April 1981

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April 12, 1981: Space shuttle era begins with U.S. launch of Columbia

The following events occurred in April 1981:

April 1, 1981 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The Isuzu Motor Company formally began selling its cars in the United States, becoming the sixth Japanese manufacturer to sell in the United States.;[1]
  • The U.S.S.R. implemented daylight saving time for the first time since 1930, with all clocks being set forward an hour at midnight. Many nations in Western Europe had changed the time on Sunday.[2](at the time, the U.S. did not spring forward until the last Sunday in April, April 26 in 1981)
  • A videotape of psychic Tamara Rand's January 6, 1981, appearance on "The Dick Maurice Show", with a prediction that President Reagan would be shot by an assassin with the initials "J.H.", was broadcast on CNN, and the next day on NBC's Today and ABC's Good Morning America. Five days later, Rand and Maurice admitted that the prediction sequence had been taped the day after the shooting.[3]
  • Born:

April 2, 1981 (Thursday)[edit]

April 3, 1981 (Friday)[edit]

  • After two days, the attempted coup d'état in Thailand was put down as thousands of troops took back control of Bangkok without a fight. Prime Minister Prem Tinsulanonda had taken King Bhumibol Adulyadej and the royal family with him to the city of Korat after General Sant Chipatima had seized control on Wednesday.[6]
  • Days before it was to be the showpiece of the California Energy Commission's conference on wind energy, the Alcoa 500 kW wind turbine at San Gorgonio Pass began turning. After only 2 12 hours, the turbine was out of control, a blade came loose and the structure collapsed. The embarrassment was enough that Alcoa went no further in wind energy research.[7]
The Osborne 1

April 4, 1981 (Saturday)[edit]

April 5, 1981 (Sunday)[edit]

April 6, 1981 (Monday)[edit]

  • A pair of gunmen attempted to rob a branch of the Augusta Savings and Loan at the Dundalk (Maryland) Shopping Center and accidentally locked themselves out. When they departed through the exit, they found themselves surrounded by most of the officers of the Precinct 12 station of the Baltimore County, Maryland, police, which was only 250 yards away and had been changing shifts.[15]
  • Born: Robert Earnshaw, Wales national football team striker, 2002–present; in Mufulira, Zambia

April 7, 1981 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • National Guardsmen in El Salvador drove into the San Salvador neighborhood of Monte Carmelos, pulled out residents accused of rebellion against the government, and executed them. Reporters who arrived later found thirty bodies in the streets.[16]
  • The "Soyuz '81" maneuvers by armies of the Warsaw Pact nations came to an end, allaying fears that they were a prelude to an invasion of Poland to suppress the Solidarity union. Earlier in the day, Pact commander General Kulikov had a closed meeting with Polish leaders Stanislaw Kania and Jaruselski for a commitment to get the union movement under control.[17]
  • The explosion of a grain elevator at Corpus Christi, Texas, killed nine people and injured 30.[18]
  • Born: Suzann Pettersen, Norwegian golfer, 2007 LPGA Champion, in Oslo
  • Died: Norman Taurog, 82 American film director who won an Academy Award in 1931 for the film Skippy

April 8, 1981 (Wednesday)[edit]

General Bradley
  • Died: General of the Army Omar N. Bradley, 88, last "five-star general" in the United States

April 9, 1981 (Thursday)[edit]


April 10, 1981 (Friday)[edit]

April 11, 1981 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Brixton riot (1981): In the mostly black London neighborhood of Brixton, police had stopped and questioned hundreds of residents as part of "Swamp 81", an anti-crime campaign that started five days earlier.[24] Resentment built, and at 4:45 pm, the arrest of a young black man on Atlantic Road triggered the worst race riot in England's history. A crowd broke the windows of the police van transporting the arrest subject, then set fire to an empty police car and began looting stores. By 5:30, the violence had spread to Railton Road and Mayall Road, and at 6:30, the first gasoline bombs were hurled at police cars. Order was restored by 10:00 pm.[25] A subsequent government investigation reported that 279 policemen and at least 45 civilians were injured, noting that "In the centre of Brixton, a few hundred young people- most, but not all of them black — attacked the police on the streets... demonstrating to the millions of their fellow citizens the fragile basis of the Queen's peace. The petrol bomb was now used for the first time on the streets of Britain (the idea, no doubt, copied from the disturbances in Northern Ireland). These young people, by their criminal behaviour — for such, whatever their grievances or frustrations, it was — brought about a temporary collapse of law and order in the centre of an inner suburb of London."[26]
  • Actress Valerie Bertinelli married rock musician Eddie Van Halen, and 77-year-old actor Cary Grant married 46-year-old actress Barbara Harris.
  • Died: Caroline Gordon, 85, American novelist

