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Appropriation may be thought of as one of the placement of elements in new context, as for Gino Stefani who "makes appropriation the chief criterion for his 'popular' definition of melody (Stefani 1987a). Melody, he argues, is music 'at hand'; it is that dimension which the common musical competence extracts (often with little respect for the integrity of the source), appropriates and uses for a variety of purposes: singing, whistling, dancing, and so on." (Middleton, p. 96) Thus elements may be placed in a different form, placed with new elements, or varied.
Thus musical genres may be distinguished by both elements and context. "János Maróthy defines the 'folkloric' itself in terms of appropriation: the making, from whatever materials, of 'a music [or other folk art] of your own' (Maróthy 1981)." (Middleton, p. 139)
History of appropriation in Western music
Cultural appropriation in Western music as a cultural/economic phenomenon is inextricably linked with the invention of sound recording and the development of the international recording industry, but the background to its emergence covers the whole span of modern Western musical history, and what some analysts have deemed the digital revolution. This is particularly evident among indigenous peoples and their musical genres, such as the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia who face many challenges in the face of globalization and the forces propelling cultural appropriation.
Since at least the Renaissance, musicians, composers, music publishers (and, in the 20th century, radio stations and recording companies) have been part of a wide-ranging and continuous process of cultural appropriation that developed in the wake of the European colonisation of America, Africa, Asia and Oceania. In this process, styles, forms and influences from non-Western music—especially novel melodies, rhythmic patterns or harmonic structures—were discovered, appropriated, adapted and incorporated into mainstream Western popular music.
This appropriation process has a long history in European art music, which bears numerous traces of the adoption of fashionable European popular and folk dances into the classical genre. Dance styles like the allemande, the pavane, the galliard and the gavotte—often derived from popular folk dances—were just four among scores of "dance crazes" that swept the courts of Europe during the Renaissance and early Baroque,
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However, by the time Bach and Händel were writing their great instrumental works during the late Baroque, the rhythms and timings of these dances had already been appropriated, formalised and incorporated into the structure of elite European 'art' music. This trend continued in 18th and 19th century with folk-dance crazes like the mazurka, the waltz and the polka.
One well-known example of cultural appropriation into the European classical music genre arose from the 18th century fad known as "Orientalism", in which music, architecture, costume and visual arts from "Oriental" cultures (including the Ottoman empire, India, China and Japan) became highly fashionable. One of the most enduring artifacts of this fad is the third movement of Mozart's popular Piano Sonata No. 11 in A major, K. 331, known as the Rondo alla turca ("rondo in the Turkish style"). Another example is the enduringly popular Gilbert & Sullivan comic opera The Mikado, which grew out of the craze for all things Japanese that was prevalent in the 1870s and 1880s.
One of the earliest examples of crossover music is the music of French composer Claude Debussy. In 1889 the French government staged the great Paris Exposition, an event that was to have profound effects on many areas of Western art and music. Debussy visited the exposition and it was here that he first heard gamelan music performed by Sundanese musicians. He was transfixed by the hypnotic, layered sound of the gamelan orchestra and reportedly returned to the Dutch East Indies pavilion over several days to listen to the Indonesian musicians perform and to study the structure and tuning of this novel musical form. His exposure to gamelan music had a direct influence on the composition of his famous Nocturnes for orchestra.
In the case of Debussy, some of this long process of appropriation also had an educative effect, and by the 1960s Western audiences were beginning to move beyond the confines of the Western musical tradition and explore traditional music from other countries and continents. As Eurocentric cultural and social biases began to be broken down during the 1960s, music from other cultures gained increasingly broad acceptance.
The key factor in this transition was the invention of sound recording, but it was also greatly influenced by the wide-ranging program of collection of European traditional folk music by 19th- and early 20th-century European classical composers and musicologists. This process was, at first, simply one facet of the multifocal 19th century passion for collection and classification, but it was given greater impetus by the growing awareness that the devastating impact of Western urban-industrial culture was decimating traditional cultures.
This collection activity took on some aspects of a crusade, as musicologists raced to preserve vanishing musical artefacts before they were lost to history. This view was a key motivation for the ethnologists who collected and preserved examples of Australian Aboriginal music, since it was widely believed at the time that the Aboriginal "race" and Aboriginal culture would eventually die out.
Musicologists and leading composers like Antonín Dvořák, Zoltán Kodály, Béla Bartók and Percy Grainger made strenuous efforts to collect and record local forms of European folk music and folk song, and many folk music melodies and other musical features were absorbed into the mainstream classical tradition. A good example of this process was the enduringly popular suites of Hungarian dances by Dvořák and Johannes Brahms.
During the 19th century this collection program was necessarily restricted to the written notation of melodies, lyrics and arrangements, but it was transformed in the early 20th century by the invention of sound recording and the development of portable cylinder and disc recording equipment, enabling musicologists for the first time to capture this music in actual performance, and the new technology was eagerly adopted by musicologists in Europe and America.
