From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The following events occurred in April 1959:
- 1 April 1, 1959 (Wednesday)
- 2 April 2, 1959 (Thursday)
- 3 April 3, 1959 (Friday)
- 4 April 4, 1959 (Saturday)
- 5 April 5, 1959 (Sunday)
- 6 April 6, 1959 (Monday)
- 7 April 7, 1959 (Tuesday)
- 8 April 8, 1959 (Wednesday)
- 9 April 9, 1959 (Thursday)
- 10 April 10, 1959 (Friday)
- 11 April 11, 1959 (Saturday)
- 12 April 12, 1959 (Sunday)
- 13 April 13, 1959 (Monday)
- 14 April 14, 1959 (Tuesday)
- 15 April 15, 1959 (Wednesday)
- 16 April 16, 1959 (Thursday)
- 17 April 17, 1959 (Friday)
- 18 April 18, 1959 (Saturday)
- 19 April 19, 1959 (Sunday)
- 20 April 20, 1959 (Monday)
- 21 April 21, 1959 (Tuesday)
- 22 April 22, 1959 (Wednesday)
- 23 April 23, 1959 (Thursday)
- 24 April 24, 1959 (Friday)
- 25 April 25, 1959 (Saturday)
- 26 April 26, 1959 (Sunday)
- 27 April 27, 1959 (Monday)
- 28 April 28, 1959 (Tuesday)
- 29 April 29, 1959 (Wednesday)
- 30 April 30, 1959 (Thursday)
- 31 References
April 1, 1959 (Wednesday)
- A U.S. Air Force cargo plane crashed at Orting, Washington, killing all four of the crew on board. Witnesses reported that the C-118 had collided with another object in midair, and the incident has become part of UFO Lore. The pilot, Lt. Robert R. Dimmick, radioed "We have hit something, or something has hit us", moments before the crash.
- The Navajo Nation Supreme Court came into existence, along with a set of district courts with jurisdiction in Navajo territory in Arizona and New Mexico.
- After the Soviet Union restricted travel of American diplomats, the U.S. did the same for the Soviets in America.
April 2, 1959 (Thursday)
- NASA announced the names of the seven men chosen as astronauts for Project Mercury. Originally planning to select six men, the Space Task Group screened 508 records and found 110 candidates who met the minimum standards, interviewed 69, invited 32 to go through tests and narrowed the number down to 18. Deputy Administrator Robert Gilruth suggested picking the seven finalists with the most flying experience.
- A superbolt, more powerful than an ordinary lightning bolt, struck a cornfield near Leland, Illinois, leaving a crater one foot deep, and breaking windows in homes almost a mile away.
- The Soviet Union's Council for Russian Orthodox Church Affairs advised the Russian Orthodox patriarch of new measures to reduce the number of convents, followed by property and income tax increases on the convents.
- Born: Juha Kankkunen, Finnish rally car driver and four time world champion; in Laukaa
April 3, 1959 (Friday)
- Vito Genovese, New York Mafia don and boss of the Genovese Crime Family, was convicted on federal narcotics conspiracy charges, but was released three days later after posting $150,000 bond.
- Elmer David Brunner died in the electric chair at Moundsville, West Virginia, becoming the last person to be executed in that state, which abolished the death penalty in 1965.
- Born: David Hyde Pierce, American television actor, in Saratoga Springs, New York
April 4, 1959 (Saturday)
- In a speech at Gettysburg College, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower announced the first American commitment to keeping South Vietnam as a separate, non-Communist nation. "We reach the inescapable conclusion", said Eisenhower, "that our own national interests demand some help from us in sustaining in Vietnam the morale, the economic progress and the military strength necessary to its continued existence in Freedom."
April 5, 1959 (Sunday)
- In Dortmund, West Germany, Rong Guotan of Communist China defeated Ferenc Sido of Hungary to win the 25th World Table Tennis Championships, becoming the first Chinese player to do so.
- At the Southmoor Hotel in Chicago, black nationalist S.A. Davis, Chairman of the Joint Council of Repatriation, and eight of his associates met with George Lincoln Rockwell, white supremacist, and two of his associates in the American Nazi Party, to discuss a joint resolution in support of government-supported "repatriation" of African-Americans to a homeland on the African continent.
April 6, 1959 (Monday)
- The Academy Awards ceremony took place at the RKO Pantages Theatre in Hollywood. Gigi won a record nine Oscars, including the award for Best Picture.
