April 1911

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April 1, 1911: Mexico's President Diaz makes last-ditch effort to stay in power
April 8, 1911: Dutch physicist Kamerlingh Onnes discovers principle of superconductivity

The following events occurred in April 1911:

April 1, 1911 (Saturday)[edit]

April 2, 1911 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The United Kingdom census was taken, based on two Acts, one for Great Britain and the other for Ireland. "Schedules" with multiple questions were distributed to each household, and collected by enumerators the following day.[5] The final count, released on June 16, was 45,216,665.[6] One out of every seven employed persons was a domestic servant. Suffragette Emily Davison hid in a cupboard in the crypt of the Palace of Westminster so that she could legitimately be recorded as resident on census night at the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.[7][8]
  • The first Australian National Census (as opposed to prior colonial censuses) was taken, with information to be filled out on a "Householder's Card".[9] The final count showed 4,455,005 people.[10]
  • British evangelist John Henry Jowett, celebrated at the time as "the greatest preacher in the English-speaking world",[11] began a revival in New York City at the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church.[12]

April 3, 1911 (Monday)[edit]

  • The first performance was given of the Fourth Symphony of Jean Sibelius.[13]
  • Draft registration became mandatory for all boys aged 14 to 20 in New Zealand.[14]
  • An imperial edict was issued in the name of the two-year-old Emperor of China, Puyi, proclaiming him to be supreme commander of the army and appointing his father, Prince Chun, to serve as Prince-Regent until the Emperor reached a majority.[15]
  • President Taft ordered the reassignment of the all-African-American U.S. 9th Cavalry to move them out of San Antonio, where they had been sent to guard the border with Mexico, after the regiment's northern-born soldiers had defied the Texas city's segregation laws. Reportedly, two white streetcar conductors had been beaten up after insisting that the soldiers move to the colored section of the cars.[16] The order was reversed two days later after complaints came from the mayors of cities where the troops were to be moved, including Brownsville, Laredo and Del Rio.[17]

April 4, 1911 (Tuesday)[edit]

April 5, 1911 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • In one of the largest union labor demonstrations in the United States to that time, a group of 120,000 employees took the day off and marched in the rain along Fifth Avenue in New York City in a memorial service for the 146 victims of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire that had happened on March 25. The procession lasted for three hours and was watched by 400,000 spectators.[22]

April 6, 1911 (Thursday)[edit]

  • By a vote of 198-135, the U.S. House of Representatives changed its rules to remove much of the power that the Speaker of the House had formerly wielded. Never again would the Speaker have the exclusive right to assign members to committees or to select the chairmen.[23]
  • For the first time, the State Council of Imperial Russia approved an interpellation resolution criticizing the Tsarist government. The vote was 98-52 in favor of the measure, which rebuked Prime Minister Stolypin's proposal for self-government for Poland.[1]
  • Mayor of Baltimore Mahool signed into law an ordinance prohibiting African-Americans from moving into, or establishing businesses, in white neighborhoods.[24]
  • Born: Feodor Lynen, German biochemist and 1964 Nobel Laureate, in Munich (d. 1979)

April 7, 1911 (Friday)[edit]

April 8, 1911 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered superconductivity at the Leiden University, finding that the electrical resistance of the metal mercury completely disappeared at a temperature of 4.15 Kelvin (-268.85 °C). The exact moment of his finding has been traced to the series of notebooks that he kept at the time, at 4:00 in the afternoon.[28] Presentation of the results was made on April 28.
  • An explosion at the Banner Mine of Pratt Consolidated Coal Company, near Littleton, Alabama, killed 128 coal miners. All but five of them were African-Americans who had been convicted of minor crimes and were sentenced to hard labor.[1][29]
  • Elsie Paroubek, aged 5, vanished from the corner of 23rd Street and Troy Avenue in Chicago. The subsequent exhaustive search for her would preoccupy Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota law enforcement for six weeks.[30]
  • Born:

April 9, 1911 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The Sufi Inayat Khan introduced the music of India to the West with a recital at the Hindu temple in San Francisco, before going on further international tours.[31]
  • A fire in the Yoshiwara district of Tokyo, where geishas were housed for pleasure, killed 300 people, injured 800 and left 6,000 homeless.[32]

April 10, 1911 (Monday)[edit]

April 11, 1911 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The Senate of France voted 213-62 in favor of a resolution supporting an end to territorial limitations on where the wine champagne could be produced and still be referred to by that name.[36] Upset by the vote wine-growers in the Marne department rioted, burning establishments and dumping thousands of gallons of champagne. Order was restored by the end of the week[1][37]
  • Isaac Harris and Max Blanck, co-owners of the Triangle Waist Company, were indicted for manslaughter for the fire that killed 146 employees, with probable cause based upon the finding of a bolted door.[1][38] Blanck and Harris were acquitted following a trial in December. Civil suits against them were settled on March 11, 1913, with payment of 75 dollars apiece to the families of each of the victims.[39]
  • Mae West, 17, married musician Frank Wallace; they separated after a few months, but never divorced, until after Wallace resurfaced in 1935.[40]
  • Born: Leon Mandrake, American magician, in New Westminster, British Columbia (d.1993)
  • Died: Crazy Snake, 64, real name Chito Harjo, Creek Indian warrior who had, on March 27, 1909, led the last American Indian uprising in the Indian Territory, later Oklahoma.

April 12, 1911 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • On the 50th anniversary of the start of the American Civil War, the very first graduate from the flying school of the United States Navy, Lt. Theodore G. Ellyson, became "Naval Aviator No. 1".[41]
  • Detectives arrested James McNamara and Oscar McNanigal in Detroit after a search of several months. The two had been among those indicted for the Los Angeles Times bombing, which had killed 21 people the previous October 1. James was carrying a briefcase filled with dynamite when caught. His brother John was nabbed ten days later in Indianapolis[42]
  • The shortest major league baseball game ever, the season opener between the visiting Philadelphia Phillies at the New York Giants' stadium, the Polo Grounds, was completed in 50 minutes with the Phillies winning 2-0. On September 28, 1919, the same two teams would play a game that lasted 51 minutes.[43] The very next day, the Phillies and Giants played an 18 inning game, and the Polo Grounds burned to the ground that night.[44]
  • Winsor McCay's animated short film, based on the Little Nemo comic strip, premiered at Williams' Colonial Theater in New York.[45]
  • Pilot Pierre Prier made the first non-stop airplane flight from London to Paris, traveling 290 miles in 4 hours and 8 minutes.[1][46] 1
  • Tornadoes swept through 14 towns in Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma and killed at least 25 people, destroying all but six of buildings in the town of Bigheart, Oklahoma.[47]

April 13, 1911 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The U.S. House of Representatives passed the bill for a constitutional amendment requiring direct election of U.S. Senators, 296-16.[48]
  • Mexican Revolution: Rebels defeated government troops in an attack on the border city of Agua Prieta, located on the Mexican-U.S. border across from Douglas, Arizona. Stray bullets flew across the border, striking buildings "as far north as Fifteenth Street", and killed two Americans, J.C. Edwards and Robert Harrington.[49]
  • British film producer Will Barker carried out his agreement for exhibiting the first motion picture of William Shakespeare's play, Henry VIII, after a six-week run in the United Kingdom. Barker had filmed one of the presentations of Sir Herbert Tree's production of the drama, and been allowed to show it to audiences. At Ealing, Barker carried out the burning of all prints of the film.[50]

April 14, 1911 (Friday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Taft sent a warning to the Mexican government and to insurgent leaders to avoid fighting near the border and to not further endanger the lives of Americans.[1]
  • Born: Theodore Romzha, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church bishop who refused to merge his church with the Russian Orthodox, in Zapakartsk and was murdered in 1944.
  • Died:

April 15, 1911 (Saturday)[edit]

April 16, 1911 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Elections, supervised by the United States, were held for the National Assembly of Nicaragua. With the assistance of the Army, General Luis Mena, the Minister of War, secured the election of many of his followers to the new legislature.[1][53]