This growing archive of "folkloric" recordings remained largely within the confines of academia until after World War II. But in America, these collection programs—notably those sponsored by the Library of Congress—were to have an immense influence on the development of the international popular music industry.
Folk-music collectors like the great Alan Lomax worked assiduously for decades to find and record examples of almost every facet of Native American, African-American and European-American folk music, and the work of these many scholars, enthusiasts and collectors preserved the sound of many "folk" performers and thousands of hours of priceless song and music from the American folk music tradition.
This musicological program was again revolutionised in the early 1950s by the new technology of magnetic tape recording, which for the first time allowed music collectors to make very stable, long-duration, high-fidelity studio and field recordings. The concurrent introduction of the LP audio disc format, which could hold as much as thirty minutes of continuous music per side, allowed many such "folk music" recordings to be released into the consumer market for the first time.
The availability of high-quality portable tape recorders was the key innovation that led to the inception of the two keystone labels in the world music genre. Folkways Records' extensive archive of folk and indigenous music was launched in the 1950s. It was followed in 1967 by Elektra Records' influential Nonesuch Explorer Series.
These "folk" LPs—notably those of early 20th century blues music—were to bring about a radical change in the style and direction of late 20th century popular music. This process is exemplified by the huge directional change in rock music that came about when young British and American musicians (like Eric Clapton) heard the recordings of an obscure Mississippi blues musician called Robert Johnson.
Another aspect of the changes in the cultural appropriation process can be found on the music of Dvořák, which itself was greatly influenced by his collection and study of the folk music of his native Bohemia. In the 1892 Dvořák was invited to become the director of the National Conservatory of Music in New York City; the period he spent in America, and especially his exposure to Native American and African-American music, led to the creation of his most famous and popular symphonic work, the Symphony No. 9, subtitled "From the New World".
This is arguably another very early example of the so-called crossover music genre, but interestingly, it also had an influence on the development of American popular music. Part of the symphony's enduring appeal is due to the nostalgic main melody in the second movement, which is said to have expressed Dvořák's homesickness for Bohemia. Remarkably, this melody was later appropriated into the formative bluegrass music genre as the basis for the song "Goin' Home" (attributed to William Arms Fisher); it soon became a bluegrass standard and was later adapted into a popular spiritual-style song.
Beginning around the turn of the 20th century, the invention of sound recording and motion pictures enabled American mass-entertainment culture to begin to develop into a major global economic and cultural force.
Simultaneous with this process, two emerging streams of non-Western music—African-American music and Latin music—were discovered by American and European audiences, and they were rapidly appropriated by the mainstream music industry. Over the next hundred years these two broad genres were to have a massive transformative effect on the structure of popular music and the direction of the music industry.
In the 1890s working-class dancers, composers and musicians in the La Boca area of Buenos Aires in Argentina invented a daring and sensual new dance style which was dubbed the tango. It took Argentina by storm and after reaching New York during World War I it became an international sensation, aided by a plethora of tango recordings and crystallised by the famously steamy tango scene in Rudolph Valentino's legend-making 1921 film The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.
More or less simultaneous with the tango craze, a novel African-American style known as ragtime emerged in the United States, epitomised by the music of virtuoso pianist-composers Scott Joplin and Eubie Blake. Ragtime introduced African-derived syncopated ("ragged") rhythms into Western music and enjoyed a tremendous international vogue over the next twenty years, as well as exerted a huge influence on the subsequent development of jazz.
Ragtime and then early jazz transformed American popular music—the work of songwriters like George Gershwin and Irving Berlin was crucially shaped by their appropriation of influences from African-American music—and these genres also strongly influenced many European classical composers, especially the French composers Erik Satie, Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel.
In terms of their influence on almost every facet of 20th century popular music, the successive historical genres of African-American music have, as a group, been the most significant of all the "exotic" genres appropriated into Western music. Just as they influenced each other, gospel music, ragtime, blues, jazz, R&B and rock'n'roll were also successively appropriated into mainstream Western popular music—usually almost as soon as each became known as a definable genre. It is undeniable that the various genres of African-American music have, collectively, exerted a greater influence over the development and direction of Western mass-market popular recorded music than any other force.
Alongside the emergence of jazz, beginning around 1915, Hawaiian music reached the mainstream pop market in the United States. The Hawaiian style (or, more often, Western imitations of it) became a major music fad, retaining a significant audience following from the 1930s to the 1950s. Hawaiian music was itself a complex mixture of European, native Hawaiian and other Polynesian influences. This is well demonstrated by the work of one of the founders of the genre, Queen Lili'uokalani (1838–1917), the last Queen of Hawaii before the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown. A musician and composer, she is credited as the composer of the unofficial Hawaiian anthem "Aloha 'Oe". Lili'uokalani indeed wrote the lyrics and arranged the music but in fact she appropriated the tune from a Croatian folk song called "Sidi Mara na kamen studencu".
