irish Times. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- Virtual reality to be added to World Champs Viewing Experience (Chess.com)
- Rœttgers, Janko (September 13, 2016). "Fox Sports Streams College Football Match in Virtual Reality". Variety. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- "Fox Sports streaming Red River Rivalry live in virtual reality". SI.com. Sports Illustrated. October 7, 2016. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- "How virtual reality is redefining live music". NBC News.
- Hu, Cherie. "Virtual Reality In The Music Industry Needs To Be A Tool, Not Just An Experience".
- Horie, Ryota; Wada, Minami; Watanabe, Eri (2017-07-17). Participation in a Virtual Reality Concert via Brainwave and Heartbeat. Advances in Affective and Pleasurable Design. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. pp. 276–284. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-60495-4_30. ISBN 9783319604947.
- Smith, Nicola K. (31 January 2017). "How virtual reality is shaking up the music industry". BBC News – via www.bbc.com.
- Robertson, Adi (28 December 2015). "Does anybody really want a virtual reality music visualizer?".
- "Inventor brings 3-D vision to music - The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com.
- Kelly, Kevin (19 April 2016). "The Untold Story of Magic Leap, the World's Most Secretive Startup". Wired. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "Ready or not, the world's first VR water slide is here". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-07-18.
- Mura, Gianluca (2011). Metaplasticity in Virtual Worlds: Aesthetics and Semantic Concepts. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-60960-077-8.
- Goslin, M and Morie, J F (1996) Virtopia: Emotional Experiences in Virtual Environments with Mike Goslin. Leonardo Journal, Vol 29, no. 2, 1996. MIT Press.
- Reichhardt, Tony (1994) Virtual Worlds without End. American Way Magazine, 27 (22). November 1994
- "Database of Virtual Art".
- "Digital Journal: Inside Canada's first virtual-reality film festival". 2015-09-18. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- "Information about The Abakanowicz Art Room". kulturalna.warszawa.pl. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- "Virtual reality at the British Museum: What is the value of virtual reality environments for learning by children and young people, schools, and families? | MW2016: Museums and the Web 2016".
- "Extending the Museum Experience with Virtual Reality". 18 March 2016.
- Dockx, Kim (2016). "Virtual reality for rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12: CD010760. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010760.pub2. PMC 6463967. PMID 28000926.
- Darbois, Nelly; Guillaud, Albin; Pinsault, Nicolas (2018). "Does Robotics and Virtual Reality Add Real Progress to Mirror Therapy Rehabilitation? A Scoping Review". Rehabilitation Research and Practice. 2018: 6412318. doi:10.1155/2018/6412318. PMC 6120256. PMID 30210873.
- Reger, Greg M.; Holloway, Kevin M.; Candy, Colette; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Difede, JoAnn; Rizzo, Albert A.; Gahm, Gregory A. (2011-02-01). "Effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers in a military mental health clinic". Journal of Traumatic Stress. 24 (1): 93–96. doi:10.1002/jts.20574. ISSN 1573-6598. PMID 21294166.
- Gonçalves, Raquel; Pedrozo, Ana Lúcia; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Ventura, Paula (2012-12-27). "Efficacy of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy in the Treatment of PTSD: A Systematic Review". PLOS ONE. 7 (12): e48469. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...748469G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048469. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3531396. PMID 23300515.
- Difede, JoAnn; Hoffman, Hunter G. (2002-12-01). "Virtual reality exposure therapy for World Trade Center Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: a case report". Cyberpsychology & Behavior. 5 (6): 529–535. doi:10.1089/109493102321018169. ISSN 1094-9313. PMID 12556115.
- Gold, Jeffrey I.; Belmont, Katharine A.; Thomas, David A. (August 2007). "The Neurobiology of Virtual Reality Pain Attenuation". CyberPsychology & Behavior. 10 (4): 536–544. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.9993. PMID 17711362.
- Sharar, Sam R; Miller, William; Teeley, Aubriana; Soltani, Maryam; Hoffman, Hunter G; Jensen, Mark P; Patterson, David R (2017-03-17). "Applications of virtual reality for pain management in burn-injured patients". Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 8 (11): 1667–1674. doi:10.1586/1473722.214.171.1247. ISSN 1473-7175. PMC 2634811. PMID 18986237.
- Li, Angela; Montaño, Zorash; Chen, Vincent J; Gold, Jeffrey I (2017-03-17). "Virtual reality and pain management: current trends and future directions". Pain Management. 1 (2): 147–157. doi:10.2217/pmt.10.15. ISSN 1758-1869. PMC 3138477. PMID 21779307.
- Kim, Meeri (August 21, 2016). "Virtual reality apps aim to make exercise less tedious". Tyler Morning Telegraph. pp. A1, A11.
- Faric, Nuša; Potts, Henry W W.; Hon, Adrian; Smith, Lee; Newby, Katie; Steptoe, Andrew; Fisher, Abi (2019). "What Players of Virtual Reality Exercise Games Want: Thematic Analysis of Web-Based Reviews". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 21 (9): e13833. doi:10.2196/13833. PMC 6754685. PMID 31538951.