April 17, 1911 (Monday)[edit]

April 18, 1911 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • In response to a demand by U.S. President Taft, and the implied threat of an American invasion, Mexico's President Diaz informed Ambassador Wilson that his troops would avoid clashes with rebels near the border shared by the two nations.[58] The agreement followed the deaths of two Americans in Douglas, Arizona, from fighting in Agua Prieta. Two days later, Diaz's formal note claimed that Americans had aided the rebels and had allowed shots to be fired from the U.S. side of the border.[59]
  • Born:
  • Died: B.V. Matevich-Matsevich, Russian aviator, in a plane crash

April 19, 1911 (Wednesday)[edit]

April 20, 1911 (Thursday)[edit]

April 21, 1911 (Friday)[edit]

  • The U.S. House again passed the Canadian reciprocity bill 266-89[63]
  • American troops near the Mexican border were ordered to strictly enforce neutrality laws.[63]

April 22, 1911 (Saturday)[edit]

  • John J. McNamara, Secretary-Treasurer of the International Association of Structural Iron Workers, was arrested along with two other men and charged with murder for the Los Angeles Times bombing that killed 21 people. His brother James McNamara escaped a death sentence by pleading guilty and spent the rest of his life in prison, dying 30 years after the October 1 bombing, on March 8, 1941. John McNamara was released in 1921, and died two months later.[63][64]
  • The collapse of a railroad bridge at the Cape Colony caused a train to fall into a deep gorge, killing 20 people.[63]
  • Edwin Blatt, Lawrence Converse and Brown, who had been jailed two months earlier for aiding the rebellion, were released by order of President Diaz.[63]
  • Minnesota abolished the death penalty, as Governor Adolph O. Eberhart signed a bill making first degree murder punishable by life in prison.[65]
  • Zapata of Mexico By Peter E. Newell p42
  • Died: John Passmore Edwards, 88, English philanthropist and peace activist

April 23, 1911 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Elections were held for the first time in Monaco[63]
  • General Charles-Emile Moinier March of the French on Fez French military rule in Morocco: colonialism and its consequences By Moshe Gershovich p55
  • Born: Ronald Neame, British film director, in London

April 24, 1911 (Monday)[edit]

  • Former Dominican Republic President Carlos Felipe Morales, along with his vice-president and a general, were arrested by American officials in Puerto Rico and charged with conspiracy to overthrow the Dominican government.[63]
  • A copy of the Gutenberg Bible, part of the vast collection of the late Robert Hoe, was auctioned in New York City for $50,000 as George D. Smith, acting as agent for Henry E. Huntington, outbid Joseph E. Widener.[66]
  • Born: Dr. Irene Sanger-Bredt, German rocket scientist, in Bonn

April 25, 1911 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • A ceasefire was declared in Mexico between federal and insurgent troops as President Diaz and General Madero agreed to negotiate a settlement. Peace reigned for 11 days before the talks broke off on May 6.[63]
  • Died:
    • Dr. Charles Wertheimer, 60, British art collector
    • Emilio Salgari, 48, Italian novelist

April 26, 1911 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • By a 60-40 majority, Australian voters rejected referenda proposals to give the Commonwealth government greater power.[67]
  • The town of Goldsboro, Florida, was abolished by the state legislature after the nearby city of Sanford had failed to secure its annexation. The two cities were then replaced by a newly chartered Sanford, Florida[68]
  • The town of Craig, Iowa was incorporated in Plymouth County Tom Savage, A Dictionary of Iowa Place-Names p64
  • Died:
    • The Reverend Peter Steenstra, 78, American theologian
    • Pedro A. Paterno, 53, Philippine revolutionary and Prime Minister (May to November 1899) of the first Philippine Republic

