Apress was founded by authors Gary Cornell and Dan Appleman. Its original name was Author's Press, shortened to APress, then Apress. In 2003, Apress purchased much of the intellectual property of the designer-oriented publisher friends of ED. Apress books, for the most part, are characterized by a uniform yellow, black and (now) red design. Topics covered relate largely to programming issues, on both proprietary and open source platforms. Hardware hacking is also a theme, and Apress has published some books aimed for mainstream consumer electronics users. In addition, Apress crosses over the IT line and publishes business books. Authors include Andrew Troelsen, Adam Freeman, Ed Yourdon, Matt MacDonald, Andy Budd, Rob Harrop, Dave Mark, Michael A. Banks, Keir Thomas, Malcolm Harkins, Jacob Lamm, Scott Donaldson, Peter Seibel, Bob Walsh, Rory Lewis, and Joel Spolsky. Their print books are distributed worldwide by Springer Science + Business Media, and they are also sold as eBooks and distributed online through the subscription services such as SpringerLink, Books 24X7 and Safari Online. In 2007 Apress was fully acquired by Springer. Prior to this Springer owned a minority stake, and in 2009 Apress' offices in Berkeley, California closed and the business moved to Springer's headquarters in New York. In 2012 Apress announced their new ApressOpen line of books, providing ebooks for free through all of their ebook, electronic subscription and sponsor's channels.