- Texas A&M University won in its fight against admitting women as students, as the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed an appeal by two women from as state court decision.
- Robert Sobukwe founded the Pan Africanist Congress as a black African alternative to the African National Congress.
- Hal Holbrook began his career of portraying a retired author, with his first performance of Mark Twain Tonight! at the Forty-first Street Theatre in Manhattan.
April 7, 1959 (Tuesday)
- In Washington, the National Safety Council first warned parents about the risk of suffocation posed by plastic bags, particularly those used by dry cleaners. The AMA, as well as a trade association of dry cleaning stores, joined in the warning. In January, Dr. Paul B. Jarrett of Phoenix had begun a campaign to educate the public after five children had suffocated in the previous year.
- The first photograph of a falling meteorite was taken in Pribram, Czechoslovakia.
- For the first time, a radar signal was sent between the Earth and the Sun. A team led by Dr. Von R. Eshleman, Lt. Col. Robert C. Barthle, and Dr. Philip B. Gallagher, transmitted the beam from Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, and received the return 17 minutes later. The morning experiments were repeated on April 10 and April 12, and the data was published in the journal Science on February 5, 1960.
- By a margin of 386,845 to 314,380 voters in Oklahoma elected to repeal the state's constitutional prohibition on the sale of alcohol, leaving Mississippi as the only dry American state. Liquor sales began on September 1.
- The town of Jackpot, Nevada, was founded. Located a few miles south of the border with Idaho, the gambling center was created after Idaho banned gambling.
- Israel created the first Holocaust Memorial Day by vote of the Knesset in Tel Aviv, to be observed on the 27th day of Nisan, which fell on May 5 in 1959. If the 27th falls on a Friday, the observation is held on the 26th. In 2009, Nisan 27 was on April 21.
- The Philippine government began use of the presidential yacht, the R.P.S. Lapu-Lapu (PY-77).
April 8, 1959 (Wednesday)
- Grace Hopper and other persons met at the University of Pennsylvania to discuss a computer programming language that would be more applicable to programming for business than FORTRAN. Following the meeting, a task force overseen by Hopper created COmmon Business Oriented Language, or COBOL.
- The Inter-American Development Bank was founded in Washington as an initiative by the Organization of American States to distribute financial aid to OAS member nations.
- As many as 250 delegates to a conference of the AFL-CIO got food poisoning after eating dinner on board a train bound from Toledo to Washington.
April 9, 1959 (Thursday)
- The first seven Mercury astronauts were introduced at a press conference held by NASA in Washington. By rank, they were Lt. Col. John Glenn, Lieutenant Commanders Wally Schirra and Alan Shepard, Air Force Captains Gordon Cooper, Gus Grissom and Deke Slayton, and Navy Lt. Scott Carpenter.
- Comedian Lenny Bruce made his national television debut, as a guest on The Steve Allen Show.
- The first hijacking of an airliner to Cuba took place after six Haitian rebels killed the pilot of a Coahata Airlines flight bound from Aux Cayes to Port-au-Prince, then flew the DC3 to Havana.
- The Boston Celtics beat the Minneapolis Lakers 118–113 to sweep the four game NBA championship series, in the first of the Celtics-Lakers title matches.
- Actor George Reeves, who portrayed Superman on television, was injured when the brakes failed on his Jaguar automobile, and he crashed into a light pole near his home in Beverly Hills. Reeves suffered regular headaches after the accident, and would die from a gunshot wound on June 16.
- Died: Frank Lloyd Wright, 91, American architect, died in Phoenix, three days after intestinal surgery.
April 10, 1959 (Friday)
- Japan's Crown Prince Akihito married Michiko Shōda in a 15-minute Shinto ceremony, at 10:00 a.m. in Tokyo. She was the first commoner to marry into the Imperial House of Japan. After the wedding, Kensetsu Makayama, 19, tried to climb into the royal coach after throwing a rock at the couple.
- A sniper attempted to shoot Virginia Governor J. Lindsay Almond, Jr. outside the Executive Mansion in Richmond. The Governor was unhurt, and the would-be assassin was not found.
- Thirty-four people, mostly children, were killed by a bomb left over from World War II. Fishermen had retrieved the 500 pound weapon from a sunken ship in the Lingayen Gulf near Dagupan City in the Philippines, and were taking apart the device while curious onlookers watched.