Beginning in the late 1920s, a series of concerts under the aegis of the Pan-American Association of Composers, founded by Henry Cowell, brought the African-influenced music of Cuban composers Alejandro García Caturla and Amadeo Roldán and the work of Carlos Chávez, much of it rooted in Mexican folk music, to the United States.
In the 1930s, the "Latin invasion" that had begun with the tango took off again when American jazz, dance music, and popular song were revolutionized by the "discovery" of other music forms of the Caribbean, Central and South America, a process that was triggered by a significant influx of migrants to the United States from Cuba, Puerto Rico and other Caribbean islands in the 1940s.
The blending of Latin rhythms and instrumental jazz was pioneered by established American musicians like Duke Ellington and Dizzy Gillespie and by recently arrived 'Latin' musicians like Machito and others, some of whom soon became stars in their own right. Latin beats rapidly became an essential part of the rhythmical vocabulary of American popular music, providing composers and musicians with a vastly enhanced repertoire of beats and meters. During the 1930s and 1940s, newly appropriated Latin music genres created a series of music movements and dance crazes, including the merengue, the samba, and the rumba.
In 1944 The Andrews Sisters appropriated the song "Rum and Coca-Cola", which had originally been recorded by Trinidadian musician Lord Invader in the 1930s. The Andrews Sisters' version sparked a new fad for this infectious new style, calypso. The craze reached its apex of popularity in the mid-1950s with the release of the hugely successful Harry Belafonte single "Banana Boat Song" and Belafonte's million-selling 1956 LP Calypso. Calypso also had a strong influence on the mainstream folk music boom of the late fifties and early sixties, which in turn became one of the major springboards for the development of world music as a commercial genre.
In the late 1950s, repeating the impact of the tango, a seductive new music style called bossa nova emerged from Brazil and it soon swept the world, exerting a huge effect over the course of Western pop and jazz over the next decade and beyond. Nothing better illustrates the lasting impact of this hugely popular genre than the archetypical bossa song, "The Girl From Ipanema", written in 1962 and best known via the languid bilingual crossover version recorded by Stan Getz, João Gilberto and Astrud Gilberto in 1963. Thanks largely to the enormous worldwide popularity of this single, "The Girl From Ipanema" now ranks as the second most-recorded song of all time, surpassed only by Paul McCartney's "Yesterday".
New York was one of the epicentres of the Latin-jazz crossover, so it is not surprising that the other major pop style to show a strong influence from bossa nova was the so-called "Brill Building Sound", exemplified by the work of the New York-based songwriter teams such as Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, Gerry Goffin & Carole King, Neil Sedaka & Howard Greenfield, Jeff Barry & Ellie Greenwich and especially Burt Bacharach and Hal David.
Influences from African music also began to appear in the 1950s. This process included one of the more controversial examples of cultural appropriation process, exemplified by the pop song "The Lion Sleeps Tonight". A version of this song was an American #1 hit for pop band The Tokens in 1961, and it was credited to American writers, but in fact "The Lion Sleeps Tonight" was actually an unacknowledged rewrite of the song "Mbube", written and recorded by South African musician and composer, Solomon Linda, in 1939.
"Mbube" had been a major local hit for Linda and his band, The Evening Birds, reputedly selling 100,000 copies there, but its success at the time was entirely confined to South Africa. Some years later, a copy of Linda's recording reached the American musicologist Alan Lomax; he passed it on to his friend Pete Seeger, who fell in love with it, and it was Seeger who was mainly responsible for popularising the song in the West.
Seeger recorded a version of the song with his noted folk group The Weavers in 1952, retitling it "Wimoweh" (an inaccurate transliteration of the song's original Zulu refrain, "uyimbube"). The Weavers scored a US Top 20 hit with their studio version, and had further success with a live version of the song included on their influential 1957 live album, recorded at Carnegie Hall, which led to it being covered by The Kingston Trio in 1959.
The Weavers' Carnegie Hall version of "Wimoweh" became a favourite song of The Tokens—they used it as their audition piece when they were offered a contract with RCA Records—and this led to them recording it as their first RCA single. However, it was at this point that the lyrics were re-written by the band's producers—who took full credit for the song—and it would be several decades more before the full story of the appropriation of Solomon Linda's work became widely known. Sadly, by then Linda had long since died in poverty.
After World War II a small but growing market developed for Western folk music and recordings of non-Western music, and this was supplied by specialist record labels such as Folkways Records, Elektra Records and Nonesuch Records in the USA and, European labels such as Disques Cellier in Switzerland and the state-run recording labels operated by eastern European governments, such as Melodiya (USSR). In the West these labels were often small "boutique" operations or minor specialist imprints of larger companies, releasing albums of non-Western traditional classical music, folk songs and indigenous "ethnic" music.