April 27, 1911 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Huanghuagang Uprising: An insurrection broke out in Canton (Guangzhou), and rebels captured five Chinese villages in an attempt to challenge the Imperial government. The persons who died in the attempt are celebrated as "the 72 Martyrs".[69]
  • Freshman Congressman Victor L. Berger, Socialist from Wisconsin, introduced a resolution to amend Article I of the United States Constitution in order to abolish the United States Senate. "The idea that the Senate would concur in passing this joint resolution caused a merry laugh wherever it was discussed", noted the New York Times.[70]
  • France notified parties to the Algeciras convention that it would intervene in Morocco to protect foreigners in Fes.[63]

April 28, 1911 (Friday)[edit]

April 29, 1911 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Thirty-two residents with property along the shores of the Severn River in Maryland came together in Annapolis to form the Severn River Association (SRA). Their original purpose was to protect and promote fish and game, and to develop reasonable means of public access to the river. Today, the SRA is the oldest organization in the country dedicated to the preservation of a river, and one of the largest civic groups in Anne Arundel County, with over seventy communities represented.[72]
  • A train transporting 160 schoolteachers and their friends from Utica, Syracuse, and Waterville, New York, to Washington, D.C., derailed near Easton, Pennsylvania. Seven teachers, all from Utica, died when the train plunged down and embankment and cars burst into flames, and four railroad employees were killed.[73]
  • Born: Sri Mahendranath, tantric teacher, as Lawrence Amos Miles in London (d. 1991)
  • Died: Georg, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe, 64, who, since 1893, had ruled the German principality from his palace at Bückeburg in what is now the Niedersachsen state of Germany. His son took the title of Prince Adolf II and ruled until Germany lost World War I.