- Born: Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds, songwriter/musician; in Indianapolis;-Brian Setzer, rock musician (Stray Cats), in Massapequa, New York
- Died: Leonard Shockley, 17, became the last juvenile to be executed in the United States. Shockley, who was 16 when he committed a cut the throat of a shopkeeper, was put to death in the gas chamber at the Maryland State Penitentiary at 10:02 pm.  For nearly 40 years, he would also be the last person to be executed for a crime committed as a minor. On February 4, 1999, Sean Sellers would be put to death in Oklahoma for a 1985 murder committed when he was 16.
April 11, 1959 (Saturday)
- William H. Pickering, Director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, announced America's plans for a manned lunar mission "within the next 5 to 10 years". Speaking to a group of Caltech alumni, Pickering said that the Nova rocket, once perfected, would "be able to transport two or three men to the moon and return them to earth."
April 12, 1959 (Sunday)
- The body of former Haitian presidential candidate Clement Jumelle was hijacked from the funeral procession in Port-au-Prince. It has been speculated that Haitian dictator François Duvalier wanted to use the brain in a voodoo ceremony.
- The myth of the Chinese word for "crisis", perpetuated by Senator John F. Kennedy, who said "When written in Chinese, the word crisis is composed of two characters—one represents danger and the other represents opportunity."
April 13, 1959 (Monday)
- The United States and Britain asked the Soviet Union to join in a moratorium on above-ground nuclear weapons testing.
- The United States launched the Discoverer II satellite from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 1:20 pm. The capsule was successfully ejected, but lost after a timing error sent it to Norway rather than Hawaii.
- Singer Mario Lanza gave his final concert, in Kiel, West Germany. He would die on October 7 of the same year.
- Died:' Eduard van Beinum, 57, Dutch conductor, collapsed of a heart attack while rehearsing with the Concertgebouw Orchestra in Amsterdam. Van Beinum was reportedly leading the orchestra in playing Brahms' First Symphony in C Minor "when he lowered his baton and called for a pause", then fell to the floor. 
April 14, 1959 (Tuesday)
- The Robert A. Taft Memorial, a carillon with 27 bells, was dedicated in Washington. President Eisenhower and former president Hoover delivered remarks before a crowd of 5,000 people.
- The Atlas D missile was launched from Cape Canaveral in its first test. With a range of 10,360 miles, the missile could travel further than any previously produced in the United States. The rocket exploded soon after launch, as did two other Atlas D launches, until succeeding on July 29, 1959.
- The Grumman OV-1 Mohawk, built as the U.S. Army's reconnaissance airplane, made its first flight.
April 15, 1959 (Wednesday)
- U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles resigned after the metastasizing of his abdominal cancer. Choking back tears, President Dwight D. Eisenhower announced the news at a press conference in Augusta, Georgia.
- Hundreds turned out in Oklahoma City to see whether Otis T. Carr would launch a flying saucer to fly 400 feet off the ground. Carr rescheduled the launch several times, but it never took place.
- Fidel Castro arrived in Washington for an 11-day tour of the United States.
- A Cuban airliner was hijacked to the United States by four men, who landed the plane at 8:55 a.m. in Miami.
- Born: Emma Thompson, English actress, in Paddington
April 16, 1959 (Thursday)
- Rioters at the Montana State Prison in Deer Lodge took 16 guards and 7 other people hostage. The disturbance broke out at 4:30. Two hostages were released the next day.
- The first Thor missiles were deployed in Great Britain by the United States, under the command of Royal Air Force crews. The nuclear warheads on the missiles remained under American control.
- At an altitude of 11,700 meters, an Air France flight from Paris to Dijon lost power 265 kilometers from its destination. The crew glided the plane the rest of the way.
- Voters in Harlem Heights, a neighborhood near Chicago, elected in a referendum to incorporate as the city of Palos Heights, Illinois.
- "Judgment at Nuremberg" was telecast as a live television broadcast on Playhouse 90, and was then adapted to a 1961 film.
April 17, 1959 (Friday)
- Twenty-six people were killed in the crash of a Mexican C-46 airplane, en route from Mexicali to Guayama. The Tigres Voladores Airlines plane exploded in midair as it made its approach. On board was Mexican film idol Pedro Infante. Infante's funeral would attract 110,000 fans.