- Pimentel, K., & Teixeira, K. (1993). Virtual reality. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-8306-4065-2
- Pletinckx, D.; Callebaut, D.; Killebrew, A.E.; Silberman, N.A. (2000). "Virtual-reality heritage presentation at Ename", "On-site VR" paragraph, in MultiMedia, IEEE, vol.7, no.2, pp.45-48
- "Architecture's Virtual Shake-Up" Tayfun King, Click, BBC World News (2005-10-28)
- Higgins, T., Main, P. & Lang, J. (1996). "Imaging the Past: Electronic Imaging and Computer Graphics in Museums and Archaeology", Volume 114 of Occasional paper, London: British Museum. ISSN 0142-4815.
- "Can Virtual Reality Make Construction Safer?". For Construction Pros. Retrieved 2018-12-03.
- Burgess, Scott (December 3, 2018). "Use of Virtual Environments for Simulation of Accident Investigation".
- Groom, Victoria; Bailenson, Jeremy N.; Nass, Clifford (2009-07-01). "The influence of racial embodiment on racial bias in immersive virtual environments". Social Influence. 4 (3): 231–248. doi:10.1080/15534510802643750. ISSN 1553-4510.
- Slater, Mel; Pérez Marcos, Daniel; Ehrsson, Henrik; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V. (2009). "Inducing illusory ownership of a virtual body". Frontiers in Neuroscience. 3 (2): 214–20. doi:10.3389/neuro.01.029.2009. ISSN 1662-453X. PMC 2751618. PMID 20011144.
- Kilteni, Konstantina; Bergstrom, Ilias; Slater, Mel (April 2013). "Drumming in immersive virtual reality: the body shapes the way we play". IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics. 19 (4): 597–605. doi:10.1109/TVCG.2013.29. hdl:2445/53803. ISSN 1941-0506. PMID 23428444.
- Riva, Giuseppe; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Capideville, Claret Samantha; Preziosa, Alessandra; Morganti, Francesca; Villani, Daniela; Gaggioli, Andrea; Botella, Cristina; Alcañiz, Mariano (February 2007). "Affective interactions using virtual reality: the link between presence and emotions". Cyberpsychology & Behavior. 10 (1): 45–56. doi:10.1089/cpb.2006.9993. ISSN 1094-9313. PMID 17305448.
- Mühlberger, Andreas; Wieser, Matthias J.; Pauli, Paul (2008-01-01). "Darkness-enhanced startle responses in ecologically valid environments: A virtual tunnel driving experiment". Biological Psychology. 77 (1): 47–52. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.09.004. PMID 17950519.
- Slater, Mel; Guger, Christoph; Edlinger, Guenter; Leeb, Robert; Pfurtscheller, Gert; Antley, Angus; Garau, Maia; Brogni, Andrea; Friedman, Doron (2006-10-01). "Analysis of Physiological Responses to a Social Situation in an Immersive Virtual Environment". Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. 15 (5): 553–569. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.105.3332. doi:10.1162/pres.15.5.553. ISSN 1054-7460.
- "Walk A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective-Taking on The Reduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual Environments - Semantic Scholar". www.semanticscholar.org. Retrieved 2017-07-10.
- Peck, Tabitha C.; Seinfeld, Sofia; Aglioti, Salvatore M.; Slater, Mel (September 2013). "Putting yourself in the skin of a black avatar reduces implicit racial bias". Consciousness and Cognition. 22 (3): 779–787. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2013.04.016. hdl:2445/53641. ISSN 1090-2376. PMID 23727712.
- Clay, V., König, P. & König, S. U. (2019). "Eye tracking in virtual reality". Journal of Eye Movement Research. 12(1):3: 1–18 – via DOI: 10.16910/jemr.12.1.3.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Wilson, Paul N.; Foreman, Nigel; Stanton, Danaë (1 January 1997). "Virtual reality, disability and rehabilitation". Disability and Rehabilitation. 19 (6): 213–220. doi:10.3109/09638289709166530. PMID 9195138.
- Seidel, E.M.; Silani, G.; Metzler, H.; Thaler, H.; Lamm, C.; Gur, R.C.; Kryspin-Exner, I.; Habel, U.; Derntl, B. (1 December 2013). "The impact of social exclusion vs. inclusion on subjective and hormonal reactions in females and males". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 38 (12): 2925–2932. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.07.021. PMC 3863951. PMID 23972943.
- Madary, Michael; Metzinger, Thomas K. (2016-02-19). "Recommendations for Good Scientific Practice and the Consumers of VR-Technology". Frontiers in Robotics and AI. 3. doi:10.3389/frobt.2016.00003. ISSN 2296-9144.
- "VR glasses blur reality leading to death blow for Moscow resident". TASS. Retrieved 2019-10-01.
- Wilde, Tyler (2017-12-22). "Man dies in VR accident, reports Russian news agency". PC Gamer. Retrieved 2019-10-01.