April 30, 1911 (Sunday)[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Record of Current Events", The American Monthly Review of Reviews (May 1911), pp548–552
  2. ^ Friedrich Katz, The Life and Times of Pancho Villa (Stanford University Press, 1998), p94; "Diaz Promises No Re-Elections", New York Times, April 2, 1911
  3. ^ Hongshan Li, U.S.-China Educational Exchange: State, Society, and Intercultural Relations, 1905–1950 (Rutgers University Press, 2008) p65
  4. ^ Daniel J. Curran, Dead Laws for Dead Men: The Politics of Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Legislation (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1993) p75
  5. ^ "English Census Sunday, April 2", The Flint (MI) Daily Journal, April 1, 1911, p12
  6. ^ "Britain's Population- Total of Forty-Five Millions", Ohinemuri (NZ) Gazette, June 19, 1911, p2
  7. ^ "Women in Parliament". 2007. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  8. ^ "Astonishing 1911 census find – Emily Davison in Parliament's crypt". findmypast.co.uk Blog. April 30, 2010. Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  9. ^ "The Census- To Be Taken on Sunday Night- How to Fill in the Cards", The Age (Melbourne), March 30, 1911, p6
  10. ^ David Dutton, One of Us?: A Century of Australian Citizenship (UNSW Press, 2002) p25
  11. ^ Warren W. Wiersbe, 50 People Every Christian Should Know: Learning from Spiritual Giants of the Faith (Baker Books, 2009) p263
  12. ^ "Great Crowd Hears Dr. Jowett Preach", New York Times, April 3, 1911
  13. ^ Michael Steinberg, The Symphony: A Listener's Guide (Oxford University Press US, 1998) p590
  14. ^ Peter Brock, Against the Draft: Essays on Conscientious Objection from the Radical Reformation to the Second World War (University of Toronto Press, 2006) p280
  15. ^ "Dangers on Frontiers- Chinese Proclamation Declares Necessity for Great Army", Toronto World, April 4, 1911, p3
  16. ^ Brian Shellum, Black Officer in a Buffalo Soldier Regiment: The Military Career of Charles Young (University of Nebraska Press, 2010) p197; "Taft Sends Negroes Out of San Antonio", New York Times, April 4, 1911
  17. ^ "Negroes to Stay at San Antonio", New York Times, April 6, 1911
  18. ^ "Clark Takes Chair For Extra Session", Milwaukee Sentinel, April 4, 1911, p1
  19. ^ "Congress Opens; Clark Speaker", New York Times, April 5, 1911
  20. ^ Edmund Jan Osmańczyk and Anthony Mango, Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements p1198; "Japan Signs New Treaty With America", Pittsburgh Gazette-Times, April 5, 1911, p1
  21. ^ Booker T. Washington, The Negro in Business (Hertel, Jenkins & Co., 1907) p47
  22. ^ Brenda Z. Guiberson, Disasters: Natural and Man-Made Catastrophes Through the Centuries p94; "120,000 Pay Tribute to the Fire Victims", New York Times, April 5, 1911
  23. ^ "New House Rules Passed by Dems After Hot Battle", Pittsburgh Press, April 6, 1911, p10; The Cannon Centenary Conference: The Changing Nature of the Speakership (Government Printing Office, 2004) p134
  24. ^ "To Sign Segregation Law", New York Times, April 7, 1911
  25. ^ "Black Hand Leader Is Found Guilty", New York Times, April 8, 1911
  26. ^ "200 LIKELY TO BE DEATH ROLL IN TWO MINE CATASTROPHES", Pittsburgh Press, April 9, 1911, p1; Borough of Throop History
  27. ^ Friedrich Katz, The Life and Times of Pancho Villa (Stanford University Press, 1998) p104
  28. ^ Dirk van Delft and Peter Kas, "The discovery of superconductivity", Physics Today (September 2010), 38–43
  29. ^ Wayne Flynt, Alabama in the Twentieth century (University of Alabama Press, 2004) p47; Ronald L. Lewis, Black Coal Miners in America: Race, Class, and Community Conflict, 1780–1980 (University Press of Kentucky, 1987) p31; "200 DEAD IN ALABAMA MINE", Pittsburgh Press, April 8, 1911, p1
  30. ^ "Girl Missing: Gypsies Sought", Morning Leader, Regina, SK, p. 15, April 15, 1911 .
  31. ^ Reginald Massey and Jamila Massey, The Music of India (Abhinav Publications, 1996) p85
  32. ^ "300 Dead in Great Fire in Geisha Quarter", Pittsburgh Press, April 10, 1911, p1
  33. ^ Joshua A. Fogel and Peter Gue Zarrow, Imagining the People: Chinese Intellectuals and the Concept of Citizenship, 1890–1920 (M.E. Sharpe, 1997) p135
  34. ^ Francesco Catoni, et al., The Mathematics of Minkowski Space-Time: : with an introduction to commutative hypercomplex numbers (Birkhäuser, 2008) p57
  35. ^ "Score Drown When Iroquois Upsets", Milwaukee Sentinel, April 11, 1911, p1
  36. ^ "French Wine Growers' Dispute", Grey River (NZ) Argus, April 15, 1911, p1