- Born: Sean Bean, English actor, in Handsworth, South Yorkshire
April 18, 1959 (Saturday)
- The Montreal Canadiens beat the Toronto Maple Leafs 5–3 to win their fourth straight Stanley Cup, in the fifth game of the series.
- At 3:45 a.m., fifty members of the Montana National Guard stormed the Montana State Prison at Deer Lodge, rescued the 16 remaining hostages, and ended the prison revolt there after 36 hours.
- The Corvette Stingray was introduced, racing at Marlboro Raceway and finishing in fourth place.
April 19, 1959 (Sunday)
- For the first time in Switzerland's history, a woman was allowed to cast a vote. Although the nation's male voters had rejected universal suffrage on February 1, the Swiss canton of Vaud approved female participation in local elections. Mrs. Ida Pidoux became the first woman to exercise the new right, casting a ballot for candidates of her choice in Oulens-sur-Lucens.
- Fidel Castro appeared on Meet the Press and denied that Cuba would turn to communism. Later that day, the Cuban premier met with U.S. Vice-President Richard M. Nixon.
- Born: Donald Markwell, Australian social scientist and educator, and Warden of Rhodes House, Oxford; in Quilpie, Queensland
- Died: Alfred Steele, 57, Chairman of the Pepsi Cola Company and husband of Joan Crawford. Christina Crawford would later claim, in an updated version of Mommie Dearest, that she believed that her stepfather was murdered by her mother. 
April 20, 1959 (Monday)
- The Ilyushin IL-18 was put into service by Aeroflot. "The Ilyushin Il-18" Airliners.net
- Born: Clint Howard, American film and television actor, in Burbank, California
- Died: Morris K. Jessup, 59, American mathematician, astronomer, and authority on UFOs, was found dead in his car from carbon monoxide poisoning, an apparent suicide,  although some conspiracy theorists believe that he was murdered.
April 21, 1959 (Tuesday)
- Alfred Dean set a record by catching a 2,664 pound great white shark off the coast of Ceduna, South Australia.
- The tradition of a cannon firing at noon in Rome was started again after a 20-year hiatus.
April 22, 1959 (Wednesday)
- In a game between the Kansas City Athletics and the Chicago White Sox, the Sox scored 11 runs in the seventh inning on only one base hit, and went on to win 20–6. John Callison singled to bring in two players who had reached base on Athletics' errors. After the bases were loaded, eight other players (including Callison) scored from third base by a player being walked, while another scored from third after a batter was struck by a pitch.
- In 1955, Florence Houteff, whose husband Victor had founded the Branch Davidian sect in Waco, Texas, had predicted that God would establish the Kingdom of Palestine on April 22, 1959. The prophecy failed, but the Davidians continued, dying in a fire at Waco in 1993.
- The Untouchables premiered on CBS.
- Norman Rosen filed a patent for the mesh crib bumper, designed to prevent infant suffocation by providing an alternative to the traditional cloth or vinyl sides within a crib. Rosen would receive U.S. Patent No. 3,018,492 on January 30, 1962, for his invention.
- Born: Ryan Stiles, American comedian, in Seattle
April 23, 1959 (Thursday)
- The press secretary for Ernesto de la Guardia, the President of Panama, charged that American actor John Wayne was financing an attempt by Roberto Arias to overthrow the government there. Wayne dismissed the accusations as ridiculous, and noted, "Roberto never talked politics, and I never heard him say anything about overthrowing the Panamanian government."
April 24, 1959 (Friday)
- The bond graph was invented, described as "one of the most effective and most elegant tools for modeling system dynamics".
- Your Hit Parade was broadcast for the last time.
- The 34 Shan States were merged into one region by the government of Burma (now Myanmar.
- Died: Omaha, 24, American thoroughbred racehorse and winner of the 1935 Triple Crown, died at the age of 24 on a farm in Nebraska City, Nebraska. The horse was buried somewhere on the Ak-Sar-Ben Raceway grounds, but the location has been lost.
April 25, 1959 (Saturday)
- The St. Lawrence Seaway opened at 8:00 a.m.. The icebreaker D'Iberville was at the front of 70 ships that would sail from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake Ontario, starting at Montreal. At the same time, 600 miles away in Ogdensburg, New York, 19 cargo ships began the journey from the other end of the seaway. The project had taken five years and cost $475,000,000 with a majority of the funding from Canada. The Seaway was dedicated on June 26, 1959.