This market expanded enormously during the 1950s thanks to the so-called "folk boom" of the 1950s and early 1960s, in which artists and groups like Pete Seeger, The New Lost City Ramblers and The Weavers explored the traditional songs and sounds of American folk music and reinterpreted them for a mass audience. In America, this process was massively influenced by the 'discovery' of the treasure-trove of recordings of European, English, American and African-American music folk musics that had been made over preceding decades. One of the key audio artifacts of this process was the Anthology of American Folk Music, the landmark six-album set compiled by the musicologist Harry Smith from his own collection of 78s and cylinder recordings, originally released in 1952.
This exploratory process also led musicians to begin investigating music from non-Western cultures — as in the case of Solomon Linda's "Mbube". In each case, these processes of discovery and appropriation were made considerably easier by the increasing availability of LP recordings of "ethnic" music from non-Western countries.
This process had a definite cumulative effect, but it is fair to say that, until the late 1960s, "ethnic"/"folkloric" music remained more or less a specialist interest. Some "exotic" influences inevitably filtered through to the mass market—as in the case of "The Lion Sleeps Tonight" — but in general these were mostly Western reinterpretations, and very little original music produced outside of the mainstream Western popular music recording industry managed to break into the mainstream pop music market or achieve significant sales until the late 1960s.
Similarly, prior to the 60s, numerous classical musicians and composers wrote and/or performed music that showed the influence of novel non-Western styles (e.g. the influence of gamelan music on French composer Claude Debussy) or attempted to explicitly combine traditional Western musical styles with influences from non-Western traditions, although this too remained largely an elite 'art' activity, and it gained relatively little mass recognition when compared to major popular genres like swing music, jazz or rock'n'roll.
Mass-market acceptance of what is now termed "world music" grew dramatically as a result of the pop music explosion of the 1960s and early 1970s. During this period, the more adventurous pop, rock, progressive and jazz musicians and producers attempted, with varying degrees of success, to create a 'fusion' style that combined conventional English-language popular music forms and structures with instrumental and compositional influences from exotic musical genres. The interest in these "ethnic" musics by groups like The Beatles and The Rolling Stones, combined with their worldwide popularity, encouraged other performers and a growing number of record buyers to seek out recordings of non-Western music.
A prototype for this fusion of pop and world music in the late 60's can be seen in the folk rock phenomenon of the mid-1960s. Underlying this development was the fact that many leading American and English pop-rock musicians of the period—Roger McGuinn, Bob Dylan, Jerry Garcia, Donovan—started their musical careers on the folk scene.
Interestingly, although the core of the "folk" genre at this time was traditional Anglo-American folk song, mainstream folk music was still appropriating new "non-Anglo" influences like calypso, black South African popular music and even the Middle East (e.g. the pioneering music of noted UK guitarist Davey Graham). Another notable feature is that many performers and fans came to acknowledge African-American music—especially blues and gospel—as a vital element of folk, ultimately contributing to the breakdown of entrenched industry prejudices that had for decades divided the record market into separate 'pop' (white) and 'race' (black) markets, and this connection led to the folk music movement playing an important part in the accelerating civil rights movement of the 1950s and '60s. On stage, many African American 'folk' performers like Lead Belly and Odetta were able for the first time to perform side-by-side and as equal attractions with white performers like Dylan and Pete Seeger, as evidenced by the multiracial lineups at American folk scene's peak annual peak event, the Newport Folk Festival.
Folk rock can be seen an attempt to broaden the language of mainstream pop by incorporating the more "serious" lyrical approach and political awareness of postwar acoustic folk with the mass-market appeal of pop-rock instrumentation and production. Folk rock emerged as a genre in 1964-65, sparked by the release of two landmark pop singles. In late 1964 The Byrds recorded an electrified cover version of Bob Dylan's "Mr Tambourine Man", in which The Byrds combined the pop-rock instrumentation and close harmonies made popular by The Beatles and The Beach Boys with the earnest lyrical approach of the Anglo-American folk genre. The huge commercial success of The Byrds' version of "Mr Tambourine Man" spawned scores of imitations, and folk rock continued to expand and diversify over the next few years.
Another major folk-rock landmark was the Simon & Garfunkel single "The Sounds of Silence". The song was originally recorded as a simple acoustic ballad and included on the duo's 1964 debut album, but the LP flopped and the duo split soon after, and Simon left for the UK. The following year, inspired by the success of "Mr Tambourine Man" (and immediately after producing the historic Bob Dylan single "Like a Rolling Stone"), Columbia Records house producer Tom Wilson took the original track and (without even consulting Simon and Garfunkel) overdubbed an electric rhythm section, creating a new version. This was released as a single (as "The Sound of Silence") in late 1965 and by early 1966 it had become a major pop hit, relaunching the duo's career.