April 12, 1981 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The world's first reusable spacecraft, the space shuttle Columbia was launched from Cape Canaveral at 7:00 a.m. EST.[27] As one historian noted later, "Never before in the history of the space program had NASA asked its astronauts to pilot a rocket or a spacecraft into space on its maiden voyage... NASA engineers counted 748 different ways in which the two astronauts on the maiden voyage of the space shuttle Columbia could die.".[28] John Young, who had gone into space four times before, and Robert Crippen, who would fly three more shuttle missions, reached orbit and returned two days later. Delayed several times, the liftoff came 20 years to the day after Yuri Gagarin had become the first man to be sent into outer space, on the April 12, 1961 liftoff of Vostok 1.
  • Died: Joe Louis, 66, American heavyweight boxing champion from 1937 to 1949; the night before, he had watched Larry Holmes defeat challenger Trevor Berbick in Lasa Vegas

April 13, 1981 (Monday)[edit]

April 14, 1981 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • At 10:21 am PST (1821 UTC), the Columbia became the first manned spaceship to land in California. Sixty minutes earlier at an altitude of 172 miles over the Indian Ocean, astronauts Young and Crippen had taken the space shuttle orbiter out of orbit.[31] During the first mission, the thermostat, the cargo doors and the zero-G toilet all malfunctioned, and some of the heat-shielding tiles had fallen off (though not from the underside of the orbiter). Columbia would fly 27 more missions. On February 1, 2003, the Columbia would be destroyed and its crew of 7 killed, after leading edge wing damage led to the orbiter burning up during its return to earth.[32]
  • Died: William Henry Vanderbilt, 79, tycoon and former Governor of Massachusetts;

April 15, 1981 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Fifteen coal miners were killed in an explosion at the Redstone Coal Company's Dutch Creek #1 mine.[33] An investigation by the Colorado Bureau of Mines concluded that the cause was a spark, possibly from a damaged cable, that ignited accumulated methane gas.[34]
  • FBI agents W. Mark Felt and Edward S. Miller were pardoned by President Reagan, five months after they had been convicted of conspiracy to violate the civil rights of friends and relatives of suspected members of the Weather Underground terrorist group. In his pardon statement, Reagan said, "America was generous to those who refused to serve their country in the Vietnam War. We can be no less generous to two men who acted on high principle to bring an end to the terrorist that was threatening our nation."[35]

April 16, 1981 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Sigurd Debus, an imprisoned West German terrorist who had started a hunger strike a month before Bobby Sands did the same in Northern Ireland, died after ten weeks without food. Debus had been one of 25 members of the Red Army Faction to refuse to eat in protest of imprisonment conditions. Most of the other participants called off their strike after his death.[36]
  • Canada's Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau rejected a plan, endorsed by the Premiers of 8 of the nation's 10 provinces, that would have allowed individual provincial legislatures to reject constitutional changes, saying that it would turn Canada into a loose confederation.[37]
  • Died: Effa Manley, 84, Negro League baseball team owner and manager (Newark Eagles) and inductee into the Baseball Hall of Fame

April 17, 1981 (Friday)[edit]

  • Air U.S. Flight 716, from Denver to Gillette, Wyoming, collided with a Cessna airplane carrying parachutists from the Skies West Skydiving Club of Fort Collins, Colorado. All 13 persons on the airliner were killed, and two of the skydivers died. The rest of the group parachuted to safety.[38]

April 18, 1981 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The Rochester Red Wings and the Pawtucket Red Sox began playing a minor league baseball game. After nine innings, the score was tied, and at the end of the 32nd inning, 4:09 the next morning, the game was halted with the score still tied at 2-2. The game would not be finished until June 23. Rochester and Pawtucket did play another game on the same Sunday, but, as one author noted, "they did not attempt to resolve their 32-inning tie then because officials of both clubs were worried that the eligible players were exhausted."[39]
  • Died: James H. Schmitz, 69, American science fiction author.