- At the Nazareth, Pennsylvania, Motor Speedway, 19-year-old Mario Andretti made his racing debut, winning a race in a 1948 Hudson.
- In Poplarville, Mississippi, a lynch mob kidnapped 23-year-old Mack Charles Parker from his jail cell. His body was found on May 4 in the Pearl River, where he was thrown after being tortured and killed.
- A force of about 80 rebels invaded Panama from the Caribbean Sea in an attempt to overthrow the government there. Although Cuban dictator Fidel Castro denounced the attack along with other OAS members, it was believed that he had sponsored the attack.
April 26, 1959 (Sunday)
- Reds pitcher Willard Schmidt was the first major league baseball player to be hit by a pitch twice in the same inning in a game against the Milwaukee Braves, once by Lew Burdette and once by Bob Rush. Later, he was struck by a line drive hit by Johnny Logan. Only two other major leaguers have repeated the result, Frank Thomas of the Mets in 1962, and Brady Anderson in 1999. 
- Born: John Corabi, heavy metal guitarist (Mötley Crüe), in Philadelphia
April 27, 1959 (Monday)
- Liu Shao-chi was named as the new President of the People's Republic of China, as Mao Zedong gave up the ceremonial post to concentrate on the job of First Secretary of the Communist Party.
- At 7:00 a.m. Eastern time, NBC's national broadcasts were shut down by a walkout of engineering personnel. The dispute arose over the planned airing of a Today show segment that had been recorded without union personnel. Programming resumed three hours later.
- Philibert Tsiranana was elected the first president of the Malagasy Republic on the island of Madagascar.
- The radio program One Man's Family was broadcast for the last time, after 27 years on NBC radio www.archive.org
- Born: Sheena Easton, Scottish-born pop singe, as Sheena Shirley Orr in Bellshill, North Lanarkshire
April 28, 1959 (Tuesday)
- Former President Harry S Truman told students at Columbia University that he had made the decision to drop nuclear weapons on Hiroshima and on Nagasaki because an invasion would have cost millions of lives.
- Casa de las Americas was founded in Cuba by order of Fidel Castro.
- The Vatican announced that Roman Catholics worldwide would receive dispensation to eat meat on Friday during the May Day holiday.
- The U.S. Senate confirmed Clare Boothe Luce as ambassador to Brazil by 79–11 vote, in spite of efforts by Senator Wayne Morse to block the nomination. In thanking the Senate, Mrs. Luce then caused an uproar when she said in a statement, "My difficulties, of course, go some years back and began when Senator Wayne Morse was kicked in the head by a horse", referring to a 1951 accident in which the Senator's jaw had been broken, and calls were made for her resignation. Ambassador Luce quit on May 1. During the debate, Senator Everett Dirksen made a memorable gaffe in defending Mrs. Luce, saying "Why thresh old straws or beat an old bag of bones?"
April 29, 1959 (Wednesday)
- The Las Vegas Convention Center opened.
- The fraternity Phi Kappa Theta was created by the merger of Phi Kappa and Theta Kappa Phi.
- The crash of an Iberia Airlines DC-3 killed all 28 persons on board, including Joaquín Blume, 25, the 1957 European gymnastics champion. Blume and four other gymnasts had boarded the flight in Barcelona en route to Madrid and were scheduled to compete in a meet in the Canary Islands. Flying in a storm, the twin-engine plane struck the side of the 5,900 foot high Toba Peak in the Sierra de Valdemeca range, at a location near the city of Cuenca. 
April 30, 1959 (Thursday)
- The Florianturm, a 720-foot (220-meter) television tower, opened in Dortmund, West Germany to coincide with an international horticultural festival. Opening that day at the 450-foot level was the world's first revolving restaurant.
- Félix Houphouët-Boigny was inaugurated as the first African Prime Minister of Côte d'Ivoire
- The Convair B-36 Peacemaker, in operation since 1946, was flown for the last time.
- The Lockheed Electra made its first flight, tested for delivery to Western Airlines.