  37. ^ "French Rioters Fight Troops-- Dump Champagne in Streets", Spokane Daily Chronicle, April 12, 1911, p1; "Troops Checked By Mob", Spokane Daily Chronicle, April 13, 1911, p1
  38. ^ "Indict Owners of Burned Factory", New York Times, April 12, 1911
  39. ^ Lawrence J. Epstein, At the Edge of a Dream: The Story of Jewish Immigrants on New York's Lower East Side 1880–1920 (John Wiley and Sons, 2007) p137
  40. ^ Charlotte Chandler, She Always Knew How: Mae West, a Personal Biography(Simon and Schuster, 2009) pp72-74
  41. ^ Kermit Bonner, Final Voyages (Turner Publishing Company, 1996) p177
  42. ^ Jim Rasenberger, High Steel: The Daring Men Who Built the World's Greatest Skyline (HarperCollins, 2004) p184
  43. ^ Philip J. Lowry, Baseball's Longest Games: A Comprehensive Worldwide Record Book (McFarland, 2010) p133
  44. ^ Bill Chuck and Jim Kaplan, Walk Offs, Last Licks, and Final Outs: Baseball's Grand (and Not-So-Grand) Finales (ACTA Publications, 2007) p128
  45. ^ Donald Crafton, Before Mickey: The Animated Film, 1898–1928 by (University of Chicago Press, 1993) p98
  46. ^ "He Flies Right Over To France", Spokane Daily Chronicle, April 12, 1911, p
  47. ^ "Big Heart, Oklahoma Tornado April 12, 1911" GenDisasters.com; "Tornadoes Kill 23 in Western States", New York Times, April 13, 1911
  48. ^ "House for Direct Vote for Senators", New York Times, April 14, 1911
  49. ^ "Stray Bullets Killed Two Americans", Dubuque (Ia.) Telegraph-Herald, April 14, 1911, p9; Benjamin R. Beede, The War of 1898, and U.S. Interventions, 1898–1934: An Encyclopedia (Taylor & Francis, 1994) p322
  50. ^ Christel Stalpaert, Peter Greenaway's Prospero's Books: Critical Essays (Academia Press, 2000 ) p72
  51. ^ "$50,000,000 Loan to China Signed", New York Times, April 16, 1911
  52. ^ Quincy Howe, A World History of Our Own Times from the Turn of the Century to the 1918 Armistice (Simon and Schuster, 1949; reprinted by READ Books, 2007) p332
  53. ^ Henry L. Stimson, American Policy in Nicaragua (Charles S. Scribner's Sons, 1927, reprinted by Markus Wiener Publishers, 1991) p143
  54. ^ James T. Wall, Wall Street and the Fruited Plain: Money, Expansion, and Politics in the Gilded Age (University Press of America, 2008) p106
  55. ^ Charles Hamm, Irving Berlin: Songs from the Melting Pot, the Formative Years, 1907–1914 (Oxford University Press US, 1997) p118
  56. ^ Richard A. Marconi and Debi Murray, Images of America: Palm Beach (Arcadia Publishing, 2009) p53
  57. ^ "Spanish Boat Sinks; 21 Die", New York Times, April 18, 1911
  58. ^ "Our Protest Brings Promise From Diaz", New York Times, April 19, 1911, p1
  59. ^ "Mexico Makes Peppery Reply", Champaign (IL) Democrat, April 21, 1911, p2
  60. ^ David Dubal, The Essential Canon of Classical Music (Macmillan, 2003) p71
  61. ^ T.F. Evans, ed., George Bernard Shaw: The Critical Heritage (Psychology Press, 1976) p11
  62. ^ "Portugal", in The Catholic Encyclopedia (Volume 12) p305; Douglas L. Wheeler, Republican Portugal: A Political History, 1910–1926 (University of Wisconsin Press, 1998) p69
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Record of Current Events", The American Monthly Review of Reviews (June 1911), pp673–674
  64. ^ Eric Arnesen, Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-class History (Volume 1) (CRC Press, 2007) p869
  65. ^ Walter N. Trenerry, Murder in Minnesota: A Collection of True Cases (Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1962) p167
  66. ^ Nicholas A. Basbanes, A Gentle Madness: Bibliophiles, Bibliomanes, and the Eternal Passion for Books (Macmillan, 1999) p181
  67. ^ Peter Bastian, Andrew Fisher: An Underestimated Man (University of New South Wales Press, 2009) p250
  68. ^ Altermese Smith Bentley, Seminole County (Arcadia Publishing, 2000) p57
  69. ^ Michael Dillon, China: A Modern History (I.B.Tauris, 2010) p141; Wu Yuzhang, Recollections of the Revolution of 1911: A Great Democratic Revolution of China (Minerva Group, Inc., 2001) pp20–21
  70. ^ Richard A. Baker, 200 Notable Days: Senate stories, 1787 to 2002 (Government Printing Office, 2006) p103
  71. ^ L. G. Aslamazov and A.A. Varlamov, The Wonders of Physics (World Scientific, 2004) p238; "Heike Kamerlingh Onnes. Een biografie", by Dirk van Delft
  72. ^ Severn River Association History Archived July 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  73. ^ "Eight Killed, 50 Injured in Wreck", Pittsburgh Gazette-Times, April 30, 1911
  74. ^ Claude Kenneson, Musical Prodigies: Perilous Journeys, Remarkable Lives (Hal Leonard Corporation, 1998) p135