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Inspired by these developments, UK acts such as Donovan, Fairport Convention and Steeleye Span took a similar approach, combining pop-rock arrangements with songs, stylings and instruments drawn from traditional English and Celtic folk music, creating a hybrid style that applied the Byrds' folk-rock approach to the vast repertoire of English folk songs; like so many other English acts, all these performers were also heavily influenced by Dylan. Alan Stivell (Brittany) began working in a similar vein in the mid-1960s.
Solo guitarist Davey Graham was a notable figure on the British folk scene whose innovative work exerted a strong influence on other musicians. Graham's complex finder-picking style (epitomised by his landmark composition "Anji"), his reputed introduction of the "Open D" tuning to British folk guitarists and his groundbreaking incorporations of Arabic and Indian inflections into his playing influenced many of his contemporaries, including Bert Jansch, Jimmy Page, Donovan and Ray Davies, all of whom have acknowledged him as an important influence.
Graham's mercurial American counterpart John Fahey also made many remarkably innovative solo guitar recordings during this period, incorporating influences from traditional American folk, blues, Hawaiian music, Arabic and Indian music as well as exploring unusual production effects.
In America (and also in Australasia and Canada) in the late Sixties, pop-rock acts including The Grateful Dead, The Byrds and The Flying Burrito Brothers then moved their music in a different direction. Drawing on their folk roots, and inspired by the hugely influential late '60's albums by Bob Dylan and The Band, these bands began creating a new hybrid style that fused pop and rock with American country music and bluegrass music, creating the genre now termed country rock.
This ongoing process of exploration and experimentation by popular musicians, and the availability of recorded collections of "authentic" performances of English and American folk music, began to lead more and more curious listeners to explore these genres. This in turn would pave the way for the development of the "world music" concept in later years.
Western pop musicians first began to explore the music of other cultures in the mid-sixties, when they began to mix Western electric pop with influences taken from the traditional music of India. Although the resulting artefacts of "raga rock" were sometimes risible, it proved to be the most influential fusion of pop and "folk" music of the entire period, specifically because it was the first widely accepted attempt to mix Western popular music with a completely non-Western musical tradition.
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Although they were by no means the only people at that time who were following this course, much of the credit for the creation of the world music genre, and for the rapid expansion of Western mass-audience interest in non-Western music, must be accorded to The Beatles, and especially to their lead guitarist, George Harrison.
Interest in Indian music increased rapidly in the mid-1960s. By 1965 a number of British and American pop musicians were discovering Indian music and instruments; in early 1965, during a tour of America, David Crosby of The Byrds introduced Harrison to the sitar and the traditional classical music of India. Harrison was captivated by the sound of the instrument; he soon developed a profound interested in Indian music, culture and spirituality, and sparked a trend by taking sitar lessons from Indian sitar virtuoso Ravi Shankar, whom Harrison continued to regard as the "best musician on the planet" long after the 1960s and who, coincidentally, had also recorded for The Beatles' label, EMI.
Harrison's background in popular British and American music forms had given him a grounding in the techniques of jazz-blues improvisation that are central to the genre. Like jazz and blues, the largely improvised nature of Hindustani classical music, its strong reliance on rhythm and percussion, and the extended nature of the raga form were all features that Harrison was able to recognise, appreciate and begin to explore in the context of pop's ongoing quest for "the new sound".
In October 1965 Harrison made pop history when he played a sitar on the Beatles' song "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)", included their 1965 LP Rubber Soul. Other musicians were attempting similar fusions at the time—Brian Wilson, for example, used a koto on one of the songs on The Beach Boys' classic Pet Sounds LP, recorded, and Donovan was recording and performing with pioneering American sitarist Shawn Phillips—but arguably no other single recording had the instant and worldwide impact of "Norwegian Wood".
It was the first time a Western pop song had used a sitar in its arrangement, and for many Western listeners it was undoubtedly the first time they ever heard the instrument. In the wake of the song's release, the sitar became the new "in" sound for pop recordings, and an American guitar company even manufactured an electric sitar-guitar designed to simulate the sound of the sitar.
More importantly, "Norwegian Wood" sparked a major craze for the classical music of India in general and for the work of Ravi Shankar in particular, with the direct result that recordings by Shankar and other Indian classical musicians began to sell in large quantities outside India for the first time and Shankar himself quickly became one of the world's most sought-after concert performers. The availability of tape recording and the LP were also crucial to the popularization of this particular genre of music—since a typical raga performance could last twenty minutes or more, popular appreciation of this music would have been impossible without the longer duration and high fidelity provided by the LP format.