- Born: Stephen Harper, 22nd Prime Minister of Canada (2006–2015), in Toronto
- "Air Force C-118 Aircraft Has Airborne Collision and Then Crashes - Killing Crew of Four", UFOs Northwest
- "4 Die in Fiery Crash of Plane", Oakland Tribune, April 2, 1959, p28
- Laurence French, Native American Justice (Rowman & Littlefield, 2003), pp151–152
- "U.S. Defies Russia on Berlin; Soviet Travel Ban Matched", Oakland Tribune, April 1, 1959, p1
- Leslie Haynsworth and David M. Toomey, Amelia Earhart's Daughters (HarperCollins, 2000), pp190–191
- Christopher C. Burt, Extreme Weather: A Guide & Record Book (W. W. Norton & Company, 2007), p149
- Nathaniel Davis, Long Walk to Church: A Contemporary History of Russian Orthodoxy (Westview Press, 2003) p34
- Sam Roberts, A Kind of Genius: Herb Sturtz and His Work on Society's Toughest Problems (PublicAffairs, 2009), p25
- "'Thy Brother's Blood'": Capital Punishment in West Virginia", by Stan Bumgardner and Christine Kreiser, West Virginia Historical Society Quarterly (March 1996)
- James Rothrock, Divided We Fall: How Disunity Leads to Defeat (AuthorHouse, 2006), p25
- E. U. Essien-Udom, Black Nationalism: A Search For an Identity in America (1962)
- Gene Lees, The Musical Worlds of Lerner and Loewe (University of Nebraska Press, 2005), pp166–67
- "College Wins Fight to Keep Women Out", Oakland Tribune, April 6, 1959, p1
- John J. Ansbro, The Credos of Eight Black Leaders: Converting Obstacles Into Opportunities (Rowman & Littlefield, 2005), p153
- "Holbrook, Hal", Current Biography Yearbook: 1998 (H.W. Wilson Company, 1999)
- "Plastic Bags Cause Deaths", UPI rept in Albuquerque Tribune, April 8, 1959, p1
- "Plastic Bags Deadly Toy", Tucson Daily Citizen, January 21, 1959, p1
- "Sun Reached With Radar At Stanford", Oakland Tribune, February 5, 1960, p1
- Arrell Morgan Gibson, Oklahoma: A History of Five Centuries (University of Oklahoma Press, 1981), p247
- Jackpot Nevada Tourism
- James E. Young, "Mandating the National Memory of Catastrophe", in Law and Catastrophe (Stanford University Press, 2007), p139
- Robert Slater, Portraits in Silicon (MIT Press, 1989) pp 225–226
- Salvatore Bizzarro, Historical Dictionary of Chile (Scarecrow Press, 2005), p 380
- "Food Poisons At Least 100 In Union Meet", Oakland Tribune, April 8, 1959, p 1
- "U.S. Bares Names of 7 Spacemen", Oakland Tribune, April 9, 1959, p1
- "The Trials of Lenny Bruce, by Doug Lender
- "Haiti Rebels Slay Pilot, Fly to Cuba", Oakland Tribune, April 10, 1959, p1
- "Celts Beat Lakers 4th Straight Time For Pro Cage Title", Oakland Tribune, April 10, 1959, p52
- E. J. Fleming, The Fixers: Eddie Mannix, Howard Strickling, and the MGM Publicity Machine (McFarland, 2004), p256
- "Frank Lloyd Wright Dies In Phoenix", Oakland Tribune, April 9, 1959, p1
- "Japan Prince To Wed in Tokyo Today", Oakland Tribune, April 9, 1959, p1
- "Student Attacks Royal Newlyweds", Oakland Tribune, April 10, 1959, p1
- "Sniper Tries to Ambush Gov. Almond", Oakland Tribune, April 11, 1959, p1
- "Salvaged Bomb Blast Kills 34 Filipinos", Fresno Bee, April 10, 1959, p1
- "Youth, 17 Dies in Gas Chamber", Baltimore Sun, April 11, 1959, p28
- Marilyn D. McShane and Franklin P. Williams, Youth Violence and Delinquency: Juvenile Treatment and Crime Prevention (University of South Carolina Press, 2007) p172
- "U.S. Plans Manned Round Trip to Moon", Sunday Express and News (San Antonio), April 12, 1959, p1
- Jay M. Shafritz, Dictionary of Public Policy and Administration (Westview Press, Aug 27, 2004) p81
- "Surface Nuclear Test Ban Offered by West to Russia", Oakland Tribune, April 13, 1959, p1; "Ike Offers Russ New A-Ban Plan", Oakland Tribune, April 21, 1959, p1