April 19, 1981 (Sunday)[edit]

April 20, 1981 (Monday)[edit]

  • The Inderavelly Massacre took place in the town of that name in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, when police fired into a crowd of Gondi tribesmen. The police reported that 13 armed protesters and one policeman were killed, while an investigating committee estimated the number at 60 or more.[43]
  • Bai Hua, an award winning author in the People's Republic of China, became the first writer to have his career ended by a government campaign against "bourgeouis liberalism" and suspected violations of the Chinese Communist Party's new "Four Cardinal Principles", beginning with an attack on the front page of the military newspaper Liberation Army Daily. China's leader Deng Xiaoping had been outraged by a film based on Bai Hua's novel Kulian (Unrequited Love). Government campaigns against other authors soon followed.[44]
  • In Omaha, the very last game of the Women's Professional Basketball League was played, as the Nebraska Wranglers defeated the Dallas Diamonds, 99-90, to win the WPBL championship in the fifth game of the best of five series.[45]
  • Three college students, on spring break from the University of New Brunswick, were killed after their group camped near the edge of a cliff at the Hay's Falls near Woodstock. Over a course of several minutes, the three fell 80 feet to their deaths.[46]

April 21, 1981 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Soldiers of the Army of Guatemala entered the village of Acul, near Santa Maria Nebaj in the Guatemalan highlands, and executed most of the adult men for suspected collaboration with leftist guerillas. "Within two weeks," an investigator for the government noted in 1997, "the village was empty, and the army burned every house and field of corn in Acul". The village was rebuilt two years later.[47]
  • Died:
    • Dorothy Eady, 73, English born Egyptologist who claimed to be "Omm Sety", a reincarnated priestess from the 13th Century BC
    • Eddie Sauter, 66, American bandleader and jazz composer

April 22, 1981 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The first zero-coupon bonds were issued, as the J.C. Penney Company offered $200,000,000 worth of bonds that paid no periodic interest, dividends or other money until maturity. For $332.47 an investor would receive a "zero" that would pay $1,000 at its maturity date of May 1, 1989 for a 14.25% annual interest rate.[48]
  • Four gunmen, wearing Halloween masks, robbed the First National Bank of Arizona in Tucson. Taking $3.3 million, they accomplished the largest American bank robbery up to that time.[49]
  • In one of the first of many corporate mergers in the 1980s, food producers Nabisco, Inc. acquired Standard Brands, Inc. in a stock transaction valued at 1.9 billion dollars to create Nabisco Brands, Inc.[50]
  • Born: Ken Dorsey, American NFL and CFL quarterback, in Orinda, California

April 23, 1981 (Thursday)[edit]

April 24, 1981 (Friday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Ronald Reagan ended the grain embargo that been instituted by President Carter on January 7, 1980, and which had restricted the sale of American grain to the Soviet Union following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In his announcement, Reagan said, "American farmers have been unfairly singled out to bear the burden of this ineffective policy."[54]
  • On the same day, President Reagan sent a handwritten letter to Soviet President Leonid Brezhnev to open a dialogue between the United States and the Soviet Union. Biographer Lou Cannon would later describe the missive as "one of the few foreign policy documents composed by Reagan... without the assistance of speechwriters or formal position papers from his various departments".[55] Reagan, who composed the letter from his hospital bed while recovering from the attempt on his life, opened with a reference to a meeting during Brezhnev's 1973 visit to California, when Reagan had been Governor, asking "Is it possible that we have permitted ideology, political and economic philosophies, and governmental policies to keep us from considering the very real, everyday problems of peoples?"
  • In Hama, Syria, the Syrian Army randomly arrested more than 150 men and teenaged boys, then shot them. The massacre was in retaliation for the April 21 attack of an army patrol by guerillas of the Muslim Brotherhood, based in Hama.[56]

April 25, 1981 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The Soviet Union launched Kosmos 1267 to carry the unmanned TKS spacecraft, a vehicle that could provide a space ferry to bring back returning cosmonauts, as well as providing an additional component to an orbiting space station. The TKS module would remain in orbit until it docked automatically to Salyut 6 on June 19, as the first successful expansion of an orbiting craft, an accomplishment described as "an important step toward the later development of Mir and the International Space Station.[57] Once docked, the engines of the Kosmos were used to make orbital changes for the Salyut station. On July 29, 1982, the engines were used one final time to bring both modules out of orbit, where they burned up over the Pacific Ocean.[58]
  • Born:

April 26, 1981 (Sunday)[edit]

April 27, 1981 (Monday)[edit]

  • Operation Red Dog, a plot to overthrow the government of the Commonwealth of Dominica, was foiled when FBI agents arrested ten mercenary soldiers near New Orleans as they were preparing to sail toward the Caribbean island nation with a cache of weapons.[62] Led by Michael Eugene Perdue, the group of white supremacists had planned to take control of the government of the mostly black nation, after freeing former Prime Minister Patrick John (also black) from a Dominican jail, and being appointed to high government positions.[63]
Big foot.JPG
  • "Bigfoot", the first "monster truck" was created by Bob Chandler, who had envisioned a vehicle with tires so large that it could crush anything in its path. On this date, Chandler gave the first test run of "Bigfoot" at a field near St. Louis, Missouri, and rolled it over abandoned cars. The first major event in the new sport of monster truck competition would take place on April 9, 1983, at the Pontiac Silverdome, before a crowd of 68,000.[64]

April 28, 1981 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • For the first time, Israel intervened directly in the war between Syria and Lebanese Christians, as Israeli jets shot down two Syrian helicopters, killing four crewmen.[65]
  • Professional tennis champion Billie Jean King was sued for support by Marilyn Barnett, a woman who stated in her complaint that they were lesbian lovers. After initially denying the accusations, King admitted to the affair four days later.[66]
  • The government of Prime Minister of Australia Malcolm Fraser survived a vote of no confidence that had been moved for by the Labor Party. The vote in the Australian House of Representatives was 71-47 against the resolution.[67]
  • Born: Jessica Alba, American actress (Dark Angel), in Pomona, CA
  • Died: Mickey Walker, 79, American boxer; world welterweight champion 1922-1926, world middleweight champion 1926-1931

April 29, 1981 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • U.S. Representative Raymond F. Lederer (D-Pa.) resigned his office, one day after the House Ethics Committee had voted 10-2 to recommend his expulsion from the United States Congress. Lederer had won re-election in 1980 while under indictment for taking a bribe following the FBI's Abscam investigation, and convicted of felony charges on January 9.[68]
  • Steve Carlton became the seventh pitcher to have 3,000 strikeouts, and the first left-handed pitcher, in a game between the Phillies and Expos; Tom Seaver of the Reds had become the sixth on April 18 against the Cardinals. The first five were Walter Johnson (1923), Bob Gibson (1974), Gaylord Perry (1978), and Nolan Ryan (1980). Baseball Digest (Oct 2000) p9

April 30, 1981 (Thursday)[edit]