In 1966 Harrison took his "Indi-psych-pop" synthesis a step further with the highly original song "Love You To" (from the seminal Revolver LP), which featured a sinuous Indian-influenced melody and an innovative arrangement consisting solely of Indian instruments, performed by expatriate Indian musicians living in London. The peak of Harrison's Indian synthesis project was the epic track "Within You Without You" (1967) from Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, recorded at Studio Two, Abbey Road by Harrison and an ensemble of musicians from the Asian Music Circle in London.
Another trace of Harrison's immersion in Indian music was that "Within You Without You" also broke new ground on the pop scene by clocking in at over five minutes. Harrison also recorded in India with Indian instruments and musicians when producing the soundtrack music for the 1968 film Wonderwall; he was given free rein by the film's director and the music he created was explicitly intended as a sort of "primer" of the styles of Indian instrumental music that he was exploring, but the film did not have a wide release at the time and Harrison's soundtrack remains little known outside the realm of Beatles aficionados.
Although by no means as influential as "Norwegian Wood", the 1965 song "See My Friends" by The Kinks is another significant Western pop song of the period that shows the unmistakable influence of Indian music. In this case, according to writer Ray Davies, the song's arrangement was inspired by a stopover in India during the band's first trip to Australia in 1965, when during an early-morning walk, he heard local fisherman singing a traditional chant, part of which he incorporated into the song's sinuous melody line; Davies' exposure to Hindustani raga music is also evident in the sitar-like quality of the guitar accompaniment. Another early use of the sitar in pop was on The Rolling Stones' hit single "Paint It, Black", released in May 1966.
1967 proved to be a pivotal year for the development of the world music genre. In June, the three-day Monterey International Pop Festival, the world's first rock festival, was held in California, and it was attended by approximately 200,000 people. Alongside English and American pop and rock acts, the bill also featured black South African jazz trumpeter Hugh Masekela as well as a performance by Ravi Shankar, who opened the climactic Sunday concert (and whose presence at the festival was almost entirely due to the influence of George Harrison). Shankar's performance at Monterey was seen by tens of thousands of people that day, and because the entire festival was recorded and filmed, millions more around the world heard it on record or saw it on film in the years that followed.
The other major landmark that year was the launch of the Nonesuch Explorer Series by the American Elektra Records label. This first Explorer LP, a collection of Balinese folk music entitled Music from the Morning of the World, launched a growing catalogue of high-fidelity field recordings of the music of other cultures. The Nonesuch Explorer series is now recognised[by whom?] as one of the most important commercial collections of world music and several excerpts from Nonesuch recordings were included on the Voyager Golden Record that was sent into deep space aboard the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 space probes in 1977.
Another world/pop crossover style that emerged in the 1960s was Jamaican ska (sometimes called bluebeat, rocksteady and reggae). Little Millie Small scored what is probably the first bluebeat hit, "My Boy Lollipop" in 1964, and these styles gained a considerable following in the United Kingdom, especially in the mod and skinhead subcultures, thanks to artists such as Prince Buster, Desmond Dekker and Laurel Aitken. In 1968, The Beatles enjoyed a major crossover success with Paul McCartney's ska-influenced "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da", while Desmond Dekker became the first Jamaican musician to score a number 1 hit in the UK with the 1968 reggae song "Israelites". In 1972, Johnny Nash scored a major international hit with the reggae-styled "I Can See Clearly Now" (with The Wailers as his backup band). His follow-up single "Stir It Up" was penned by Bob Marley. The style gained wider popularity that year with the cult success of the Jamaican movie The Harder They Come, which starred reggae musician Jimmy Cliff, who also wrote and performed much of the soundtrack album.
Reggae was a distinctive local style that evolved in Jamaica, although its development had been strongly influenced by earlier American soul and R&B. Reggae became widely popular in the UK mostly thanks to Jamaican-born singer-songwriter Bob Marley, who was one of the genre's main founders and one of its most prolific and consistent songwriters. Reggae's popularity in Britain was greatly assisted by the fact that a large number of black immigrants from the Caribbean had settled in England since the end of World War II. Reggae also became very popular with the new generation of musicians in the punk rock and new wave music genres of the late 1970s. Bands such as The Clash and The Slits became enthusiastic champions of the style, as well as appropriating it for their own music.
Internationally, the most successful appropriators of reggae for mainstream pop audiences were the British band The Police, who scored a string of hit singles and hit LPs in the late 1970s and early 1980s, with pop songs played in a reggae style, such as "Walking on the Moon".
In 1968, Rolling Stones guitarist Brian Jones recorded the Master Musicians of Jajouka in the village of Jajouka in northern Morocco. Jones died the following year but the LP was released in 1971 on Rolling Stones Records. Although there was some criticism of the electronic treatments Jones applied to the recordings in post-production, the LP was one of the first recordings released in the pop market that showcased traditional Moroccan music.
The electric folk movement in which Western popular music appropriated the English and Celtic traditional music also began in the late 1960s, with the work of groups like Fairport Convention. This movement continued well into the 1970s.