- "Mario Lanza, 1921-1959", Sicilian Culture]
- "Baton in Hand, Van Beinum, 58, Dies on Podium— Conductor Stricken at Rehearsal", Chicago Tribune, April 14, 1959, p2-11
- "The Last of The Mohawks", by John Sotham, Air & Space magazine (March 1997)
- "New Cancer Forces Secy. Dulles to Quit", Oakland Tribune, April 15, 1959, p1
- "The Ring of Truth: Interview With a Man Who Flew a Real Saucer", by Doug Yurchey
- "Anniversary of Fidel Castro U.S. visit 49 years ago", Miami Herald blog
- "Prisoners Threaten To Kill Hostages-- Some By Hanging", Oakland Tribune, April 17, 1959, p1
- "Yesterday was 1959", PalosHeights.org
- "26 Killed in Crash Of Mexico Airliner", Oakland Tribune, April 17, 1959, p1
- Montreal Canadiens historical website
- "Troops Smash Mutiny With Bazookas, Free All Hostages", Oakland Tribune, April 18, 1959, p1
- "Swiss Woman Votes", Oakland Tribune, April 20, 1959, p2
- Thomas M. Leonard, Fidel Castro: A Biography (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004), p48
- "Pepsi Cola, Joan Crawford, and Albion", Albion (Mich.) Morning Star, March 1, 1998, p6
- "Saucer Man Suicide", The News-Press (Fort Myers, FL), April 22, 1959, p1
- Jonathan Vankin and John Whalen, The 80 Greatest Conspiracies of All Time: History's Biggest Mysteries, Coverups, and Cabals (Citadel Press, 2004) pp620–621
- "Fascinating Fishing Facts", by Keith Sutton, ESPN.com, June 27, 2007
- "Rome Off The Beaten Path", VirtualTourist.com
- Big Inning Wrap-up: 11 Runs on One Hit", Milwaukee Journal, April 23, 1959, p17
- Robert P. Sutton, Modern American Communes: A Dictionaryj (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005), p39; "Cult of Death", TIME Magazine, March 15, 1993
- Mesh Crib Bumper.com
- "John Wayne Link In Panama Plot", Oakland Tribune, April 23, 1959, p1
- "A Nostalgic Finale", New York Times, April 24, 1959
- "The Shans: People Forgotten By the World"
- "Burial site of Triple Crown winner Omaha shrouded in mystery", Thoroughbred Times, September 3, 2006
- "St. Lawrence Seaway Gets First Ships", Oakland Tribune, April 25, 1959, p1
- "Rearview Mirror", by Al Binder, Ward's AutoWorld, April 1, 2002
- "FBI Hunts Lynch Mob; Fear Dixie Victim Dead", Oakland Tribune, April 25, 1959, p1
- Michael Brecher and Jonathan Wilkenfeld, A Study of Crisis (University of Michigan Press, 1997), p505
- "Red China Names New President", Oakland Tribune, April 27, 1959, p1
- "Walkout of Technicians Hits NBC-TV", Oakland Tribune, April 27, 1959, p1
- "Madagascar: Late French Colonialism (1945-1960)", EISA.org
- Dave Chaitanya, Crimes Against Humanity: A Shocking History of U.S. Crimes Since 1776 (AuthorHouse, 2007), p87
- "Preparations for Havana Casa Literary Prizes in Full Swing", JuventudRebelde.co.cu, February 3, 2009
- "Pope Gives May Day Meat Dispensation", Oakland Tribune, April 28, 1959, p1
- "Ike Backs Mrs. Luce In Row With Morse", Fresno Bee, April 29, 1959, p1
- "Mrs. Luce Quits As Envoy To Brazil; Blames Morse", Fresno Bee, May 1, 1959, p1
- Dean L. Yarwood, When Congress Makes a Joke: Congressional Humor Then and Now (Rowman & Littlefield, 2004), p47; "Did Senator Really Mean Clare Was 'An 'Old Bag of Bones'?" El Paso Herald-Post, April 29, 1959, p1
- "The Las Vegas Convention Center Planning $737 million in Improvements, Expansion", Las Vegas Review-Journal, February 12, 2006
- Phi Kappa Theta History, PhiKaps.org
- "28 Are Killed In Spanish Crash", Albuquerque (NM) Journal, April 30, 1959, p1
- Chad Randl, Revolving Architecture: A History of Buildings that Rotate, Swivel, and Pivot (Princeton Architectural Press, 2008) p102; 
- ThoughCrimeWave blog, June 7, 2008