Aptera 2 Series

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aptera 2 Series
ManufacturerAptera Motors, Inc.
Also calledAptera 2e, Aptera 2h
DesignerJason Hill
Body and chassis
Body style2-door three-wheeled car
LayoutFront-engine, front-wheel drive layout
Engine2e: Remy 82 kW electric motor
2h: Gasoline generator + Electric Motor[1]
Transmission2e: Borg-Warner single ratio transaxle[2]
2h: Series hybrid layout
Wheelbase2,819 mm (111 in)[2]
Length4,394 mm (173.0 in)[2]
Width2,311 mm (91.0 in)[2]
Height1,346 mm (53.0 in)[2]
Kerb weight680 kg (1,500 lb)[2]
PredecessorAptera Mk-1
SuccessorAptera (solar electric vehicle)

The Aptera 2 Series (formerly the Aptera Typ-1) was a high-efficiency three-wheeled passenger car designed by Aptera Motors that failed to reach production.

The first model of the 2 Series slated for production was the Aptera 2e (formerly Typ-1e), a battery electric vehicle[3] announced in late 2008.[4] The 2e would accelerate from 0-60 miles per hour (97 km/h) in 6.3 seconds and have a top speed of 90 miles per hour (140 km/h).[5] A later model would have been Aptera 2h (formerly Typ-1h), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. According to Aptera, the 2 Series expected price range was £16,000 to £32,000.[5]

An Aptera 2 made a short appearance in the 2009 film Star Trek.

The company opened pre-ordering for residents of California, but stopped taking deposits in July 2011. On 12 August 2011, Aptera announced it would return all deposits from customers who had signed up to buy a car.[6]

In 2019, Aptera Motors was re-formed by the original founders, Chris Anthony and Steve Fambro, and began developing a much revised solar-powered EV, the Aptera (solar electric vehicle), with up to a 1,600 km range.

Design and fuel consumption[edit]

The Aptera 2 Series was designed to be a low-energy vehicle; early estimates of its energy consumption ran as low as 80 watt-hours/mi at 55 mph.[3] Later estimates are as high as 200 Wh for aggressive driving. The company stated in September 2009 that "if Aptera was given an official EPA rating [the fuel-efficiency figure assigned to all cars by the United States federal government], it would be 851 mpg", suggesting that it is 2.2 times more efficient than Nissan Leaf. The Aptera 2 Series has a drag coefficient of Cd=0.15, compared with Cd=0.19 for the record-holding General Motors EV1, and Cd=0.24 for the 2010 Mercedes-Benz E-Class Coupé, currently the lowest for a mass-produced car.[7] The Aptera's atypical shape is a result of extensive optimization in a virtual wind tunnel, following the designs of Alberto Morelli.[8] It used recessed windshield wipers and low rolling resistance tires.

The first prototype attained a drag coefficient of Cd=0.11 by making use of an "Eyes-Forward" rear-view camera system instead of side-view mirrors, which create a large amount of drag. A September 2008 Aptera newsletter showed a rendering of the car featuring a conventional driver-side mirror and no driver-side rear-view camera.[9] Aptera CTO Steve Fambro stated that the system was simplified to make use of a single camera mounted near the top of the vehicle.[10]

The body design was similar to Pegasus Research Company's human-powered "Fusion" vehicle (1983) and the MIT Aztec,[11][12] but the direct inspiration was the Volkswagen 1-litre car.[13]

The Aptera 2 Series was a three-wheeled vehicle with front-wheel drive. On March 23, 2010, Aptera announced their use of BorgWarner's 31-03 eGearDrive transmission for the 2e drive train. An April 14, 2010 press release[14] announced further suppliers: A123 Systems for the 20 kWh lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack, and Remy International for the 82 kW HVH250 electric motor.[15]

The freeway range was promised to be around 100 miles (160 km) with two passengers and some luggage. They planned to offer an SAE J1772 compatible charging system, at either 110 or 220 V.[citation needed]

Plug-in series hybrid[edit]

An early Aptera 2h design used a "small, water-cooled EFI gasoline engine with closed loop oxygen feedback and catalytic converter," coupled with a 12 kW generator/starter.[16] With a tank capacity of "up to five gallons,"[1] the Aptera 2h would have a claimed range of 600 to 700 mi (970 to 1,130 km),[17] compared to the 120 miles (190 km) range of the Aptera 2e. The 2h would have been a series hybrid: The engine would not be connected to the drivetrain, instead being used to recharge the batteries.

As with any plug-in hybrid, fuel economy of the Aptera 2h would depend on trip length and battery charge. For trips of less than about 50 miles (80 km) after a full charge the engine may not turn on at all, resulting in approximately the same energy consumption as the pure electric model – 96 watt-hours/mile. If on the other hand, the car were never plugged in, the Aptera 2h would get 130 miles per US gallon (1.8 L/100 km). Aptera Motors quoted 300 miles per US gallon (0.8 L/100 km), which applies to a 120-mile (190 km) trip after a full charge. They justified this by stating that 99% of Americans drive less than 120 miles (190 km) daily.[16]


Because the Aptera 2 Series had only three wheels, most American states classify the vehicle as a motorcycle. This means that safety and emissions tests are not mandatory, as they are for cars.