  1. ^ "Dealer doors open to Isuzu", Spokane Daily Chronicle, March 3, 1981, p17 "Advertising: Isuzu Opens Diesel Car Campaign", New York Times, April 3, 1981
  2. ^ "Soviets begin daylight saving time", Milwaukee Journal, April 1, 1981, p2
  3. ^ Museum of Hoaxes; "Psychic 'shocked'", Spokane Daily Chronicle, April 2, 1981 p 1; "Doubt cast on authenticity of psychic's TV taping" Chronicle, April 3, 1981, p1; "Columnist admits psychic hoax", Milwaukee Journal, April 7, 1981, p1
  4. ^ Marius Deeb, Syria's Terrorist War on Lebanon and the Peace Process (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004) p60
  5. ^ Glenn H. Reynolds, Robert P. Merges, Outer Space: Problems of Law and Policy (Westview Press, 1998) p180
  6. ^ "Revolt in Thailand Ends as Rebels Flee", New York Times, April 3, 1981, p11
  7. ^ Robert W. Righter, Wind Energy in America: A History (University of Oklahoma Press, 1996) pp171-172
  8. ^ "Sonoma: The Chase is Over for Notebooks", by Andrew Chan, Hardware Mag (April 2005) p84; Andy Hertzfeld and Steve Capps, Revolution in the Valley (O'Reilly Media, Inc., 2005) p39
  9. ^ "San Antonio's mayor Hispanic; Texas professor, 33, in landslide win- 62% of votes", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 6, 1981, p2
  10. ^ "Terrorist Arrested", Milwaukee Journal, April 5, 1981, p1
  11. ^ Eurovision 1981 summary
  12. ^ Grand National results
  13. ^ 00:45:00
  14. ^ Philip Kitley, Television, Nation, and Culture in Indonesia (Ohio University Press, 2000) p112
  15. ^ Baltimore County Police, 1874-1999 (Turner Publishing Company, 1999) p89; "Police thwart holdup 'just around corner'", Baltimore Sun, April 7, 1981, p.C2
  16. ^ "30 are massacred near San Salvador", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 8, 1981, p1
  17. ^ Andrzej Paczkowski and Malcolm Byrne, From Solidarity to Martial Law: The Polish Crisis of 1980-1981: A Documentary History (Central European University Press, 2008) p246
  18. ^ "Explosions kill 3 workers at grain elevator", Milwaukee Journal, April 8, 1981, p2; Rolf K. Eckhoff, Dust explosions in the process industries (Gulf Professional Publishing, 2003) p171-72
  19. ^ Luc Duhamel, The KGB Campaign Against Corruption in Moscow, 1982-1987 (Univ of Pittsburgh Press, 2010) p76
  20. ^ Randy Shilts, And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic (Macmillan, 2000) p60
  21. ^ David Miller, Submarine Disasters By (Globe Pequot, 2006); "Japanese ship collides with US sub and sinks", Milwaukee Journal, April 10, 1981, p1
  22. ^ Glenn Stout and Richard A. Johnson, The Dodgers: 120 Years of Dodgers Baseball; "Dodger rookie blanks Astros", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 10, 1981, p7
  23. ^ Denis O'Hearn, Nothing But an Unfinished Song: Bobby Sands, the Irish Hunger Striker Who Ignited a Generation(Nation Books, 2006) p357
  24. ^ Ernest Cashmore, "Scarman Report", in Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies (Taylor & Francis, 2004) p384
  25. ^ "Brixton Riots 1981: How smouldering tension erupted to set Brixton aflame", www.GuardianCentury.co.uk
  26. ^ The Brixton Disorders, 10–12 April 1981, quoted in Modern Britain since 1979: a reader (I.B.Tauris, 2003) p278
  27. ^ "Space shuttle soars into orbit", Bangor (ME) Daily News, April 13, 1981, p1
  28. ^ Howard E. McCurdy, The Space Station Decision: Incremental Politics and Technological Choice (JHU Press, 2007) p37-38
  29. ^ René Pol Nevils, Deborah George Hardy, Ignatius Rising: The Life of John Kennedy Toole
  30. ^ Serge Matulich and David M. Currie, Handbook of Frauds, Scams, and Swindles: Failures of Ethics in Leadership (CRC Press, 2008) p8; Museum of Hoaxes.com
  31. ^ "Space Shuttle Lands Safely After Star-Spangled Flight", Toledo (OH) Blade, April 14, 1981, p1
  32. ^ Heather Feldman, Columbia: The First Space Shuttle (Rosen Classroom, 2005)
  33. ^ "15 bodies recovered from mine", Milwaukee Journal, April 17, 1981, p1
  34. ^ "Electrical spark blamed for blast", Eugene (OR) Register-Guard, May 8, 1981, p3A
  35. ^ Ronald Kessler, The Bureau: The Secret History of the FBI (Macmillan, 2003) p217; "Reagan pardons ex-FBI officials", Milwaukee Journal, April 16, 1981, p2
  36. ^ Facts on File Yearbook 1981 (Facts on File, Inc., 1982) p281
  37. ^ Facts on File Yearbook 1981 (Facts on File, Inc., 1982) p278
  38. ^ "15 Killed As 2 Planes Collide", Pittsburgh Press, April 18, 1981, p1