Another important landmark in the growth of the world music genre, and one which is often overlooked, came in 1970 with the popular Simon & Garfunkel single "El Cóndor Pasa", taken from their multi-platinum selling Bridge Over Troubled Water LP. The theme was endlessly copied and used all over the world, for instance in parody about downed F117a plane El kondor pada, and many other. Like Harrison's use of sitar, Paul Simon's use of Andean folk instruments (including the pan flute) was a pop music "first". His evocative English-language adaptation of a traditional 18th-century Peruvian folk melody by Jorge Michelberg gave many listeners their first taste of the flavour of Peruvian folk music, and when the song was released as a single it became a hit in many countries, earning a Top Twenty placing (#18) on the American charts.
Also in 1970, Breton singer and musician Alan Stivell (having already played the Celtic Breton harp on stage as a child, and toured since the mid-sixties) recorded his first professional album, Reflets ("Reflections"), a fusion of Celtic musics with different new experiments and influences. The originality of this is also Alan Stivell's awareness, prefacing the record as a manifesto of what he called first "ethno-modern" music, meaning exactly what world music has now come to mean for many people. His instrumental album Renaissance of the Celtic Harp increased the popularity of that instrument, and promoted the fusion of Celtic music with other musics, as did the European best-selling live album recorded at the Paris Olympia (1972). His 1979 Symphonie Celtique mixed Celtic musics with different ethnic cultures, rock, and jazz-rock, and especially with a symphonic orchestra and choirs. He continues to experiment with different combinations of these and more electronic elements, especially on 1 Douar ("One Earth") (1998) and Explore (2006).
In 1973 Cameroonian jazz musician Manu Dibango scored a worldwide hit with the single "Soul Makossa", a piece considered[by whom?] one of the forerunners of disco. Although Dibango came from a jazz background, the single contained elements drawn from the Cameroonian folk music style known as makossa, and Dibango became one of the very first African musicians to achieve significant success in the mainstream Western pop market. "Soul Makossa" also became an example of cultural appropriation when Michael Jackson "borrowed" 77 seconds of music from Dibango's single and incorporated it into his song "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'", from the Thriller album, leading Dibango to take legal action against Jackson.
In 1975 there were several important "popular" releases that gained wide recognition and exposed pop audiences to new musical influences. In February, Led Zeppelin released an ambitious "Arab-pop fusion" song, the ten-minute epic "Kashmir", from their Physical Graffiti LP. The song was strongly influenced by composer Jimmy Page's interest in Arabic music. Although its length made it an unlikely hit, the song became a firm favorite on American FM radio stations and was even played on Australian pop radio.
In November that year, Joni Mitchell released her LP The Hissing of Summer Lawns, featuring the track "The Jungle Line", which mixed traditional African drumming and synthesiser. For this recording, Mitchell was accompanied by the musical group The Warrior Drums of Burundi, who were visiting America at the time.
Two other musical events in 1975 which had a significant impact on the development of world music can both be largely credited to Marcel Cellier, owner of the Swiss record label Disques Cellier.
That year Cellier released Le Mystère des Voix Bulgares, the first volume of an eventual three-album series of recordings of Bulgarian vocal folk music, performed by the Bulgarian State Radio Choir and Trio Bulgarka. In the years that followed, particularly after the album's re-release through the British 4AD Records label, the Bulgarian Voices album became a significant cult hit in many countries and created a huge groundswell of interest in this form of eastern European folk music, leading to the 1980s collaboration between Trio Bulgarka and British singer-songwriter Kate Bush on her 1989 album The Sensual World.
Cellier's other big hit of 1975 was Flutes De Pan et Orgue ("Pan Flute and Organ"), a 1971 recording of traditional Romanian pan flute music, performed by Romanian pan flautist Gheorge Zamfir, and accompanied by Cellier himself on organ. The international vogue for Zamfir's music is largely due to Australian film director Peter Weir. His 1975 film Picnic at Hanging Rock, one of the most successful Australian feature films of the period, featured evocative music from the Cellier disc on the soundtrack, and the film's success created widespread interest in Zamfir and his music.
Weir had been introduced to Zamfir's music a few years earlier, and when he began production on Picnic he decided to use pan flute music on the soundtrack; he approached Zamfir to compose original music in the same style, but Zamfir declined, so Weir was returned to the music he had originally heard and licensed some of the tracks from the Cellier LP.
In 1978, Matthew Montfort formed Ancient Future, an ensemble of 28 members having musical masters of a song traditional to the master's country play the song along with them. Ancient Future blended rhythms, harmonies, and melodies from all across the world and mixed them together along with jazz, rock and other genres of music to combine what became world fusion music.