Despite this, Aptera Motors emphasized that safety had a high priority in the vehicle's design. Aptera Motors performed simulated crash tests using Abaqus FEM software, crush testing on structural components, and was planning real-world crash tests before production.[citation needed] The Aptera 2e featured a Formula One-inspired passenger safety cell and boxed sandwich foam core composite structures. Frontal crumple distance was 45 inches (1,100 mm), large for a vehicle of its size.[citation needed] As the body is above most cars' bumpers, a colliding vehicle's bumper would travel under the body, deflecting the energy. Despite its height, the placement of the heavy batteries lowered the centre of mass of the Aptera 2 Series, a design similar to the highly stable Commuter Cars Tango. Driver and passenger airbag-in-seatbelts were also provided.

Accessories and interior[edit]

The design intent model, revealed on 14 April 2010, seated two adults, had power windows, cup holders, and 23 cubic feet (0.65 m3) of trunk volume.[2] It used LED running and interior lights to reduce power consumption. An optional solar panel mounted on the roof runs the heat pump during the day. This keeps the interior comfortable and reduces the size of the heat pump needed. The seats can be heated or cooled by forced air, both for comfort and efficiency reasons.[18] The only comfort downside is that the suspension was described as "hard".[19]

Radio, CD/DVD/MP3 player, and GPS navigation were integrated into an in-console touch screen carputer, based on Moblin by Wind River Systems, but the climate control used physical dials. It also had RFID-based keyless ignition and entry and scarab doors.[20]

To reduce the ecological footprint of construction, EcoSpun recycled materials and organic dyes were to be used for the seats and flooring, and the dashboard and the door panels were free of heavy metals and plasticizers.[18][21] Aptera also planned to have leatherette and leather seats as options.[22]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Ring, Ed (2007-10-16). "Aptera's Series Hybrid". EcoWorld. Archived from the original on 2007-10-22. Retrieved 2007-12-11.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Aptera 2e Brochure" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-01-02. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
  3. ^ a b Kates, David (2008-03-04). "YouTube - Aptera CEO Steve Fambro". AlternativeEnergy.com. Retrieved 2008-03-31.
  4. ^ "Aptera Newsletter 11/19/2008". Aptera Motors. 19 November 2008. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  5. ^ a b "Frequently Asked Questions". Aptera Motors. Archived from the original on 7 May 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2010.
  6. ^ John Voelcker (13 August 2011). "Futuristic Electric-Car Dream Dead? Aptera To Refund Deposits". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  7. ^ Noah Joseph (2009-02-17). "New Mercedes E-Class Coupe couples low drag coefficient to efficient engines". Retrieved 2010-05-18.
  8. ^ Transport Evolved Episode 79 Steve Fambro of Aptera EV post firing interview, danwat1234, 2019-09-06 [2011-12-08], 7 minutes, retrieved 2022-08-30 – via YouTube
  9. ^ "Aptera 25 September 2008". Archived from the original on 2008-10-03. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
  10. ^ Coolong, Amanda (2008-11-20). "The Aptera. It's Electric!". TechZulu.com. Archived from the original on 2010-06-18. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
  11. ^ "HPV Racing History - Pegasus Fusion". Recumbents.com. Retrieved 2014-08-11.
  12. ^ "MIT Aztec Solar Car". Dempsey Motorsport. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  13. ^ Marquis, Brittany. "300-mpg, Electric Aptera Typ-1 Ready for 2008 Production, Not Jetsons Remake: First Look". Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on 2010-04-11. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
  14. ^ "April 14 Press Release". Aptera Motors. 2010-04-14. Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
  15. ^ "About the 2e". Aptera Motors. Archived from the original on 2010-06-10. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
  16. ^ a b "Aptera Details". Aptera Motors. Archived from the original on 2010-05-15. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
  17. ^ "Jetsons-Style Car Gets Space Age Mileage". News 8 KFMB, San Diego. 2007-09-28. Archived from the original on 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2008-01-19.
  18. ^ a b "The Aptera Journey". Aptera Motors. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2008.
  19. ^ Voelcker, John (17 March 2009). "Aptera in Action Video: Driving the Planet's Greenest All-Electric Three-Wheeler!". Retrieved 18 May 2010.
  20. ^ Ackerman, Evan (2007-09-28). "Aptera Electric/Hybrid Car On Pre-Order for $500". OhGizmo!. Archived from the original on 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
  21. ^ "YouTube - An Aptera guided tour: Introduction". Aptera Motors. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2008.
  22. ^ "Aptera Newsletter". Aptera Motors. 27 June 2009. Archived from the original on 31 July 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2010.

External links[edit]

Official website