  39. ^ Mike Shannon, More Tales from the Dugout: More of the Greatest True Baseball Stories of All Time (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2004) p114; "History Can Wait: Game Halted After 8 Hours, 32 Innings", Daytona Beach Morning Herald, April 20, 1981, p12
  40. ^ "Rightists' shells kill 16 in Lebanon port", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 20, 1981, p2
  41. ^ "Attack on church in Philippines kills 11, hurts 155", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 20, 1981, p2; Facts on File Yearbook 1981 (Facts on File, Inc., 1982) p281
  42. ^ http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=198104200004
  43. ^ Akshayakumar Ramanlal Desai, Violation of Democratic Rights in India (Volume 2) (Popular Prakashan, 1986) p293
  44. ^ Richard Baum, Burying Mao: Chinese Politics in the Age of Deng Xiaoping (Princeton University Press, 1996) p127
  45. ^ "Wranglers Win W.B.L. Title", New York Times, April 21, 1981; Andrew Postman and Larry Stone, The Ultimate Book of Sports Lists p102
  46. ^ "3 students camp too near to the brink of death", Milwaukee Journal, April 22, 1981, p1
  47. ^ Victoria Sanford, Buried Secrets: Truth and Human Rights in Guatemala (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) p89; Acul: Guatemala in Pictures
  48. ^ Richard S. Wilson and Frank J. Fabozzi, Corporate Bonds: Structures & Analysis (John Wiley and Sons, 1996) p99
  49. ^ Barbara Berliner, The book of answers: the New York Public Library Telephone Reference Service's most unusual and entertaining questions (Simon and Schuster, 1992) p39
  50. ^ "Nabisco to merge with Standard Brands", Miami News, April 23, 1981, p14A
  51. ^ Eric Frattini and Dick Cluster, The Entity: Five Centuries of Secret Vatican Espionage (Macmillan, 2008) p329
  52. ^ Andrzej Paczkowski and Malcolm Byrne, From Solidarity to Martial Law: The Polish Crisis of 1980-1981 (Central European University Press, 2008) p295; Notes of April 30, 1981 meeting of CPSU Politubro
  53. ^ Mitchell Pacelle, Empire: A Tale of Obsession, Betrayal, and the Battle for an American Icon (John Wiley and Sons, 2002) pp124-125; "Time takes its toll on Empire State cache", Milwaukee Journal, April 24, 1981, p1
  54. ^ "Reagan lifts grain embargo", Milwaukee Journal, April 24, 1981, p1
  55. ^ Lou Cannon, President Reagan: The Role of a Lifetime (PublicAffairs, 2000) p257-258
  56. ^ "April Massacre in Syria Revealed by Witness, AP article in The Press-Courier (Oxnard, CA), June 25, 1981, p17; Andrew Beattie and Timothy Pepper, The Rough Guide to Syria (Rough Guides, 2001)
  57. ^ AerospaceGuide.net; David M. Harland, The Story of Space Station Mir (Praxis Publishing 2005) p103
  58. ^ Robert Zimmerman, Leaving Earth: Space Stations, Rival Superpowers and the Quest for Interplanetary Travel (National Academies Press, 2003) p160
  59. ^ Facts on File Yearbook 1981 (Facts on File, Inc., 1982) p605
  60. ^ Facts on File Yearbook 1981 (Facts on File, Inc., 1982) p279; "French vote Giscard into runoff", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 27, 1981, p2
  61. ^ Van Canh Nguyen and Earle Cooper, Vietnam under Communism, 1975-1982 (Hoover Press, 1983) p77
  62. ^ "F.B.I. Arrests 10 for a Plot to Invade Dominica Island", New York Times, April 29, 1981
  63. ^ "Mercenary suspects played losing hand", Tuscaloosa News, May 17, 1981, p8A, reprint from The Dallas Times Herald
  64. ^ Jim Gigliotti, Monster Trucks(Marshall Cavendish, 2009) pp7-9; "Really Big Trucks", New York Times, October 23, 1994
  65. ^ Mordechai Bar-On, In pursuit of peace: a history of the Israeli peace movement (US Institute of Peace Press, 1996); "2 Syrian 'copters downed by Israel over Lebanon", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 29, 1981, p1
  66. ^ "Billie Jean King sued for support by woman", April 30, 1981, Pittsburgh Post-Gazettep2; "King admits homosexual affair", Post-Gazette, May 2, 1981, p7
  67. ^ Facts on File Yearbook 1981 (Facts on File, Inc., 1982) p296
  68. ^ "Lederer to quit as Congressman, avoids expulsion", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 30, 1981, p2
  69. ^ "How to Start an Airline: People Express Poised to Fly", New York Times, April 26, 1981, pIII-8; Adrian J. Slywotzky, Value Migration: How to Think Several Moves Ahead of the Competition (Harvard Business Press, 1996) p120
  70. ^ Steven P. Schnaars, Managing Imitation Strategies (Simon and Schuster, 2002) p104; "'Bud' Light coming", Syracuse Herald-Journal, April 20, 1981, p26
  71. ^ Facts on File Yearbook 1981 (Facts on File, Inc., 1982) p304