Throughout the late 1970s and 1980s, the English film director Jeremy Marre travelled the world for his Beats of the Heart series, shown first on the UK's national Channel 4, recording and interviewing so-called world music artists.
1980s to present
In 1986, Paul Simon re-emerged as a catalytic figure when he revisited the world music / pop fusion concept he had first used on "El Cóndor Pasa" in 1970. His influential, multi-million-selling Graceland album bore the unmistakable stamp of Simon's recent discovery of South African township music, and he recorded the album with leading South African session musicians and the vocal group Ladysmith Black Mambazo. These musicians performed on the subsequent concert tours, as did two other special guests, exiled South African music legends Miriam Makeba and Hugh Masekela. Simon received some criticism for his decision to record in South Africa (which was being economically boycotted by most Western nations for its Apartheid policies).
Many other British and American artists contributed to the growing exploitation of "world music" during this period. After establishing his solo career in the late 1970s and early 1980s, former Genesis lead singer Peter Gabriel was heavily influenced by African and Middle Eastern music; he became a key figure in the founding of the WOMAD organisation and later established his own "world music" label, Real World, which recorded and released successful albums by artists such as Nusrat Fateh Ali Kahn. Gabriel featured Senegalese mbalax singer Youssou N'Dour in a song on his hit album So in 1986, paving the way for N'Dour's success as one of the biggest "world music" stars in the West. The later music of American new wave band Talking Heads drew heavily on influences from African and Afro-Cuban music, notably on their album Remain in Light. The album was among several experimental post-punk recordings directly inspired by the Afrobeat of bandleader Fela Kuti. Kuti's style itself began as a merger between the traditional styles of Kuti's home Nigeria and the R&B and funk music of African American artists like James Brown. Many other African musicians, as well as those from other regions of the world, also drew influence from African American music, Afro-Cuban music and other music from the West, ensuring that appropriation was continuous in many directions.
In the early 1980s, Talking Heads' main writer and lead singer David Byrne also recorded a significant album called My Life in the Bush of Ghosts, in collaboration with the band's producer of the time, Brian Eno. It was strongly influenced by musical styles outside the standard "rock" genre, employing African-style percussion and Afro-American funk rhythms. It is also notable as one of the first rock albums to make extensive use of the then novel technology of sampling, incorporating vocal and musical samples from a wide range of sources including Arabic music. Dub music, a more atmospheric offshoot of reggae, was also appropriated as a rhythmic and production influence by many electronic musicians and underground rock bands of the era, particularly in the United Kingdom, where reggae had achieved mainstream success.
Sampling came into wider use among hip hop DJs, who appropriated rhythms, vocal parts or backing music from existing songs and pieces and combined and manipulated them, usually to serve as backing for rap vocals by an MC. Hip hop music began as an underground urban phenomenon in the 1970s, achieved mass popular success by the late 1980s and early 1990s, and by the end of the century it had become dominant over rock as the largest selling style of pop music and the primary musical export of the United States. The importance of musical appropriation to hip hop culture has often been controversial, with many legal challenges to uncredited samples, and heavy criticism for instances where paid samples simply copied the sound of the original song (for example, Puff Daddy's sampling of a hit by The Police); however, many hip hop musicians and others have argued that sampling in hip hop is no different from the often uncredited appropriation white classical and rock musicians made of earlier black music styles such as jazz and blues, and that the DJ's creativity, as well as that of the rapper, allows the song to depart significantly from the original sources. Samples in hip hop are typically only brief snippets of the original, though they often utilize the most recognizable riff or hook of the song. Many hip hop songs sample other forms of African American music, as well. Hank Shocklee of the influential hip hop group Public Enemy has publicly debated the practice with funk bandleader George Clinton, who sued Public Enemy for sampling one of his songs without permission.
As of the 2000s, sampling has become a common form of appropriation in pop music, which has drawn increased influence from hip hop. For example, Barbadian dancehall/pop singer Rihanna's 2006 hit "SOS" drew directly from the song "Tainted Love" by 1980s English synthpop band Soft Cell. Although both were successful on the Western pop charts, the two acts may have been seen[by whom?] to reflect very different cultures before the appropriation.
- Dean, Bartholomew. "digital vibes & radio waves in indigenous Peru." In Latin Indigenous Intellectual Property Rights: Legal Obstacles and Innovative Solutions M. Riley (ed.) 2004, 
- Jones, Brian (Winter 2007). ""Japan in London 1885". W. S. Gilbert Society Journal (22): pp.686–96
- See http://www.bobshannon.com/stories/Lion.html and http://www.3rdearmusic.com/forum/mbube2.html for more information about Solomon Linda and the "Wimoweh" story.
- Unterberger 2009b.
- nonesuch.com/Hi Band/explorer home.html Archived March 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- notated in 1916 by Peruvian composer Daniel Alomía Robles
- stereogum: George Clinton & PE's Hank Shocklee Talk Sampling